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冰壶运动的健身革命

更新时间:2014-1-27 14:26:27 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Curlers: They're Not So Fat Anymore
冰壶运动的健身革命

In 1987, two of the finest athletes in the sport of curling arrived at a pre-Olympic camp with high hopes of representing Canada at the 1988 Winter Games. Both had been world champions.

There was but one issue with their bid to reach the pinnacle of international sport: Neither could do a sit-up.

'I mean, we could have, if someone had been holding our feet,' said Paul Savage, one of two curlers sent home by Canadian officials and instructed to lose 20 pounds.

At a time when cigarettes and beer were as much a part of curling as ice and brooms, the very notion of a pre-Olympic physical-conditioning test was controversial. But when curling re-emerges on the world stage in Sochi next month, it will do so in the midst of a fitness revolution.

At the elite level of the sport, which is often likened to chess on ice, curlers increasingly are adopting unorthodox training routines. Weightlifting, for instance, and jogging. They're even watching their diets. At select international competitions, some are eschewing curling's traditional sports drinks, namely lagers and ales.

As a result, the image of the Olympic curler is changing.

'The people playing look like athletes now,' said American curler John Shuster, 31, who will be competing in his third Olympics. 'In the Olympic Village, we used to stick out. Like, 'Oh, there's those curlers.''

The Canadian men's team, which will be favored to win gold in Sochi, is nicknamed the Buff Boys. Two of them recently posed for a 'Men of Curling' calendar. One can bench-press 300 pounds. They work with personal trainers, nutritionists and a sports psychologist and spend over an hour a day in the gym, four to six days a week.

'They're ripped,' said Mike Harris, who won a silver medal for Canada at the 1998 Olympics in Nagano, Japan. 'When I was in Nagano, it was just crazy to think of anyone working that hard.'

On the women's side, the reigning world-champion team is led by 23-year-old Eve Muirhead of Britain, who once walked the runway at a New York fashion show and now spends her days training full-time at the Scottish Institute of Sport. Through social media, competitors around the globe marvel at her team's workout habits.

'The Muirhead team, oh my gosh,' said American curler Debbie McCormick. 'All they tweet about is just pictures in the gym.'

Curling, which surged in popularity during the 2010 Olympics, is one of the world's most social sports. It is considered proper etiquette for the winning team to buy the losing team a round of drinks. The losing team then reciprocates. Sometimes, the winning team re-reciprocates, and back and forth it goes. Curlers are exceedingly polite in this way.

But at the top level of the sport, the fitness boom is putting an end to that tradition. 'It's gotten to the point where it's actually rare, when you're at a high-level event, for two teams to go for a drink afterwards,' said Team Canada's E.J. Harnden, 30. 'The two teams will still sit down, but they'll be sipping a water or having a protein shake.'

The culture change is attributed to the rise of curling as an Olympic sport. After a 56-year absence from the Winter Games, curling returned as a demonstration sport in 1988 and again in 1992, becoming a medal sport in 1998.

The higher stakes brought increased funding from national Olympic committees and corporate sponsors, which has allowed curlers in several countries to become full-time professionals. In the U.S. and Canada, most Olympic curlers still have regular jobs. But even those who must balance training regimens with day jobs are increasingly treating the sport like a profession.

'The Olympics have changed the face of curling,' said Vic Rauter, a longtime Canadian curling broadcaster.

As for curlers looking more athletic, no one would argue that this change is for the worse. But in a sport that evokes shuffleboard more than snowboarding, how much does conditioning matter?

'I would think if you're in reasonable shape, that should be enough,' said Orest Meleschuk, one of the top Canadian curlers of the 1960s and '70s. 'Curling is not a physical game. It's not like a lot of the other sports.'

When he won the world championship in 1972, Meleschuk took his final shot with a lit cigarette dangling from his mouth as he slid onto the ice. This was in an era when multiple ashtrays would be placed alongside the ice so that curlers wouldn't have to walk too far to find one.

Even now, there is some disagreement about the correlation between fitness and winning. 'I don't think the team that's in the best shape is going to be the best team, because there's so much more to curling,' Shuster said. 'It's a lot like golf. (Finesse) is as important or more important than the big muscles.'

But just as Tiger Woods changed the way golfers think about fitness, the success of curlers with athletic-looking physiques has made conditioning fashionable. Among the members of Canada's gold medal-winning men's team in 2010 was a personal trainer who wrote a book on curling-specific workouts.

'Back in the '90s and the early 2000s, you could get away with not being so physically fit, because the people you were competing against weren't either,' said the U.S.'s McCormick, 40, who works out with a personal trainer twice a week. 'You have to evolve with your competitors.'

In a typical game, curlers will walk 2 miles or more. Mentally, workouts can improve focus under pressure. Where strength and endurance play the biggest role is in sweeping, in which two teammates furiously scrub the ice in front of a moving stone to reduce friction and help it travel further. The greater the force a sweeper can exert on the ice, the faster the stone will go.

'The stronger guys are better at it,' said Harris, the former Canadian Olympic medalist. 'I hate to say it.'

