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如何应对“红眼病”?

更新时间:2014-3-28 15:03:19 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

So You Think You Have Pinkeye
如何应对“红眼病”?

Spring blooms mixed with lingering winter germs create the perfect scene for pinkeye. Itchy, swollen, runny eyes are technically known as conjunctivitis, which can actually take three forms: viral, bacterial and allergic. The allergic variety, which isn't contagious, often surfaces when flowers start to re-emerge. The other forms are highly contagious. Richard Abbott, clinical professor of ophthalmology at the University of California, San Francisco, and past president of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, says this season so far hasn't been markedly worse than others, but it isn't over yet. Here is one expert's opinion.

How can you tell which kind of conjunctivitis you have?

Allergic pinkeye tends to be watery, itchy and could affect both eyes. Viral conjunctivitis is likely to have a watery discharge and the eyes might be sensitive to light. The discharge associated with bacterial conjunctivitis tends to be thicker, with more mucus.

It matters in part because the treatment is different. Antibiotic drops are likely to be only offered in cases of bacterial infection, says Dr. Abbott. With the other two types of the disease, watchful treatment at home is recommended.

How can you prevent pinkeye?

Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious. If someone in your house has the viral variety of the disease and touches a surface such as a doorknob, the virus can live on that surface for several weeks, Dr. Abbott says.

Bacterial conjunctivitis, while contagious, doesn't spread as easily, he says. Stay home for as long as the eyes are red and watering, he says.

Make sure to discard any tissues used immediately. Make sure whoever is affected isn't sharing towels or pillows -- or anything that comes into contact with the eyes or hands. And once your home is rid of disease, disinfect major surfaces and wash sheets and towels. Computers are an unexpected place where viruses can linger, so make sure to wipe down your keyboard.

Is pinkeye always conjunctivitis?

Don't panic just because you or your child has a swollen puffy eye. The most common causes of pinkeye are the three forms of conjunctivitis, but Dr. Abbott advises ruling out more serious problems with a trip to the pediatrician or ophthalmologist.

You should worry if vision is blurred or you are in real pain, not just discomfort, Dr. Abbott says, or if symptoms aren't resolving themselves at home.

How can you treat the problem at home?

Dr. Abbott suggests soaking a washcloth in an ice bath and applying it to the eyelids every hour. Avoid reinfecting yourself by using a fresh washcloth each time, he cautions. For bacterial infections, warm compresses can be better.

Dr. Abbott likes to use small vials of nonpreserved artificial tears. He suggests refrigerating them, since the cold feels good on the eye, and discarding the vial once opened. Anything with preservative can be irritating, he cautions. He advises against drops that work by constricting blood vessels for the same reason.

Getting drops into eyes, especially children's, requires a steady hand and extra dose of patience. Instruct the patient to look away from the nose and place the drop onto the inner part of the eye nearest the nose.

Tea bags, whether cool or warm, might have a soothing effect, though the liquid shouldn't be placed directly on the eyeball.

冬春交替时,花粉和冬季残留的病菌极易导致红眼病的发作。这种伴有刺 、红肿和流泪的疾病在医学上被称作结膜炎,它实际上分为病毒性、细菌性和过敏性三种。过敏性结膜炎虽不会传染,但每到春天花朵绽放时就会发作。另外两种结膜炎则很容易传染。加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)临床眼科教授、美国眼科学会(American Academy of Ophthalmology)前会长阿博特(Richard Abbott)称,今年迄今为止结膜炎发病形势并不突出,但病季还未结束。以下是专家有关结膜炎的一些意见:

如何判断自己患上了哪种结膜炎?

过敏性结膜炎更易导致流泪、发 ,且可能会双眼一同发病。病毒性结膜炎可能会产生泪样分泌物且眼睛可能会对光敏感。而细菌性结膜炎产生的泪样分泌物往往更粘稠。

这三种结膜炎的区分很重要,部分因为其治疗方式各不相同。阿博特说,抗生素滴眼液一般只被用于治疗细菌感染。而对另外两种结膜炎,则建议在家认真治疗。

如何预防红眼病?

病毒性结膜炎极易传染。阿博特称,如果你家有人患上了病毒性结膜炎,并触碰了门把手一类的表面,病毒可在表面上存活数周。

他说,细菌性结膜炎虽也具有传染性,但它不像病毒性结膜炎那样容易传播。他建议细菌性结膜炎患者待在家中直至眼睛不再发红、流泪。

用过的纸巾要立即丢掉。确保不要和感染者共用毛巾、枕头或任何可接触眼睛或双手的物品。家中患者康复后,要立即对主要表面进行消毒,并清洗床单和毛巾。人们常意识不到病毒可在电脑表面留存,因此记得把键盘擦干净。

眼睛红肿就肯定是结膜炎吗?

不要因为你或你孩子的眼睛发肿就开始紧张。眼睛红肿最常见的病因是结膜炎,但阿博特建议出现这一症状的患者找儿科医生或眼科大夫做检查,以确保没有更严重的问题。

阿博特说,你更应担心的是视线是否模糊、眼睛是否真地疼痛、症状能否自行缓解等问题,而不是眼睛只觉得不舒服。

如何在家治疗结膜炎?

阿博特建议拿毛巾用冰水沾湿后敷在眼皮上,每小时一次。并且他建议每次都换用新的毛巾以防止二度感染。对于细菌性结膜炎,温毛巾会更好。

阿博特建议使用小瓶、不含防腐剂的人工泪液。他建议使用前先将其冷藏以便让眼睛感觉更舒适些。他提醒道,任何含有防腐剂成份的产品都会有刺激性。同理,他也不建议使用以收缩血管为作用机制的滴眼液。

往眼睛(尤其是孩子的眼睛)里滴药水,手要稳,心要静。要让患者将视线从鼻子移开,然后将眼药水滴在眼内最靠近鼻子的地方。

茶叶包无论温凉均可起到一定的舒缓作用,不过不要让其中的液体直接接触眼球。

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