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互联网时代如何找工作?

更新时间:2014-2-21 13:59:21 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Job Hunting in the Age of LinkedIn
互联网时代如何找工作?

After selling the restaurant my husband and I owned for 12 years, I recently joined the ranks of middle-aged job hunters. The last time I looked for a job, there was no LinkedIn, so the past few months have been a crash course in how to get hired in the Internet age. They have also been eye-opening about how companies use the Web to look for new hires. Having hired many employees over the course of my career, I have some advice for them:

Choose the right venue for your advertisement. Online job boards often are a gateway to unsolicited emails for jobs in fields unrelated to one's search, or an application process that is not suitable to every position and thus won't be completed by the applicant. During my job hunt, I made daily, cursory scans of the updates on the job boards I learned worked best for me. If one interested me, I'd look at it, but if I was asked to create an account to move along in the application process, I wouldn't proceed. And if you are looking to fill a position locally, advertise locally. Your daily local newspaper may seem old-fashioned, but it can be ideal.

Write an effective ad. Skip the company mission and self-kudos; we'll Google GOOG +1.98% you. Write a succinct description of the crucial skills, education and experience requirements, and an even shorter description of the job duties. Try to avoid issuing warnings like 'must pass a drug test,' or 'a background check will be conducted.' Dissuading drug addicts and scofflaws is not a great advertisement for your business. Most important, write in plain English. There may be a person who is an excellent fit who has not worked in your industry before. Using jargon sends a message that your company is a members-only club.

Ask for what you need, but do not be gratuitous in your demands. If personal appearance and presentation are important, have your applicants apply in person. If a clean background check for sensitive employment is crucial, applicants get that. But for most situations, a r嗷sum嗷 and cover letter are sufficient. If you are seeking even an entry-level employee, give applicants an opportunity to submit a r嗷sum嗷 and cover letter before asking them to fill out an employment application. A r嗷sum嗷 is a mark of professionalism and may help you distinguish one applicant from another.

Lose the online assessments. I've now taken several assessment tests in different industries, and the questions are consistently convoluted and seemed designed for only one purpose: to weed out anyone who thinks for themselves. Corporate HR consultants should remember that nurses sometimes save lives when they question a doctor's orders.

Prepare for the interview. The five standard questions you learned in your M.B.A. program aren't appropriate for every applicant. Asking a 25-year-old to identify her weaknesses might tell you something about her maturity or professional seriousness. Asking a 50-year-old the same will likely reveal little, as he has already corrected the really glaring ones to be successful. If you ask questions that get to the essence of what you are looking for, and then give an applicant a chance to reveal his values and character, rather than looking for canned answers, you will come closer to finding a good fit.

Don't be a chicken. If you are not feeling it during an interview, move on. The applicant will be in a much better place if you do something as radical as walking them out while you thank them for their time and respectfully explain why this job is not going to work out. You will have saved yourself a follow-up phone call (if you are so courteous) and given the job hunter some valuable feedback.

Communicate. Applying for jobs, even by email, is like launching a boomerang that often never returns. Is it asking too much to expect employers to use the technology of which they are so fond of to acknowledge the receipt of a submission? I have read of applicants for mid-management jobs with large corporations being notified by form email or robocall that they will not be hired. I personally had three interviews and wrote two thank-you notes for one position, yet was never informed of its disposition. We have all heard the phrase, 'It's just business.' Well who you are in business is who you are. Manners are manners.

When you find the right person, hire him. The vast majority of jobs can be learned by an individual of average to above-average intelligence in pretty short order. What can't be taught are the intangibles that signal to your gut that this is the right person. In my experience, training a quality person with reasonable intelligence who was a blank canvas when it came to my business yielded exactly the sort of long-term, invested employee I was seeking.

After several months of searching, I'm happy to report that I recently acquired a new position. I found the ad in the local paper: It was a single line asking for submissions in person. After the interview, like most people, I berated myself for my performance, but I felt really good that human beings in a quality business would make the decision-not a computer or one of its glitches.

