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索契冬奥会裁判数量之多或创纪录

更新时间:2014-2-7 11:41:53 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Sochi Games Set Record With Most Judges
索契冬奥会裁判数量之多或创纪录

Here's the problem with the Winter Olympics: They are really confusing. Not only are many of the events obscure to the average American viewer, but an increasing number of them are decided by judges rather than clocks, goals or finish lines.

In fact, these 2014 Sochi Games will be the most-judged Winter Olympics ever.
In this year's Games, which begin with a trickle of events on Thursday, there are an all-time high 21 judged events out of 98 total. That is up from 13 in 2010 and just four back in 1924.

Included are eight of the 12 events that are making their Olympic debuts, such as slopestyle snowboarding, halfpipe and slopestyle skiing and women's ski jumping, which-contrary to what you might think-isn't just about how far the skier flies (style counts, too).

These often-complicated judging systems force competitors to make a tough call: Whether to play it safe and perform a technically perfect run or routine, or go for broke, hoping to get kudos for being daring. 'That is the hardest thing to deal with. It's really tough,' said U.S. snowboarder Louie Vito, who finished fifth in halfpipe in Vancouver.

The challenge for the vast majority of viewers who rarely watch these slipping and sliding sports is to know what deserves a good score and what deserves punishment. Take slopestyle: This mountainside spectacle requires skiers to descend a slope and perform tricks on rails, tables and jumps that can see competitors travel 80 feet from liftoff to landing. So is that awkward grabbing of the skis in mid-jump a good thing or a bad thing? (Apparently, it's good, despite its gracelessness.)

'We're just taking the run in as it comes down,' said Phoebe Mills, the only U.S. judge on snowboarding's halfpipe and slopestyle panel in Sochi. 'Really for us, the score is less important than the overall ranking of the riders.'

Unlike the much older sport of figure skating, where tricks are assigned numerical degrees of difficulty, judges in snowboarding and freestyle skiing base their final scores on 'overall impression,' according to the rules, with an eye toward a run's 'amplitude' (the trade term for height), plus execution, variety and difficulty. The overall message to competitors: be daring, but don't crash.

If that sounds a little loose for a competition as regal as the Olympics, understand that the judges themselves are still working out the system for these events, the oldest of which has only been around since 1992 when the moguls competition began. In most of the judged sports, the top and bottom scores given by the panel are thrown out and the rest are averaged for an overall score. That wrinkle is a holdover from the Cold War era, when it was thought judges might let politics influence their scoring.

That's about where the similarities end, though. After a scandal at the 2002 Games in Salt Lake City, figure skating switched to a more-regimented judging and scoring system. Under the old '6.0' system, judges compared one skater to another, with 6.0 being a rarely achieved perfect score. Individual jumps and moves weren't graded.

The new International Judging System, introduced in 2004, grades skaters for their own performances. There is no perfect score. Judges and technical experts assign points for each jump and spin, and for their artistic performance. Every triple axel, quadruple toe loop and combination spin has a numerical 'base value' that reflects its difficulty. Judges then grade the element by deducting or adding a maximum of three points. Skaters lose points for a fall or an under-rotated jump, for example, and gain them for jumps that have a difficult entry or are performed more than halfway through a program.

The judges then give the skater artistic marks, divided into five components: skating skills (balance), transitions between elements, overall performance, choreography and interpretation. the result is a score ranging from .25 to 10. The idea is to perform a technically challenging skate, and do it well.

At first, the system discouraged difficult elements such as quadruple jumps. It has since been tweaked. Now, 'as long as you have some of your rotation complete, you get some credit for attempting it,' said Tim Goebel, who won a bronze medal in men's singles for the U.S. at the 2002 Olympics.

But the tweaks haven't been universally popular. One issue: A skater gets 70% of the points for a quad jump even if it is under-rotated, which is a bit more than the points awarded for a perfect triple jump. So an ugly quad is better than a pretty triple. Evan Lysacek, who won the men's gold in 2010 for the U.S. without attempting a quad, doesn't like this. 'I believe skaters should skate clean programs,' said Lysacek, who pulled out of Sochi with a torn hip labrum.

Clearly, judgment has to play a role in sports that are largely about artistry. It's less clear why it belongs in ski jumping, where a simple farthest-flight rule would seem to suffice.

Yet judging is nearly as old as the sport itself. Skiers first get points for distance. Then three judges can award a maximum of 20 points each for execution. Translation: Which skiers do the best job of leaning straight out over their skis, maintaining symmetry and landing in the so-called 'telemark' position that is sort of like a forward lunge? Oh, and keep skiing straight after the landing. Points can be deducted for a sloppy 'outrun.'

Got all that? Now you're ready to watch the Winter Olympics.

