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关于世界杯,你该了解的

更新时间:2014-6-12 21:14:27 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

How to Survive the World Cup
关于世界杯,你该了解的

WHEN IT COMES TO the World Cup, the greatest show in soccer, it can be hard to figure out where to start. It's a 32-team, 12-stadium, multibillion-euro production that takes five weeks every four years. Large swaths of the world stand still to follow it.

提起世界杯这项足坛上最伟大的赛事,很难讲该从哪里说起。在这项四年一轮回、如今斥资数十亿欧元举办的赛事中,未来五周,32支球队将在12座体育场捉对厮杀。届时,全世界很多的地方都将停下脚步追随世界杯的节奏。

And, of course, there are a million ways to look at it. For the hard core, it's an opportunity to watch 64 games in five weeks and not have anyone judge you. For the politically minded, it's a unique window into a country that completely mobilizes to host a soccer tournament. And for the bandwagon fans, it's a chance to get caught up in the excitement and heartbreak of entire nations watching television at the same time.

当然,关注世界杯的方式有千百万种。对于铁杆球迷来说,世界杯提供了一个在五周内观看64场比赛的机会,且不会有任何人会来批评你;对那些关注政治的人来说,世界杯打开了一扇独一无二的窗户,展现了一个全面动员举办这项赛事的国度;而对那些随大流的大众球迷来说,他们有了一个机会可以守在电视机前,沉浸在举国上下或欢呼雀跃或黯然神伤的共同情绪当中。

So here's your guide to navigating this World Cup summer--because, whether you like it or not, the tournament will crop up in more conversations than you might expect.

这里为你提供了一份本届世界杯之夏的观赛指南——无论你喜不喜欢足球,这项赛事都将在这几周成为人们的谈资,其热度可能会超出你的想象。

The Lowdown

通往世界杯之路

The road to the World Cup started over two years ago with more than 200 teams. Everyone got to play, even teams like American Samoa and the Maldives. Through a painfully long qualifying process, divided up by region, that initial pool whittled itself down to the group of 32 that will be in Brazil.

早在两年前,200多支球队就开始在通往本届世界杯之路上征战,包括美属萨摩亚和马尔代夫这样的球队都参加了比赛。在各个赛区的球队经历了一番痛苦漫长的资格赛赛程后,最终有32支球队脱颍而出,入围巴西世界杯决赛圈。

Every team at the World Cup had to go through some version of it--except, of course, Brazil, which qualified automatically as the host nation. (By a quirk of the rules, Spain only played eight games to punch its ticket. Uruguay, meanwhile, played 18.)

踢进世界杯决赛圈的每支球队都有自己的晋级经历——当然,自动入围的东道主巴西是个例外。(由于赛制规则的复杂古怪,西班牙队只踢了八场比赛就拿到了决赛圈入场券,而与此同时,乌拉圭队则经历了18场比赛的煎熬。)

Last December, the 32 nations were seeded and drawn into eight four-team groups. Each of those will unfold as a round robin or all-play-all contest, meaning that every nation is guaranteed three games. The top two teams from each group will advance to the round of 16. From there, the tournament works under a straight knockout format: Winner advances, loser goes home. One game, potentially decided in 30 minutes of extra time or in a penalty shootout. (This is when the global fingernail-biting habit starts to spike.)

去年12月,32支球队被分成八个小组,每组四支球队,包括一支种子球队。每支球队将在小组循环赛中捉对厮杀,各踢三场比赛,每个小组成绩最好的两支球队将晋级16强。从这时开始,赛程将进入直接淘汰赛阶段——胜者晋级,输者回家。一些比赛可能需要通过30分钟加时赛或点球大战来决定胜负——在这样的时候,全世界就会有无数的人开始咬手指甲了。

It all culminates on July 13, after five weeks and 64 games, with the final at the Maracanã stadium in Rio de Janeiro.

开赛五周后,64场比赛中的最后一场冠军争夺战将于当地时间7月13日在里约热内卢的马拉卡纳体育场(Maracana Stadium)打响,世界杯将随之迎来最后的高潮。

The Maracanazo

马拉卡纳之殇

The last time Brazil hosted the World Cup, in 1950, the country's glorious soccer history hadn't been written yet. The five championships all came later. So did the famous yellow-and-green jerseys. So did Pelé. But the 1950 tournament was supposed to be the first chapter, written during the final game, inside the Maracanã, the 200,000-seat arena in Rio de Janeiro purpose-built for the World Cup. Instead, it turned into the team's darkest day.

