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求医助孕的美国女性增多

更新时间:2014-1-28 15:22:26 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

More Women Try to Get Pregnant With Medical Help
求医助孕的美国女性增多

A growing share of American women are seeking medical help to become pregnant.

Data from the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention show that roughly 12.5% of women between the ages of 25 and 44 had sought such help--everything from counseling to artificial insemination--during the 2006-2010 survey period, up from 11.2% in 1995.

Among women 35 to 39 years old who have experienced one or more births, 15.8% got medical help, up from 13.1% in 1995. For women in this age group who have never had children, the share rose slightly to 19.6% from 19.1%.

The findings are part of the CDC's National Survey of Family Growth, which was conducted between June 2006 and June 2010. More than 12,000 women were interviewed, not all of whom had fertility problems or were seeking to get pregnant.

While the CDC survey is nationally representative, individual demographic percentages--for example, women in their late 30s who have had no children--may have a larger margin of error because they rely on smaller sample sizes. Also, the CDC's definition of 'medical help to get pregnant' is broad--ranging from getting advice and infertility testing to artificial insemination, which is fairly rare.

Women who are white, better-educated and wealthier are more likely to make use of infertility services, the CDC said.

Still, the agency's latest figures highlight the effects of one of America's biggest demographic trends: Young and middle-aged Americans are delaying childbearing, often until their 30s or mid-30s, or even beyond.

The average age of a U.S. mother at first birth rose to 25.8 years old in 2012, up from 25.6 years in 2011 and around 21 in 1970, CDC data show. Research has shown that improved access to contraception, growing numbers of women in the workforce and the higher costs of raising families are factors in women putting off having children.

Fertility generally declines in the 30s, according to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

While the percentage of women aged 30 to 34 receiving help to get pregnant rose just slightly to 11.1% from 10% in 1995, that may suggest women are trying to have children even later in their lives. The share of women 35 to 39 getting medical help for pregnancy rose to 16.4% from 14.3% in the earlier survey.

The CDC found that among women aged 25 to 44 who had fertility problems and had never had children, 38% had used infertility services, compared with 56% in 1982--a sizable drop.

But this 'may partly reflect the greater delays in childbearing over this time period, such that women in 2006-2010 were more likely to be older than women in 1982 when trying to have their first child, and also more likely to use services beyond age 44,' the CDC said.

Indeed, 23.4% of women aged 40 to 44 who have never had a child have sought medical help to get pregnant.

越来越多的美国女性寻求借助医学来帮助怀孕。

美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control & Prevention)的数据显示,在2006-2010年的调查期间,25-44岁之间的女性大约有12.5%曾经寻求从咨询到人工授精更各类帮助,比例高于1995年的11.2%。

年龄在35-39岁之间生育过一胎或多胎的女性,15.8%寻求过医学帮助,这一比例高于1995年的13.1%。这一年龄段未育女性寻求过医学帮助的比例则由19.1%小幅上升至19.6%。

上述发现来自疾病控制和预防中心2006年6月至2010年6月期间进行的全国家庭增长调查。受访女性超过了12,000人,但是并非所有女性都存在生育问题或者正在设法怀孕。

尽管疾病控制和预防中心的调查在全国范围内具有代表性,但是对于某些人群(举例来说,将近40岁还未生育的女性)可能存在更大的误差,因为这类人的样本量较小。此外疾病控制和预防中心对于“医学帮助怀孕”的定于较为宽泛,从获得建议和不育症的诊断到人工授精都包括在内,这种情况并不多见。

疾病控制和预防中心表示,受过良好教育并且较富有的白人女性更可能使用不孕不育服务。

该机构公布的最新数据凸现了美国最大的人口变化趋势之一带来的影响:美国的中青年人正在推迟生育,一般会推迟到三十来岁或三十五六岁,或者更晚。

疾病控制和预防中心的数据显示,2012年美国女性生育第一胎的平均年龄已经达到了25.8岁,2011年和1970年这一数字分别为25.6岁和21岁上下。研究还发现,避孕方式的改善、女性越来越多地进入职场以及养育孩子的成本上升造成女性推迟生育。

据美国生殖医学会(American Society for Reproductive Medicine)的数据,30多岁的女性生育能力普遍出现下降。

尽管30-34岁年龄段通过外力帮助怀孕的女性比例从1995年的10%仅小幅上升到了11.1%,但是这可能暗示女性正试图将生育年龄进一步推迟到更晚时间。此外上述调查还显示,35-39岁之间寻求医学帮助怀孕的女性比例由14.3%上升至16.4%。

疾病控制和预防中心发现,年龄在25-44岁、存在生育问题并尚未生育的女性中,有38%使用过不孕不育服务,比1982年的56%明显降低。但是这可能在一定程度上反映出这期间女性的生育年龄已经被大大推迟了,例如2006-2010年期间的调查显示,生育第一胎的女性年龄很可能明显晚于1982年时,还有可能在44岁以后使用不孕不育服务。

的确如此,40-44岁尚未生育的女性有23.4%寻求过医学帮助进行怀孕。

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