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如何赶走烦人的口腔溃疡

更新时间:2014-2-7 11:46:31 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Quick Cures/How to Tame a Pesky Canker Sore
如何赶走烦人的口腔溃疡

A painful spot in your mouth can be annoying -- and a little mysterious. Did you bite your cheek and not notice? One possibility is a canker sore. About 80% of adults get these small ulcers at one point or another, and they occur more often in young women, says Wendy Stern, an ear, nose and throat doctor and medical director of otolaryngology services at the South Coast Hospital Group. Here's Dr. Stern's advice on how to handle a canker sore.

Spotting a Sore

Canker sores crop up on the soft parts of your mouth, any place that doesn't have bone underneath -- the tongue or cheeks, for instance. If the lesion is on the palette or gums, it isn't a canker sore, Dr. Stern says.

Canker sores are typically one to two millimeters in size and shaped like a shallow crater. They have clear, watery fluid inside. They should go away on their own within five to 10 days.

What Causes Them?

Canker sores arise due to irritation, says Dr. Stern. Stress can irritate the inside of the mouth, she says. For some people, acidic foods such as citrus fruits, tomatoes or vinegar cause flare-ups.

Injuries to the soft tissues of the mouth can also bring on the sores. Aggressive tooth brushing or rough edges of foods such as nuts can lead to sores. Some people are more prone to canker sores than others, but they typically aren't a sign of an underlying health issue, Dr. Stern says, because canker sores aren't caused by infection, bacteria or virus.

Canker Sores vs. Cold Sores

Cold sores erupt mostly on the lips and gums -- places where canker sores won't flourish. Cold sores are caused by a version of the same virus that causes genital herpes. Dr. Stern says it is important to treat the virus with an antiviral cream and wash your hands after touching the sores.

Swishes, Salt and Numbing

If canker sores are all over the mouth and causing discomfort, Dr. Stern recommends a 'liquid swish.' This can be a cocktail of water mixed with baking soda or salt. Salt water may sting, but it is well documented to speed up wound healing, she says.

Another swish-and-spit home remedy reputed to work is a mixture of liquid antacids and antihistamines. The antacid may neutralize the acid and an antihistamine like Benadryl has a local anesthetic effect.

Dr. Stern doesn't recommend over-the-counter mouthwashes that are meant to clean teeth and freshen breath as these may contain chemicals that might further irritate the canker sores.

Over-the-counter products such as Anbesol are benzocaines or topical numbing medicines and are fine to use in small amounts, she says.

If the whole mouth becomes numb there is an increased, though small, risk of choking or aspirating so numbing medications should be used with caution in the very young or people with compromised immune systems, Dr. Stern says.

Cank Calls

Does a canker sore merit a doctor? If a patient is very uncomfortable, a doctor will typically prescribe a topical steroid, says Dr. Stern to quell the inflammatory response. Generally, if a lesion lingers more than two weeks, get it checked, Dr. Stern says.

口腔疼痛是件烦人的事,也有点让人摸不到头脑:是不是在没留神的情况下咬了腮帮子?其中一个可能是,你患上了口腔溃疡。美国南湾医学中心(South Coast Hospital Group)口腔咽喉服务医务主管、耳鼻喉医生斯特恩(Wendy Stern)称,大约80%的成年人一生中会不时受到这些小溃疡的困扰,这种情况多见于年轻女性。下面是斯特恩医生对于治疗口腔溃疡的一些建议。

确定溃疡的位置

口腔溃疡通常会突然出现在口中柔软的部分,也就是没有骨头的地方,例如舌头或脸颊内部。斯特恩医生称,上颚或牙龈上生的溃疡不属于口腔溃疡。

口腔溃疡通常有一到两毫米大,形状类似一个浅坑,内部包含透明水状液体。口腔溃疡一般在5到10天内就会自行消退。

造成口腔溃疡的原因是什么?

斯特恩医生说,口腔溃疡是由炎症引起的。她说,压力会导致口腔发炎。对一些人来说,柑橘类水果、番茄或醋等酸性食物也会引起口腔发炎。

口腔内软组织受伤也会导致出现溃疡。刷牙用力过大或者坚果等边缘粗糙的食物也会造成溃疡。斯特恩医生称,一部分人的体质使得他们更容易生溃疡,但这通常不是身体存在深层健康隐患的一个信号,因为口腔溃疡并不是由感染、细菌或病毒引起的。

口腔溃疡和嘴唇疱疹

嘴唇疱疹在多数情况下出现在嘴唇和牙龈上,口腔溃疡不会出现在这些部位。嘴唇疱疹是由和引起生殖器疱疹相同版本的病毒引起的。斯特恩医生称,在治疗病毒时,使用抗病毒乳霜以及在碰触疱疹后洗手非常重要。

漱口水与盐、麻醉成分

如果溃疡遍布口腔并引发不适,斯特恩医生建议漱口。漱口水可以是小苏打水或盐水。她说,盐水可能引发刺痛感,但很多经验证明盐水能加快伤口愈合。

另一个经常奏效的漱口家庭疗法使用液体抗酸剂和抗组胺剂的混合液。抗酸剂能中和酸分,而苯海拉明(Benadryl)等抗组胺剂能起到对患处麻醉的作用。

斯特恩医生不建议从柜台购买能使牙齿清洁和呼吸清新的漱口水,因为这些漱口水可能含有一些化学物质,有可能进一步刺激口腔溃疡。

她说,Anbesol等柜台销售的产品属于苯坐卡因类药物(局部麻醉药),在用量较少的情况下才可以。

斯特恩医生说,如果整个口腔都被麻醉,那么患者呼吸不畅的风险就会小幅升高,因此年龄很小的患者或免疫系统不佳的人群应该谨慎使用麻醉疗法。

口腔溃疡是否需要就诊

得了口腔溃疡是否就需要看医生呢?斯特恩医生说,如果患者感到非常不适,医生通常会开具局部用类固醇药物,以减轻炎症反应。她说,一般来说,如果不适感的持续时间超过两周,就需要做一下检查。

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