巴西上一次主办世界杯要追溯到1950年,该国足坛上的光辉历史当时还未曾写就。巴西拥有的五座冠军奖杯、著名的黄绿色球衣和球王贝利(Pele)都是后来的事情。事实上,1950年的世界杯,他们本该在里约热内卢,在巴西专门为世界杯建造的能容纳20万名观众的马拉卡纳体育场进行的最后一场比赛上写下他们荣耀历史的第一篇章。然而,那却成为了巴西队历史上最黑暗的一天。

Because of the World Cup's format in those days, technically there wasn't a final, just a final game at the end of a second group stage. It meant that Brazil, having steamrolled through opponents, needed only a draw against Uruguay to lift the trophy for the first time. Uruguay needed to win outright.

出于当时的赛制,那届世界杯并没有真正意义上的决赛——那只是第二阶段循环赛的最后一场。此前轻取其他对手的巴西只要在这场同乌拉圭的比赛中打平就能首次举起冠军奖杯,而乌拉圭则必须取得胜利才能夺冠。

Wearing white shirts and white shorts with blue trim, Brazil opened the scoring in the 47th minute through the winger Friaça. The party lasted just 19 minutes. Uruguay's Alcides Ghiggia set up Juan Schiaffino for the tying goal. At 1-1, Brazil was still on track to win the World Cup. Ghiggia had other ideas. In the 79th minute, he blazed down the right wing, cut inside and shaped to cross the ball before a split-second change of heart. Instead, he drilled a low shot to the near post, the spot a goalkeeper should always have covered.

身着带蓝色镶边的白色球衣和白色球裤的巴西队在第47分钟由边锋弗里亚萨(Friaca)先拔头筹。但庆祝仅仅持续了19分钟。乌拉圭队的吉贾(Alcides Ghiggia)助攻斯基亚菲诺(Juan Schiaffino)扳平比分。保持1:1的比分仍足以让巴西队夺冠,但乌拉圭人吉贾并不甘心。第79分钟,他从右边路突破切入禁区,摆出要传中的样子。但在最后一刻他选择了一脚低射,皮球从近门柱 进了网窝——而这本来是任何一个守门员都应该时刻封堵住的角度。

In Brazil, the surviving footage of the goal is 'like Zapruder's film of Kennedy getting shot,' goalkeeper Moacir Barbosa's biographer Roberto Muylaert says. 'There's only one film. You know from the beginning that it's going to happen, but you still try to avoid it.'

巴西队守门员巴尔博萨(Moacir Barbosa)的传记作者穆依拉尔特(Roberto Muylaert)说:在巴西,那段留存下来的记录这个进球的画面“就像泽普鲁德(Zapruder)拍摄的肯尼迪遇刺短片。世上只有这一段短片。你从一开始就知道将会发生什么,但你仍想避免这一切的发生”。

Minutes later, Uruguay was the world champion. Barbosa was the scapegoat. Brazil did everything it could to erase the memory of that day--the disastrous Maracanazo, as they called it. They even abandoned their white jerseys. When Brazil finally claimed its birthright eight years later at the 1958 World Cup, led by a 17-year-old Pelé, the team wore blue. And on all four occasions they've won soccer's greatest prize since then, the Brazilians did it, unmistakably, in yellow.

几分钟后,乌拉圭队成为了世界冠军。而巴尔博萨则成了替罪羊。巴西人把这一天称为“马拉卡纳打击”(Maracanazo),他们做了他们所能做的一切来抹去对这一天的痛苦记忆,他们甚至放弃了白色的球衣。八年后的1958年世界杯,在17岁的贝利的率领下,巴西队终于赢得了他们应有的名分。当时的巴西队身穿蓝色球衣。而在此后四度登上冠军领奖台时,无一例外,巴西人穿在身上的球衣,都是黄色。

The Day You Should Call in Sick

记得,这一天你要请病假

The World Cup crams in 48 games over the first 15 days in an orgy of group-stage soccer. But assuming you can't take two weeks off work to watch 72 hours of television, here's one day you should definitely call in sick: June 18.

世界杯的前15天狂欢满满地排下了48场小组赛比赛,不过估计你不可能为了收看72个小时电视转播就请下两周的假,但是,至少在6月18日这天,你一定要请个病假(编者注:北京时间为6月19日)。

The triple-header offering for that Wednesday, which features teams from four continents, kicks off with Australia playing the 2010 runner-up, the Netherlands. From there, go straight into Spain vs. Chile, the defending champion against one of the most exciting teams in South America. And finally, unwind with the kind of game that you might never watch any other time, but that could easily produce six goals: Cameroon vs. Croatia. All in a day's worth of group-stage action.

这一天是周三(北京时间为周四),来自四个大洲的六支球队将带来三场比赛。第一场是澳大利亚挑战2010年南非世界杯亚军荷兰。紧随其后的是卫冕冠军西班牙迎战智利——南美最富有激情的球队之一。最后放松一下,来看喀麦隆对阵克罗地亚——这或许是那种在其他任何时候你都不会看的比赛,但搞不好能轻轻松松踢进六个球。在小组赛阶段,抽出这一天来看比赛还是很值当的。

The First-Timers

世界杯新贵

Bosnia-Herzegovina are the new kids on the block in Brazil. The country, part of the former Yugoslavia, has only played FIFA-recognized international games since 1995. The Dragons screamed through qualifying, but as World Cup first-timers, the odds are against them.

