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更新时间:2014-3-14 13:44:05 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Surviving a Conference Call

The conference call is one of the most familiar rituals of office life -- and one of the most hated.

Abuses are rife. People on the line interrupt others, zone out or multitask, forgetting to hit 'mute' while talking to kids or slurping drinks.

Sales executive Erica Pearce has seen teleconferences interrupted by home FedEx deliveries, crying children and the sound of a co-worker vacuuming his house. 'Nobody could hear,' she says of the cleaning. As leader of the meeting, she said into the phone, 'If you're vacuuming, I appreciate that, and you're welcome to come to my house afterward. But you need to be on mute.'

Another conference call ended when a participant put his line on hold, starting a stream of elevator music, says Ms. Pearce of Scottsdale, Ariz., a global account executive for a software company. Conference-call complaints are so widespread that a recent comedy video showing how ridiculous conference-call behavior such as secretly playing solitaire would look 'in real life' has drawn more than 6 million views.

But conference calls aren't going anywhere; they are too useful for businesses dealing with far-flung workplaces, flexible schedules and a clampdown on business-travel expenses. Time spent in audio conferences in the U.S. is expected to grow 9.6% a year through 2017, according to Wainhouse Research, a Boston market-research firm; about 65% of all conferencing is still done by audio calls.

There are ways to fix the problems. For instance, meeting leaders must set firmer ground rules than they do for face-to-face meetings and tighter, more explicit agendas. Leaders also have to work harder to get participants talking, both by asking more questions and by listening more.

Many conference calls are split between people in a conference room and others on a muddy-sounding call-in line. This often makes remote participants 'feel like second-class citizens, like, 'The cool kids are here,' ' says Laura Stack, author of 'Execution Is the Strategy.'

She advises leaders to have all participants say their names when they speak so remote callers know what's going on. If someone cracks a joke and the room bursts into laughter, the leader should 'let the others know who said what and repeat the joke,' says Ms. Stack, a Denver productivity consultant and trainer.

One of the biggest problems with virtual meetings is that it is hard for participants to build rapport with each other, a hurdle cited by 75% of 3,301 businesspeople surveyed in 2012 by RW3, a New York culture and leadership training company. The absence of nonverbal cues such as facial expressions makes many people hesitant to speak up and makes it harder to pay attention. In the survey, 71% of participants cited a lack of participation by others as a problem with virtual meetings.

To build relationships, Ms. Pearce takes time during the teleconferences she leads to have participants who don't know each other introduce themselves, explain their roles in the project at hand and tell what they want out of the meeting, she says.

For teleconferences, agendas and goals should be clearer and more explicit than for face-to-face meetings. 'You need to script them more tightly' to keep people's attention from wandering, says Daniel Mittleman, an associate professor in computing and digital media at DePaul University, Chicago. Teleconferences requiring interaction should be no larger than seven to nine people, experts say.

Meeting leaders should talk less than in face-to-face meetings and listen more, says Paul Donehue, president of Paul Charles & Associates, a Londonderry, N.H., sales-management consulting firm. For a problem-solving teleconference, for example, a leader might talk 40% of the time and listen 60%, compared with a 55%-to-45% ratio when meeting face-to-face for the same purpose, Mr. Donehue says.

Leaders should spend as much time on preparing questions to ask participants as on writing the agenda, Mr. Donehue says. He advises leaders to use a form with spaces to note comments by individual participants during the meeting. This helps leaders listen closely and hold participants' attention by citing their earlier input.

Managing conflicts is harder in teleconferences. Not everyone can sense when a silent participant is frustrated or angry. 'There's sometimes a little passive-aggressiveness in that silence,' Ms. Stack says. 'Some people just check out, thinking, 'OK, you dummies, go ahead and do that. I'm going to sit here on mute.' ' She suggests posing a question: ' 'Jane, you're kind of quiet. What are your thoughts?' You sometimes get an explosion,' but this can get important issues out in the open, Ms. Stack says.

Participants can help meetings run more smoothly by volunteering to serve as moderator, keeping people on-topic and sticking to time limits. Divvying up moderating and note-taking duties can free meeting leaders to participate and keep people engaged, Ms. Stack says. Some managers encourage any participant to moderate, breaking in if a speaker wanders off-topic and asking that everyone stick to the agenda, says Steven M. Smith, senior consultant in Seattle for SolutionsIQ, a management consulting and training firm.

