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索契为冬奥会脱胎换骨

更新时间:2014-2-7 11:48:12 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

How Sochi Was Transformed for the 2014 Winter Olympics
索契为冬奥会脱胎换骨

To say Sochi was given a face-lift for the 2014 Winter Olympic Games would be an understatement-it's more like a whole new body, circulatory system and skeleton.

The once-faded Soviet-era coastal spa town and the nearby mountain ski resort have been refashioned into a city of space-age-looking venues, new roads and rail lines, and hundreds of refurbished buildings.

'Our city has completely changed,' says Fyodor Afuksenidi, president of the Sochi chapter of the Union of Architects of Russia. 'I was away for a few months, and when I came back I almost didn't recognize the place. People from Sochi are amazed.'

The Tycoon Ski Trip

The transfiguration of the Black Sea resort is the culmination of a yearslong effort by Russian President Vladimir Putin, who has staked much of his personal prestige on hosting a successful Games. At an estimated cost of around $50 billion, it would be the most expensive Olympics ever held, topping the previous record of about $40 billion for the 2008 Summer Games in Beijing.

During Soviet times, Sochi served as a fashionable vacation destination under Joseph Stalin, who ordered a number of opulent sanitariums constructed along the coast. A popular ski resort also sprouted in the mountains that loom over the subtropical beach resort. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the area began to deteriorate, until Russia won its bid in 2007 to host these Olympics.

The idea to bring the Games to Sochi was born when Putin and Russian metals tycoon Vladimir Potanin took a ski trip in Austria and discussed what it would take to create a world-class ski resort in Russia. Potanin has said they realized that bringing the Olympics would allow them to get it done, and the bid was born. Over the next few years, Putin would call the effort to transform the city of 358,000 into a cutting-edge Olympic venue 'the biggest construction site on the planet.'

The core of the region's metamorphosis is concentrated in the tightly packed 'coastal cluster,' where many of the main indoor venues stand, and the 'mountain cluster' about 30 miles away in Krasnaya Polyana, where outdoor events will be held.
'Frozen Water Droplet'

Much of the attention will be drawn to the futuristic buildings of the coastal cluster, built on the grounds of what had been a state-run farm, with six main buildings in a compact circle around the medal podium.

Among them will be the Fisht Olympic Stadium, which is named after a nearby mountain and designed to resemble a giant snowflake, and where the opening and closing ceremonies will be held. Hockey matches will be held in the nearby Bolshoi Ice Dome, which was built to look like a frozen water droplet.
Other buildings include the Iceberg Skating Palace for figure-skating competitions, a speed-skating center and a curling center.

The Olympic Village is situated just next door to the main complex, and in one nod to the area's history, a small century-old Orthodox cemetery stands in the middle of it all.

Officials have boasted about the proximity of the main venues to one another, saying it will take no more than 10 minutes on foot to reach any of the buildings from anywhere on the main site. A new railway service can carry people from the coastal cluster to the mountain venues in about 30 minutes. In contrast, some venues at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver were nearly two hours apart.

'Having venues that are close to each other is a big deal,' says Richard Burdett, an urban-planning expert at the London School of Economics who has written extensively on the impact of large-scale sporting events. 'If the distance from where the athletes sleep to where they train is actually reduced to 10 minutes, it makes a difference to the way they perform. The likelihood of achieving better results and breaking records is higher.'

Tourists From All Over?

Russia has come under heavy criticism for the high price tag of the Games and allegations of corruption. The government has said the costs included major infrastructure improvements the city needed, such as a sewage-treatment plant, new power plants, road and rail improvements and an expanded airport.

As with all Olympics, it is hard to tell at this stage if the wide-scale revamp of Sochi will have a positive long-term effect. Russia has said it hopes the new facilities will make the resort a major draw for skiers well into the future, and some of the sporting venues are earmarked for use for soccer's 2018 World Cup and as exhibition and training space.

'What will happen after the Olympics is difficult now to estimate accurately,' says Alla Guseva, deputy director of the Sochi Resort History Museum. 'It seems clear that as the city develops, it will attract tourists from all over.'

Come Back in 20 Years

Burdett, the urban planning expert, says that Olympic planning has increasingly focused in the past 20 years on 'that which is left behind,' but that it may take as long as 10 to 20 years to determine if the legacy of such an event is a success.

For example, he notes that Barcelona was left with a completely reinvigorated waterfront that had been an industrial wasteland before the 1992 Games. But in Athens, a center built specifically for taekwondo has never been used since.

'It is just a taekwondo stadium, and Greeks don't do much of that,' he says.
From an architectural standpoint, Burdett says the look and feel of the buildings will also say as much to the world about where Russia is at the moment as anything else.

'The buildings tell you the language Russia is speaking as much as anything said politically,' he says. 'They have been trying to send the message that we are a normal country, we are powerful, we are not unlike others. But in recent years architecture from Russia has been very much in your face-here I am, look at me-while the rest of the world has been embracing more architectural modesty.

'I'm interested in how much Russia really is in line with the rest of the world in this area, at least.'