在卖掉我和丈夫经营了12年的餐厅后,前不久我也加入了中年求职者的行列。上一次我找工作时,LinkedIn还没有出现,所以过去的几个月成了我学习如何在互联网时代找到工作的速成课。它们还让我见识到企业如何利用网络来物色新员工。我在自己的职业生涯中也招聘过许多员工,所以我有些建议要提供给招聘者:

选对登广告的地方。通过在线求职板能看到的往往只是一些自荐邮件,它们谋求的或是与你的搜索无关领域的职位,而如果一套申请流程不适合所有职位,申请者就不会完成它。在我的求职过程中,我每天都会粗略地浏览我了解到的最适合我的求职板上的最新信息。如果有职位引起了我的兴趣,我会看一看,但如果要我创建账户以继续申请流程的话,我就不会继续了。另外,如果你想为一个本地职位物色人选,那就在本地登广告。当地的日报或显得过时,但它会是理想的途径。

写一则高效的招聘广告。省略企业使命和自我夸耀;我们会用谷歌(Google)搜索你的。简要地描述对关键技能、教育程度及工作经验的要求,对工作职责的描述更要简短。尽量避免发出诸如“必须通过毒品测试”或“我们会进行背景调查”这样的警示。劝退毒品上瘾者和违法者不是一个给你的企业打广告的好方式。最重要的是,要使用平实易懂的语言。也许有一个人虽没有你所在行业的工作经验,但他会是一个非常合适的人选。使用行话会发出这样一条信息:你的企业是个只面向会员的俱乐部。

提出你的要求,但你的要求要有根据。如果个人容貌与形象很重要,那就让求职者当面申请职位。如果清白的背景对于敏感职位至关重要,申请者会理解这一点。但是,就大多数情况而言,一份简历与求职信已足矣。如果你找的是初级职员,在要求他们填写求职申请之前,先给他们一个提交简历和求职信的机会。简历是一个人专业水平的标志,或许能帮助你将某个求职者与其他人区分开来。

摒弃在线测评。现在我已参加过几项不同行业的评估测试,那些测试题一向复杂难解,而且似乎专为一个目的设计──剔除为自己考虑的任何人。企业的人力资源顾问应当记住,护士质疑医生的指令有时也能挽救生命。

为面试做准备。你在MBA课程中学到的五大标准面试题并不适用于每一名求职者。让一名25岁的求职者说出自己的缺点,或许能让你了解他的成熟度或职业水准。但是,向一名50岁的求职者提出同样的问题,透露出的信息可能会少之又少,因为他为了成功已经改掉了非常明显的缺点。如果你提出的问题抓住了你所寻求的东西的本质,然后你又给求职者提供了展现其价值和品格的机会,而不是去寻求预先准备好的答案,那么你找到合适人选的可能性会更高。

不要胆怯。假如你对面试者感觉不佳,那就转向其他人。倘若你能做得彻底一些,比如一边送求职者出去,一边感谢他们抽出时间面试并礼貌地解释他们为什么不适合这个职位,他们的境况会好得多。这么做你也不用再给求职者打跟进电话(假使你是个礼貌之人),并且你还为他们提供了有价值的反馈。

多多沟通。申请职位,即使是通过电子邮件申请,也如投出一个常常不会回头的回旋镖。期待雇主运用他们十分喜欢的科技来确认收到求职申请,难道算是很过分的要求么?我知道有些申请大企业中级管理职位的求职者,他们收到的不获录用通知是通过格式化的电子邮件或自动拨号电话发出的。我个人经历过三次面试,并就一个职位写过两封感谢信,却从未被告知他们的意向。我们全都听过这句话,“这只是公事公办。”然而,你在办公事时什么样就表明你是个什么样的人。礼貌就是礼貌。

当你找到合适人选,那就录用他。对于绝大多数职位,拥有平均智商及高于平均智商的人都能在极短的时间内掌握它们。无法教会的是让你凭直觉感到这就是适当人选的无形因素。在我的经验中,对一个不了解我的业务领域但智商正常的高素质人才加以训练,他就会成为我想要的那种长远型、有禀赋的员工。

历经几个月的寻觅后,我很高兴地告诉大家最近我得到了一个新职位。我是在本地报纸上发现那则广告的:它只有一行字,要求申请者当面提交申请。面试过后,与大多数人一样,我也为自己的表现而自责,不过让我非常欣慰的是做决定的是这个高素质的企业的人,而不是电脑或电脑的一个故障。

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