波黑是出现在本届世界杯上的新面孔。波黑是前南斯拉夫的一部分,自1995年起才开始参加国际足联(FIFA)承认的国际比赛。这支“龙之队”在资格赛中一路高歌猛进,但作为世界杯上的新军,他们的机会并不多。

Of the 22 debutantes over the past five tournaments, only seven have survived the group stage. Between them, those 22 had 23 victories, eight draws and 47 defeats. There are a few happy exceptions, newbies who made Cinderella runs. Take Croatia, who earned a surprising third place in 1998. Or Senegal, who beat France in the 2002 group stage, and rode that momentum to the quarters.

在过去五届世界杯的22支首次参赛球队中,只有七支顺利从小组出线。这22支球队一共取得了23场胜利,八场平局,输掉了47场。当然,也有少数令人欣喜的例外成就了灰姑娘式的童话,比如在1998年法国世界杯上不可思议地获得第三名的克罗地亚,以及在2002年韩日世界杯小组赛中击败法国、并一举挺进八强的塞内加尔。

The Jungle Stadium

丛林体育场

More than half the surface of Brazil is covered by rain forest. So it's only fitting that the World Cup should have a stadium smack in the middle of it, right? Meet the 42,000-seat Arena da Amazônia in Manaus, perhaps the most confusing stadium at the tournament.

巴西半数以上的国土被热带雨林覆盖,所以,在该国热带雨林中建起一座体育场很顺理成章,对吧?看看马瑙斯(Manaus)能容纳4.2万人的亚马逊竞技场(Arena da Amazonia)吧,这可能是本届世界杯中最让人迷乱的体育场。

Designed to look like a straw basket, a specialty of the region, it sits some 2,700 kilometers northwest of Rio. Workers had to scramble to finish it, lest the site be flooded during the rainy season. It will be hot--around 32degC. It will also be humid--often around 100%. And for those reasons, there are 24 teams who are very grateful to avoid it.

这座体育场位于里约西北约2,700公里处,外观设计像一个草篮——当地的特产。由于担心建筑工地在雨季被洪水冲毁,工人们不得不争分夺秒仓促完成施工。这个地方又热又湿,气温通常在32摄氏度上下,湿度经常能达到100%。出于这些原因,有24支参赛球队一定很庆幸自己不用在这里比赛。

The Cup

奖杯

The World Cup hasn't always been this World Cup. For the first nine editions of the tournament, from 1930 to 1970, the winner was awarded what came to be known as the Jules Rimet trophy (in honor of the FIFA president who first proposed the tournament). As FIFA describes it, it was 'a depiction of the goddess of victory holding an octagonal vessel above her, produced in gold with a base of semiprecious stones.'

世界杯的奖杯并非一直以来就是现在的这一座。在1930年到1970年最初的九届世界杯比赛中,冠军球队获得的奖杯叫做雷米特杯(Jules Rimet trophy),这是为了向最初提议举办这项足球赛事的前国际足联主席雷米特(Jules Rimet)致敬。国际足联这样形容雷米特杯:它是“一座镀金的带宝石底座的胜利女神雕像,描绘了胜利女神在头顶托起一个八角形容器的形象”。

That trophy was retired in 1970 after Brazil won its third World Cup. The reward was getting to keep it. The cup's replacement was a garish 36.5-centimeter sculpture of 18-karat gold, designed by Italian artist Silvio Gazzaniga, that came into circulation with the 1974 tournament.

这座奖杯于1970年在巴西第三度夺得冠军后退役,作为三夺冠军的奖励,由巴西永久持有。代替这座奖杯的是由意大利设计师加扎尼加(Silvio Gazzaniga)设计的一座用18克拉黄金制成的、高36.5厘米的光芒四射的雕像。1974年世界杯起,开始使用这座新的奖杯。

The Jules Rimet trophy disappeared in Brazil in 1983 and is believed to have been melted down. To prevent that from happening again, today's winners spend little time with their prize. As the full-time property of FIFA, it's used for celebrations. But the actual hardware the winning teams take home is one of several gold-plated replicas, which are technically called the FIFA World Cup Winners' Trophies. Doesn't quite have the same ring to it.

1983年,雷米特杯在巴西遗失,并且据信已遭熔解。为了避免类似事件再度发生,此后的夺冠球队持奖杯庆祝胜利的时间变得很短。作为国际足联的永久财产,奖杯只用于庆祝。每支夺冠球队带回国的奖杯实际上只是一系列镀金复制品中的一个,称为国际足联世界杯冠军奖杯(FIFA World Cup Winners' Trophies),这些奖杯与原件相比感觉还是有所不同。

The Worst Calls of All Time

世界杯历史上最糟糕的判决

Figuring out the World Cup's worst decisions depends on who you ask. (We're talking about decisions by referees here, so the U.S. national team's denim-design jerseys in 1994 don't count.)