Time-zone differences can irritate people who have to rise at midnight to meet with colleagues in the U.S., says Michael Schell, chief executive officer of RW3. 'It's important to move the meeting times around' to be fair, he says. Also, meetings should start promptly; taking 10 minutes to get coffee might seem normal at 9 a.m. in New York, but it can seem disrespectful to a colleague in Australia who got out of bed to join the call, Mr. Schell says.

Videoconferencing can solve some of the problems. The technology is increasingly inexpensive and easy to use, and a growing number of applications, such as Vidyo and Blue Jeans Network, can connect users on a variety of devices, including webcams, laptops, tablets or smartphones, says David Coleman, founder and managing director of Collaborative Strategies Inc., San Mateo, Calif.

The technology can create other challenges, though. Mr. Smith says participants who aren't tech-savvy often consume valuable meeting time getting used to unfamiliar systems.

Videoconferencing also can make people self-conscious. Many people avoid video, Ms. Stack says, because they don't want to put on makeup or change their workout clothes. 'I cannot tell you how many times I've heard people say, 'I don't know what's wrong with my webcam. I can't get it to work, so I'm just going to be here in voice,'' she says.



销售主管埃丽卡·皮尔斯(Erica Pearce)曾遇到过电话会议被联邦快递(FedEx)送货员、哭闹的孩子和一位同事用真空吸尘器打扫房间的声音打断的情况。她说,那位同事打扫房间的时候“谁都听不见了”。身为会议主持人的她对着电话说道:“如果你是在打扫房间,我理解,以后欢迎你来我家。但你得关掉麦克风。”


但电话会议的地位不可撼动。对于工作场所相距遥远、时间安排不固定、差旅支出遭到严控的企业来讲,电话会议实在是太有用了。波士顿市场研究公司Wainhouse Research的数据显示,美国音频会议所用时间预计将每年增长9.6%一直到2017年;所有电话会议当中,大约65%的部分仍然是用音频电话完成。


很多电话会议都是一部分人在会议室,另一部分人在听得不太清楚的呼入电话上。《执行即战略》(Execution Is the Strategy)作者、丹佛效率咨询师与培训师劳拉·斯塔克(Laura Stack)说,这常常使远程参会人员“感觉像二等公民”。




电话会议的议程和目标应当比面对面会议更加清楚、更加鲜明。芝加哥德堡尔大学(DePaul University)计算机与数字传媒副教授丹尼尔·米特尔曼(Daniel Mittleman)说,“要更加严格地计划”才能防止别人走神。专家说,要求互动的电话会议不应超过七至九人。

新罕布什尔州伦敦德里(Londonderry)销售管理咨询公司Paul Charles & Associates总裁保罗·多尼休(Paul Donehue)说,主持人应当比开面对面会议时说得更少、听得更多。比如,在以解决问题为目的的电话会议期间,主持人可以40%的时候说,60%的时候听;而在同样目的的面对面会议中,说和听占用的时间应该分别为55%、45%。



参会者可以主动发挥主持人角色,让大家不离题、不超时,从而帮助会议开得更加顺利。斯塔克说,大家一起协调、记录,可以让主持人有空参与讨论、调动大家的积极性。管理咨询与培训公司SolutionsIQ驻西雅图高级咨询师史蒂芬·史密斯(Steven M. Smith)说,有些管理人员鼓励每一位参与者帮助主持会议:在说话人离题的时候介入,要求所有人谨守议程。

RW3的首席执行长迈克尔·谢尔(Michael Schell)说,时差问题可能会让一些人非常恼火,因为他们为了跟美国的同事开会需要半夜起床。他说,调整会议时间以做到公平是很重要的。谢尔指出,会议应当在约定的时间立即开始;早上九点钟抽10分钟时间弄杯咖啡在纽约或许显得正常,但对于在澳大利亚起床就参加会议的同事来说可能显得不够尊重。

视频会议可以解决一部分的问题。加州 马特奥(San Mateo)Collaborative Strategies Inc.创始人兼董事总经理戴维·科尔曼(David Coleman)说,这项技术越来越便宜、好用,越来越多的应用程序(如Vidyo和Blue Jeans Network)可以把摄像头、笔记本电脑、平板电脑或智能手机等各种终端上的用户连接起来。