如果说索契为2014年冬季奥运会而做了一次拉皮手术,那是小瞧它了。它更像是换了全新的身体、循环系统和骨骼。

这个一度褪色的苏联时代海滨温泉小镇及其附近的高山滑雪胜地,经过一番改造之后,已经拥有超现代化的比赛场地,崭新的公路和铁路,以及数百座整饬一新的建筑物。

俄罗斯建筑师联盟(Union of Architects of Russia)索契分会会长费奥多尔•阿夫克森尼迪(Fyodor Afuksenidi)说:“索契发生了翻天覆地的变化。我曾经外出几个月,回来后几乎都不认识这个地方了。索契人都感到惊奇。”

大亨的滑雪之旅

这个黑海度假胜地的变化,是俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔•普京(Vladimir Putin)数年努力达到的顶点。他的个人威望已经在很大程度上系于冬奥会的成败。以估计大约500亿美元的成本来算,这将是历史上最贵的奥运会,超过2008年北京夏季奥运会创下的约400亿美元的前纪录。

苏联时代,索契是约瑟夫•斯大林(Joseph Stalin)时期一个时尚的度假胜地。斯大林下令沿海岸线修建了多座豪华疗养院。在俯瞰这片亚热带海滩度假胜地的山区,还建了一个颇受欢迎的滑雪场。苏联解体后,这个地区开始衰败,一直到2007年俄罗斯赢得这届冬奥会的主办权。

在索契举办冬奥会的想法萌生于普京与俄罗斯金属大亨弗拉基米尔•波塔宁(Vladimir Potanin)去奥地利滑雪的时候。当时两人探讨怎样才能在俄罗斯建一处世界级的滑雪场。波塔宁曾说,两人意识到举办冬奥会将使他们有条件实现这个目标,然后就准备申办。在之后的几年里,普京总是说,将这座35.8万人的城市变成一座尖端奥运赛场的行动是“地球上最大的工程”。

该地区上演变形记的核心是建筑物密集的“沿海集群”和30英里(约合48公里)开外红波利亚纳的“山区集群”。很多主要室内赛场都在沿海集群,而室外比赛将在山区集群举行。

“冰冻的小水滴”

沿海集群未来主义风格的建筑物将受到人们广泛关注。在曾经是国营农场的土地上,六栋主要建筑围绕着领奖台,形成了一个紧密的圈子。

其中一座建筑是“菲什特奥林匹克体育场”(Fisht Olympic Stadium)。这座体育场以附近的菲什特山命名,其设计就像是一朵巨型雪花,冬奥会的开闭幕式都将在此举行。冰上曲棍球比赛将在附近的“波尔肖冰宫”(Bolshoi Ice Dome)举行,其设计灵感来自于一个冰冻的小水滴。

其他建筑包括用于花样滑冰比赛的“冰山溜冰场”(Iceberg Skating Palace),一座速度滑冰中心和一座冰壶中心。

奥运村紧邻主要建筑群,正中央是一小块百年之久的东正教墓地,呼应着这个地区的历史。

官员们曾对外宣扬主要比赛场地之间相隔很近的特点,表示从主建筑的任何位置步行不超过10分钟便能抵达这些建筑物中的任何一座。一条新铁路建成后,人们坐火车约30分钟就能从沿海集群到达山区比赛场地。相比之下,2010年温哥华冬奥会的一些赛场相隔将近两个小时的车程。

伦敦政治经济学院(London School of Economics)城市规划专家理查德•伯德特(Richard Burdett)撰写了大量有关大规模体育赛事影响的文章。他说:“赛场之间相隔很近这一点很了不起。如果运动员睡觉的地方到训练场所的路程缩短到10分钟,将会对他们在赛场上的表现有很大影响,实现更好成绩、甚至打破纪录的可能性会更高。”

索契会吸引世界各地的游客吗?

俄罗斯曾因冬奥会举办费用过高和腐败指控而饱受批评。政府已表示,这些费用涵盖索契需要的重大基础设施改造,如修建污水处理厂、建设新电站、改善公路铁路、扩建机场等。

和所有奥运会一样,目前还很难判断索契的大规模改造是否会产生积极的长期影响。俄罗斯方面曾表示,希望这些新设施将使这个度假胜地在遥远的将来仍能成为吸引滑雪人士的一个重要场所,而一部分比赛场地已经标明要用于2018年的世界杯,并当成展会和训练场地来使用。

索契度假村历史博物馆(Sochi Resort History Museum)副馆长阿拉•古谢娃(Alla Guseva)说:“冬奥会后的事情现在还很难精确估计。随着索契的发展,它显然会吸引来自世界各地的游客。”

20年之后

城市规划专家伯德特说,过去20年的奥运规划已经越来越多地看重“留下的东西”,但要确定奥运遗产的成败,最长可能需要10至20年的时间。

比如他提到,巴塞罗那在1992年奥运会之前的一片工业废弃地,在奥运会过后变成了一片焕然一新的滨水区。但在雅典,专门建设的跆拳道中心在奥运会过后从来没人用过。

他说:“它只是一座跆拳道体育场,而希腊人练跆拳道的不多。”

伯德特还说,从建筑设计的角度来看,建筑的外观和感觉对当前俄罗斯面貌的展示将不亚于其他任何东西。

他说:“这些建筑物对俄罗斯所说语言的展示作用不亚于任何政治上的宣传。他们一直想传达出我们是一个正常国家、我们很强大、我们跟其他国家没有不同的信息。但在近几年,俄罗斯的建筑设计已经过度耀眼,而世界其他国家却在越来越多地拥抱建筑设计上的质 气质。”

他说:“至少在这个领域,我很想知道俄罗斯究竟在多大程度上与世界其他国家是一致的。”

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