判断哪些是世界杯赛场上最糟糕的决定,取决于你问的是谁。(在这里我们讨论的是裁判做出的判决,所以,就别再提1994年美国国家队穿的牛仔布式设计的球衣了。)

But two calls in the pantheon of dubious decisions both revolve around England. In 1966, the team benefited from one by a linesman from Azerbaijan on its way to winning the final. Tofiq Bahramov deemed that a Geoff Hurst shot against West Germany had crossed the goal line. Replays show it wasn't so clear. Germans are still upset about it.

两次最靠不住的判决都有英格兰队牵涉其中。1966年,他们在决赛中得到了一位阿塞拜疆边裁的帮助,并最终夺冠。巴拉莫夫(Tofiq Bahramov)判定英格兰队员赫斯特(Geoff Hurst)的一次射门越过了对手联邦德国队的球门线。但录像回放显示,皮球到底是否越过门线并不清楚,德国人直到现在仍对这一判决耿耿于怀。

Things evened out four years ago. Frank Lampard's shot off the crossbar against Germany bounced at least a foot inside the goal--and was ruled out. England went on to lose that game 4-1.

四年前,这件事终于算是扯平了。兰帕德(Frank Lampard)的射门击中德国队门梁后弹进球门,至少越过门线一英尺的距离,但最终该进球未获裁判承认。那场比赛英格兰最终以1:4饮恨。

At least those officiating blunders will be a thing of the past this time around. FIFA has adopted goal-line technology that tells the referee definitively whether the ball was in. Now all the referees have to worry about is diving, deliberate handballs, cynical tackling, jersey-pulling, elbowing and did we mention diving?

这届世界杯上,至少这些因误判铸成的大错都将成为过去。国际足联采用了禁区边线裁判技术(goal-line technology),该技术可以明确告诉裁判员皮球是否越过了门线。如今,裁判们更需要担心的判罚包括假摔、故意手球、恶意铲球、拉拽球衣、肘击,以及……对了,我们刚才提过假摔了吗?

The Mascots

吉祥物

When you think Brazil and you think soccer, you naturally think three-banded armadillos, right? Meet Fuleco the three-banded armadillo and 2014 World Cup mascot. He has the unique ability to roll himself up into a soccer ball and fits squarely in the tournament's tradition of cartoon animals--like South Africa's Zakumi, the leopard with unnatural green hair from 2010; Footix, the blue cockerel from France 1998; or Goleo, the pantsless lion from Germany 2006.

想起巴西,你就会想到足球,然后就会自然而然想到那只三色犰狳,对吧?来看看2014年巴西世界杯的吉祥物福来哥(Fuleco)吧。他有一项独一无二的本领——可以将自己蜷缩成一只足球。福来哥继承了世界杯吉祥物采用卡通动物形象的传统,就像2010年南非世界杯上留着一头异样绿发的豹子扎库米(Zakumi),1998年法国世界杯上蓝色的公鸡福迪斯(Footix),以及2006年德国世界杯上没穿裤子的狮子高里奥(Goleo)。

Despite the occasional, unintentional nudity, they're not the edgiest of choices. But at least they're a little more creative than the 1970s trend of just making the mascots dressed-up children (like Mexico's Juanito or Argentina's Gauchito). And they're certainly less frightening than the demented aliens Ato, Kaz and Nik from the Japan/South Korea tournament in 2002.

尽管偶尔无意中使用了裸露的设计,他们仍算不上最前卫的选择。但和上世纪70年代时将穿着特殊服装的儿童形象用作吉祥物的潮流相比——比如墨西哥的桑尼图(Juanito)和阿根廷的高切图(Gauchito)——至少如今的吉祥物设计还是显得更有新意了。此外,他们也绝对不像2002年韩日世界杯上奇形怪状的外星人Ato、Kaz和Nik那样吓人。

Still, can anyone ever match the genius of Spain's 1982 mascot? Mexico's '86 jalapeño pepper in a sombrero comes pretty close. But Spain's jolly anthropomorphic orange wore a Spanish soccer kit and had foliage to suggest his hair. His name was Naranjito.

最后,有哪个吉祥物能和1982年西班牙世界杯吉祥物的设计天分相媲美吗?1986年墨西哥世界杯上头顶墨西哥宽边帽的吉祥物小胡椒应该是最接近的。西班牙那只欢快的拟人化的橙子一身西班牙队的行头,头上两片叶子是他的头发。他的名字叫纳兰吉托(Naranjito)。

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