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空气污染会致癌吗?

更新时间:2014-3-11 14:17:50 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Does Air Pollution Cause Cancer?
空气污染会致癌吗?

Can air pollution cause lung cancer?

That's the question many in China are asking as they snap up face masks to avoid breathing hazardous particles in the country's often pewter-colored, polluted skies.

The answer--like the air--isn't so clear. Health experts like Wang Ning, deputy director of the Beijing Office for Cancer Prevention and Control, say they've seen a rise in a certain kind of cancer known as adenocarcinoma--which is characterized by duct formations and the production of mucus that is tied to pollution-- according to the China Daily.

But others, including Martin Murphy, founder of cancer-focused nonprofit the CEO Roundtable on Cancer-China, say there isn't enough scientific evidence to conclude that pollution itself is causing a rise in lung-cancer rates. 'We don't have irrefutable evidence.'

China has seen a surge in cancer in recent years, with about 3.12 million new cases developing annually, according to a 2012 report from the National Central Cancer Registry of China, which collected registry information across China from 2009.

Lung cancer rates in particular have skyrocketed, making China the home to about 32% of the world's lung-cancer patients, Dr. Murphy estimated. While rates of gastric, esophageal and cervical cancer have declined in China over the last decade, lung-cancer rates are still rising, Dr. Murphy said.

While it isn't clear whether the chronic smog that perpetually plagues many Chinese cities is to blame, what is clear, Dr. Murphy said, is that smoking compounds any problems tied to air pollution. 'We have strong evidence that if you smoke and breathe polluted air, the likelihood of developing cancer is a degree of magnitude greater,' he said.

Air pollution also increases risks for other diseases, especially respiratory and heart diseases, according to the World Health Organization, which classified outdoor air pollution as a carcinogen last year.

Tobacco use is also a leading killer in China. It causes 1.2 million deaths annually and is expected to cause 3.5 million annually by 2030, according to the American Cancer Society and the World Lung Foundation, which based its estimates on figures of 2005 deaths. The country is the world's largest consumer and producer of tobacco, home to more than 300 million smokers and 43% of the world's cigarette production.

Dr. Murphy said that cigarettes often augment disease risk. For example, smoking propelled the illness of actor Steve McQueen, who developed a form of cancer known as mesothelioma that is associated with asbestos exposure.

It's safe to say that 'smoking and air pollution are major causes of an increase in cancer mortality,' Dr. Murphy said.

空气污染会引发肺癌吗?

这是现在中国的许多人都在问的问题。面对经常被污染的灰色天空,许多人都匆匆戴上口罩,以避免吸入有害颗粒物。

和模糊的天空一样,这个问题的答案也不是很明朗。《中国日报》(China Daily)报道,北京市肿瘤防治研究办公室副主任王宁等健康专家说,他们看到腺癌这样的特定癌症有所增加。腺癌的特点是与污染有关的管腔形态的发生以及粘液的产生。

但包括中国癌症CEO圆桌会议(CEO Roundtable on Cancer-China)创始人墨菲(Martin Murphy)在内的其他人则说,还没有足够的科学证据能断定污染本身正在导致肺癌发病率上升。他说,还没有站得住脚的证据。癌症CEO圆桌会议是一个专注于癌症的非营利组织。

全国肿瘤登记中心(National Central Cancer Registry of China)发布的2012年报告显示,近年来中国癌症发病率大幅上升,每年新增病例大约为312万例。该中心自2009年以来收集中国的癌症登记信息。

墨菲博士估计,肺癌发病率尤其出现了大幅提高,全球肺癌患者有大约32%都在中国。墨菲说,虽然过去10年中国的胃癌、食管癌和宫颈癌发病率降低,但肺癌发病率仍在上升。

墨菲说,目前还不清楚长期笼罩在中国许多城市上空的雾霾是否是诱因,但清楚的一点是,吸烟会加重任何与空气污染有关的问题。他说,有强有力的证据证明,如果你不仅吸烟还吸入被污染的空气,那患癌症的可能性会提高一个层次。

据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)说,空气污染还增加了罹患其他疾病的风险,特别是呼吸道和心脏疾病。世界卫生组织去年将室外空气污染归入致癌物。

吸烟也是中国的“头号杀手”。美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)和世界肺脏基金会(World Lung Foundation)的数据显示,吸烟每年导致120万人死亡,预计到2030年每年致死人数将达到350万人。上述数据是基于2005年的死亡数字。中国是全球最大的烟草消费和生产国,有超过3亿烟民,占全球香烟产量的43%。

墨菲说,香烟通常会加大患病风险。例如,吸烟加重了演员麦奎因(Steve McQueen)的疾病,他患上了被称作间皮瘤的癌症,这种癌症与接触石棉有关。

墨菲说,可以有把握地说,吸烟和空气污染是癌症死亡率上升的主要原因。

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