冬季奥运会存在一个问题:它在很多方面容易让人产生困惑。这不仅仅由于许多比赛项目并不为普通观众所熟悉,同时也因为比赛名次由裁判,而非计时器、目标物或终点线决定。

实际上,2014年索契冬奥会将是有史以来最依赖裁判的一届冬奥会。

本届冬奥会总计有98个项目,其中21个需要由裁判判定名次,数量创出历史新高。而2010年的冬奥会为13项,1924年仅4项。

在本届冬奥会新增的12个项目中,裁决说了算的有8个。这其中包括坡面单板滑雪、U型场地和坡面滑雪、以及女子跳台滑雪。比方说,女子跳台滑雪成绩评判的标准不仅是飞得远,还要看空中姿势。

这种通常较为复杂的评判体系使参赛选手必须做出选择:要么稳扎稳打,以完美完成技术动作这种常规方式求胜;要么孤注一掷,做出一些大胆的尝试,以期获得裁判的青睐。曾在温哥华冬奥会上夺得U型场地滑雪第五名的美国运动员路易斯•维托(Louie Vito)表示,这是最难处理的问题,非常棘手。

对于较少观看此类冰雪项目的大多数观众而言,面临的挑战就是需要知道怎样的表现会得高分,而哪些会被扣分。以坡面滑雪为例,选手在一个斜坡上向下滑行,并在轨道、平台和跳板上展现技巧,从起点到终点可能长达80英尺。那么在半途进行跳跃时抓住滑雪板是对是错呢?(显然应该是对的,只有显得有些不够优雅)。

索契冬奥会单板滑雪比赛中,U型场地滑雪和坡面障碍技巧项目中唯一的美国裁判菲比•米尔斯(Phoebe Mills)说,选手从坡面滑下的那一刻起,我们就开始判分。不过对我们而言,分数没有选手的整体排名重要。

根据规则,在花样滑冰等比较传统的项目上,裁判主要根据选手的技术动作难度判分。但在单板滑雪、自由式滑雪等比较新的项目中,选手的最终得分将取决于裁判的“整体印象”,包括动作完成的高度、多样性、难度等等。这向参赛选手发送出了信息:勇于尝试高难度,但别搞砸了!

对于奥运这样的重大赛事,这听起来或许有些散漫不羁,但你要知道,裁判们其实也还在研究这些运动项目的制度,其中最悠久的也不过是1992年前后制定的。滑雪项目在1992年成为冬奥会正式比赛项目。在大多数需要裁判评分的项目中,评委小组给出的最高分和最低分会被去掉,然后取剩余分数的平均分。这一做法的灵感来自于冷战时期,那时人们认为评委打分可能会受到政治因素的影响。

不过2002年盐湖城冬奥会丑闻曝光后,花样滑冰的评判和打分系统变得更为严格。以前是6.0分制,裁判会在选手之间进行比较,很少有人能得到6.0的满分,跳跃和移动动作不会被评分。

2004年开始执行的新国际评分体系则是对选手本身表现打分,而且不设满分。裁判和技术专家对选手的每一次跳跃、旋转及其艺术表现力进行打分。每个三周半跳、后外点冰四周跳和联合旋转都有一个反映技术难度的数字“基值”。然后,裁判对单项技术动作打分,最多加减三分。如果选手跌倒或没有完成预设的旋转跳,就会被扣分,如果完成了高难度跳跃或完成了赛程过半的跳跃,就会加分。

此外,裁判还要对花样滑冰选手的艺术表现力进行打分。艺术表现力可从五个方面进行判断,分别是滑冰技术(平衡能力)、动作之间的转换、总体表现、舞蹈编排和表演力。这部分的分值在0.25至10分之间。评分的指导思想就是,选手不仅要有能力完成有技术难度的花样滑冰动作,而且要完成得漂亮。

起初,这套评分系统不鼓励选手去做四周跳等高难度动作,但是后来进行了调整。在2002年冬奥会上为美国夺得花样滑冰男子单人滑铜牌的戈贝尔(Tim Goebel)说,现在只要你完成了部分旋转动作,就会得到一些分数,因为你勇于尝试。

但这些调整并非受到普遍欢迎。其中一个问题是:选手可以因为一个四周跳获得70%的分数,哪怕这个动作没有完全完成,所得分数也比一个完美的三周跳分数要高一些。也就是说,一个没有顺利完成的四周跳胜过一个漂亮的三周跳。2010年,莱萨塞克(Evan Lysacek)在整套比赛动作没有四周跳的情况下为美国队摘得了花样滑冰男单金牌。他个人并不喜欢这样的评分标准。莱萨塞克说,我认为花样滑冰选手应该有干净利落的表演。

无疑,在艺术性强的项目中,裁判扮演着重要的角色。但不太清楚,?什么在跳台滑雪这样的项目上裁判也很重要呢?在这样的项目中,光一个“距离分”似乎就够了。

但由裁判评分的历史几乎与这项运动本身的历史一样长。运动员首先获得一个“距离分”。然后三名裁判对每一跳给出最多20分的“姿势分”。即:考察运动员在空中飞行时保持身体笔直倾斜,平衡稳定地落地,有点像前跨步的所谓“屈膝旋转步”等方面的完美程度。选手落地后还必须保持笔直滑行。结束动作不完美也可能被扣分。

明白了吗?明白的话,现在你就可以观看冬奥会了。

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