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索契冬奥会将增加全新项目

更新时间:2014-2-7 11:49:42 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Sochi Games to Include Events Never Seen Before at the Olympics
索契冬奥会将增加全新项目

If the 2014 Olympic Games in Sochi look different, that's because they are.

For years, the International Olympic Committee has been adding sports it thinks will prevent the Olympics from becoming an event aimed solely at mom and dad. This year's attempts at being 'with it' include more extreme sports and more opportunities for women to compete against one another and also together with men. Here's a guide to what's new:

SNOWBOARDING: In 1998, the IOC struck gold when it added this sport to the Games. At first it looked odd to see shaggy athletes wearing baggy outfits instead of spandex, but the halfpipe competition has become one of the most-popular winter events thanks to stars like Shaun White, the ginger-haired American with a permanent grin. Since then, the IOC has added snowboard cross, a kind of a downhill demolition derby.

Now come two more snowboarding events. One is 'slopestyle,' a breathtaking event to watch, in which competitors take big-air jumps that send them twisting and turning 80 feet through the air (once they've cleared a silly area with fixed obstacles).

The other is 'parallel slalom,' a more-demanding version of the parallel giant-slalom race introduced in 2002. In it, 32 snowboarders compete two at a time in a series of elimination races, zigging and zagging down a 320-meter course. Each head-to-head race involves two runs: The winner of the first gets a head start in the second equal to the margin of victory in the first.

FREESTYLE SKIING: This sport entered the Games in 1992 with a moguls race where skiers perform jumps as they negotiate the bumps. Next came aerials, where ramps launch skiers into the sky, and then ski cross, where four skiers at a time race down a curvy, hilly course that can send them sprawling.

In Sochi, one new competition is 'halfpipe,' where skiers mimic snowboarders by using the banked walls of the course to launch into flips and rotations. This kind of trick skiing has revived the sport in recent years, so it's no surprise the IOC jumped at it.

The other new twist in skiing is 'slopestyle,' the ski version of its snowboard cousin.

SKI JUMPING: After years of lobbying and a discrimination lawsuit, the IOC has allowed women to compete in ski jumping for the first time. Though women have jumped at the world championships since 2009, the IOC had argued there weren't enough participants to hold a geographically diverse competition.

Still, while men will compete in three jumping events-the so-called normal hill, the large hill and a team competition, women will participate in just one event (which many aren't happy about): individual competition on the normal hill. Physics suggests that women eventually could fly farther than men if they take off from the same spot, which begs for a coed competition down the road.

BIATHLON AND LUGE: No Winter Olympic competition pits individual men and women against each other, but this year there are two new coed team events. One is 'biathlon relay,' where each team has two women and two men. The women ski the first two legs, six kilometers each with target shooting along the way. The men ski the next two legs, 7.5 kilometers with shooting. Teammates will have to touch as one finishes a leg and the next starts out.

The other is 'luge relay,' which isn't a relay in the traditional sense (there's no safe way to tag a teammate while sliding down an ice track at 80 m.p.h.) Teams will do one run each of men's and women's singles and one doubles run of any combination.

FIGURE SKATING: New this year is a team event that offers viewers another night of figure skating. Each country fields one singles skater of each gender, and one couple each in pairs and ice dance. The best total score wins in a competition that will reward overall team depth.

如果说2014年索契冬奥会看起来有别于以往的冬奥会,那是因为它实实在在与众不同。

多年来,国际奥林匹克委员会(International Olympic Committee)一直在增加体育项目,希望以此防止奥运会沦为只能吸引大叔大妈的赛事。为了促进参与感,今年的冬奥会增加了极限项目,还包括更多的女子竞技项目和男女混合项目。以下是新项目指南:

单板滑雪:1998年,国际奥委会将单板滑雪纳入奥运会正式比赛项目,结果是撞上了大运。起初这项运动看起来怪里怪气,运动员穿着膨松臃肿的外套,而不是紧身的弹性纤维运动服。但现如今,这项在U形滑道上的竞技运动已经成为冬季赛事上最受欢迎的项目之一;这得归功于一些明星的表现,尤其是留着红色头发、永远面带微笑的美国名将肖恩•怀特(Shaun White)。此后,国际奥委会又增设了单板滑雪越野赛。

本届冬奥会将增设两项单板滑雪项目。一项是“坡面障碍技巧”,这必将是扣人心弦的项目,比赛选手将作出大幅度的空中跳跃动作,在距离地面80英尺(约24米)的高空腾空跳跃和旋转(当然此前他们得先顺利通过一段有固定障碍的困难地段)。

另一项是“平行回转”,相当于2002年增设的“平行大回转”项目的更高难度的版本。在比赛中,32位单板滑雪选手按两人一组进行一系列淘汰赛,回旋着滑下长320米的赛道。每组比赛的两位选手要滑两次,在第一次中获胜的选手在第二次滑雪中将享受领先权,领先距离由第一次获胜的距离而定。

自由式滑雪:这项运动于1992年成为奥运会正式比赛项目。首先是雪上技巧,滑雪选手在遇到山包的时候作出跳跃动作。后来加进了空中技巧,选手在坡道上起跳,在空中作出各种动作。后来又加入了障碍追逐,四位滑雪选手同时从一个弯曲和崎岖的坡道滑下,有时候会摔得四仰八叉。

索契冬奥会还新增了“U型场地技巧”项目。滑雪选手模仿单板滑雪选手,利用滑道的弯 作出翻转和旋转等动作。这种技巧性的滑雪运动近年来已经使这个项目恢复了生机,所以国际奥委会急切地将该项目列为奥运会正式比赛项目也就不难理解了。

另一个新的自由式滑雪项目是“坡面障碍技巧”,这是单板滑雪同名项目的自由式滑雪版。

跳台滑雪:在面对多年的游说和一场性别歧视官司之后,国际奥委会已首次允许女子参加跳台滑雪竞技。虽然2009年女子跳台滑雪就已被列入世界锦标赛项目,但国际奥委会辩称,目前的参与度还不足以支撑举办一个能体现参赛选手地域分布广泛性的比赛。

在本届冬奥会上,男子跳台滑雪共有三个项目——个人标准台、个人大跳台和团体大跳台,而女子只有一个个人标准台项目(许多人都对此不满)。从物理学角度看,如果从同一个点起跳,女子可能会比男子飞得更远。这个原理就是在呼吁将来举办男女同台竞技的比赛。

冬季两项和雪橇:冬奥会比赛中没有男子与女子个人对抗的项目,但今年的冬奥会有两个新的男女混合团体项目。一个是“冬季两项混合接力”,每个队由两男两女组成。女子先滑前两棒,每一棒6公里,中间有射击项目。男子滑后两棒,每棒7.5公里,在滑行中有射击任务。在一棒完成、另一棒出发之前,交接的队友必须触碰。

另一项是“雪橇团体接力”。这个项目并不是传统意义上的接力(当你以每小时80英里(约128公里)的速度在冰道上滑行的时候,你是不可能有一个安全的方法来触碰队友的)。参赛团队必须完成一次男子单人滑、一次女子单人滑和一次任意搭配的双人滑。

花样滑冰:今年新增了一个团体项目,使观众可以一饱眼福。每个国家派出男女单人滑选手各一名,以及双人滑和冰舞选手各一对。每项比赛的总分最高者获胜,并记入团体总分。

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