1987年,冰壶界的两名优秀运动员抵达奥运选拔训练营,他们两人极有希望代表加拿大出征1988年冬奥会,两人都曾是世界冠军。

在他们抵达国际体育运动之巅的路上,只存在这样一个问题:两个人都做不了仰卧起坐。

其中一位运动员保罗·萨维奇(Paul Savage)说:“我们本来是可以做到的,如果有人按脚的话。”加拿大官员把两人送回了家,要求他们减肥20磅(约合9.1公斤)。

在那个年代,香烟、啤酒在冰壶运动中的地位不亚于冰面和冰刷,所以奥运赛前体能测试这一做法充满了争议。但是,当冰壶运动即将于今年2月份在索契(Sochi)重新登上世界舞台的时候,一场健身革命已经掀起。

冰壶常被比作冰上国际象棋。在这项运动的顶尖级别,运动员们正在越来越多地采用非正统的训练程序,比如举重和慢跑等。他们甚至也在关注自己的饮食。在某些国际赛事中,有些人正在避开冰壶运动的传统运动饮料——贮藏啤酒和浓啤酒。

因此奥运冰壶选手的形象正在变化。

现年31岁的美国冰壶运动员约翰·舒斯特(John Shuster)将是第三次出征奥运会。他说:“现在玩冰壶的人像是运动员了。过去在奥运村我们非常醒目,人们会说‘哦,那些打冰壶的来了’。”

将在索契被寄予夺冠希望的加拿大男子队被戏称为“壮仔队”(Buff Boys)。其中两名队员最近作为模特拍了一本名叫“冰壶男子”(Men of Curling)的日历。一名队员可以仰卧举重300磅(约合136公斤)。他们与私人教练、营养师和一位运动心理学家合作,每周四到六天、每天超过一个小时在健身房锻炼。

曾在1998年日本长野冬奥会上为加拿大拿到一枚银牌的迈克·哈里斯(Mike Harris)说:“他们很健壮。我在长野的时候,根本就不会想到有人会那么艰苦地锻炼。”

在女子冰壶方面,昔日的世界冠军英国队由23岁的伊芙·缪尔黑德(Eve Muirhead)率领。她当过纽约时装秀的T台模特,目前在苏格兰体育学院(Scottish Institute of Sport)接受全日制训练。全世界的竞争对手都通过社交媒体对其团队的锻炼习惯表达了敬佩之情。

美国冰壶运动员黛比·麦考密克(Debbie McCormick)说:“缪尔黑德的队伍,哦天哪,她们在Twitter上发的全是健身房的照片。”

冰壶运动的受欢迎程度在2010年冬奥会上大幅上升,它是世界上社交性最强的运动之一。胜队请败队每人喝一杯被认为是礼节。然后败队要回请。有时候胜队再次回请,就这样请来请去。在这方面冰壶运动员是相当讲礼的。

但在这项运动的最顶层,健身潮流正在给这样的传统画上句号。加拿大队30岁的队员E·J·哈恩登(E.J. Harnden)说:“如果是顶级赛事,两支队伍赛后一起喝酒的事情实际上是很少见的。两支队伍还是会一起聚一聚,但他们喝的会是白水或蛋白质奶昔。”

这种风气的变化被归因于冰壶运动成为奥运会的一个比赛项目。在缺席冬奥会56年后,冰壶在1988年、1992年作为表演项目回归,1998年成为奖牌项目。

更大的利害关系带来了各国奥委会和赞助企业的更多资金支持,使多个国家的冰壶选手得以成为专业脱产运动员。美国和加拿大的大部分奥运冰壶选手仍有日常的工作。但即便是这些必须在强化训练与日常工作之间掌握好平衡的人,也在越来越多地把冰壶运动当作一份职业来对待。

加拿大资深冰壶播音员维克·劳特(Vic Rauter)说:“奥运会改变了冰壶的面貌。”

在让冰壶选手更像运动员这方面,没有谁会认为这种改变是一件坏事。但在一项更像推圆盘游戏而非滑雪的运动中,健身训练到底有多重要?

60年代、70年代加拿大最优秀的冰壶选手之一奥雷斯特·梅里斯查克(Orest Meleschuk)说:“依我之见,身材过得去就行了。冰壶不是体力对抗赛,跟其他很多运动都不一样。”

1972年赢得世界冠军的时候,梅里斯查克嘴里叼着一根点燃的香烟滑向冰面,完成了最后一击。在那个年代,冰面旁边会放上多个烟灰缸,这样冰壶选手们不必走太远就能找到一个。

即便是现在,有关健身与赢得比赛之间的关联也存在一定的争议。舒斯特说:“我并不认为身材最好的团队就会成为最佳团队,因为打冰壶还涉及好多东西。它跟高尔夫很像。技巧的重要性不输于、甚至是高于大块肌肉的重要性。”

但是,就像老虎伍兹(Tiger Woods)改变了高尔夫球手对健身的看法一样,具有运动员体格的冰壶选手取得成功,也使健身变得时髦起来。在2010年摘得金牌的加拿大男子冰壶队当中,有一名队员是私人健身教练,他曾就专门针对冰壶运动的锻炼方法写过一本书。

现年40岁的美国冰壶选手麦考密克每个星期同一位私人教练一起锻炼两次。她说:“90年代到新世纪初的时候,身体没那么棒也可以,因为你对手的身体也没那么棒。现在你得跟对手一起与时俱进。”

通常在一场冰壶比赛中,冰壶选手的行走路程都不会低于两英里(约合3.22公里)。在精神方面,锻炼可以提升压力下的专注力。力量和耐力发挥作用最大的地方是在刷冰过程中。刷冰是指两名队友奋力擦拭移动的冰壶前面的冰面,以减少摩擦,使之走得更远。刷冰者在冰面上用力越大,冰壶就会走得越快。

前述银牌得主哈里斯说:“越强壮的人越擅长。很遗憾,事实就是这样。”

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