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日晒不足也有风险

更新时间:2014-7-16 13:17:36 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Not Enough Sun Exposure Can Be Risky
日晒不足也有风险

Getting too much sun can lead to skin cancer. But getting too little sun also can be risky, especially in regions with limited sunshine, a study suggests.

日晒过多有可能引发皮肤癌。但一项研究显示,日晒过少也可能有风险,尤其是在那些日照有限的地区。

Women who avoided the sun were twice as likely to die from any cause, including skin cancer, as those who had the greatest sun exposure, according to a report in the July issue of the Journal of Internal Medicine. Exposure to sunlight is the main source of vitamin D. Deficiencies in the vitamin have been linked to cardiovascular deaths and more aggressive skin cancers, the researchers said.

《内科杂志》(Journal of Internal Medicine) 7月刊发表的一项研究报告显示,与那些日晒最多的女性相比,回避日晒的女性因皮肤癌等任何相关原因死亡的概率要高一倍。日晒是维生素D的主要来源。研究人员说,维生素D缺乏有可能引发心血管病死亡和较严重的皮肤癌。

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends avoiding prolonged exposure to the sun and wearing sunscreen with a minimum SPF of 15. The study, conducted in Sweden, suggests sun-exposure guidelines may be too restrictive in northern latitudes.

美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)建议人们避免长时间日晒并涂抹防晒系数(SPF)最低为15的防晒霜。上述在瑞典开展的研究则认为,对于北半球纬度较高的地区来说,美国疾病控制和预防中心的日晒指导原则可能带有过高的限制性。

From 1990 to 1992, sun exposure was assessed in close to 30,000 Swedish women ages 25 to 64. Subjects reported on questionnaires how often they sunbathed, their use of tanning beds, and if they traveled to other regions to swim and sunbathe. Sun exposure was scored from 0 (avoiding sun) to 4 (highest exposure). Other factors, such as a history of malignant melanoma and red hair, a risk factor for melanoma, were recorded.

在1990至1992年间,研究人员对近3万名年龄在25-64岁的瑞典女性日照情况进行了评估。受访者通过调查问卷回答了有关多长时间会进行一次日光浴、使用日光浴床的情况以及是否到其他地区游泳及日光浴等问题。日照程度被划分为0(避免日晒)至4分(日晒程度最高)。恶性黑色素瘤病史、红色头发(黑色素瘤的一个风险因素)等其他因素也被记录下来。

Melanomas and deaths were subsequently tracked through national registries until 2011. There were 267 cases of melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, and just over 2,500 deaths from all causes during the study period.

此后直到2011年,研究人员根据全国登记记录追踪了黑色素瘤病例数和死亡人数。他们发现,在调查期间,受访者中有267例黑色素瘤病例,各种原因的死亡人数略高于2,500人。黑色素瘤是一种最为凶险的皮肤癌。

Women who got the most sun had the greatest risk of developing skin cancer. But compared with that group, the risk of dying from all causes was twice as great among the sun avoiders and 40% higher in those with moderate sun exposure.

受日晒最多的女性患皮肤癌的风险最大。但与这个人群相比,避免日晒的女性死于各种原因的风险要高出一倍,日晒程度温和的女性死亡风险要高出40%。

Caveat: The study only included women with light skin. Information on blood levels of vitamin D or the use of vitamin D supplements wasn't collected. Sun exposure was self-reported.

需要说明的是,这项研究只针对浅肤色女性,没有收集有关血液中维生素D水平或使用维生素D补充剂情况的信息,而且日晒程度均由受访者自己评述。

Title: Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort

这篇研究报告的名称为《避免日晒是全死因死亡的风险因素之一:对瑞典南部同类人群的黑色素瘤调查结果》。

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