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美国报告称香烟与更多疾病相关

更新时间:2014-1-19 20:19:12 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Cigarettes Tied To More Deaths, Types Of Illness
美国报告称香烟与更多疾病相关

Cigarettes are deadlier and linked to more diseases than previously thought, according to a new report from the U.S. surgeon general being released 50 years after the government first warned that smoking kills.

In the report to be released Friday, the nation's top doctor warned that smoking is linked to the deaths of about 480,000 Americans annually. That's a substantial increase over the government's previous estimate of 443,000 deaths, despite the fact that fewer Americans are lighting up and those who do smoke are lighting up less often.

Cigarettes are a causal factor in 10 diseases and conditions they hadn't previously been definitively linked to, including diabetes, colorectal cancer, arthritis and erectile dysfunction, the report said -- bringing the total number to more than 30.

In 1964, a landmark surgeon general report pinpointed smoking as a cause of lung and laryngeal cancers as well as bronchitis. That report precipitated warnings on cigarette packs, advertising bans and other regulations. Since then, such restrictions have contributed to a decline in U.S. smoking rates, though the pace has slowed in recent years. An estimated 18.1% of U.S. adults smoked in 2012, down from 42% in 1965.

Friday's report suggests the design and composition of today's cigarette is more dangerous than the 1950s equivalent because of the introduction of ventilated filters and rising levels of cancer-causing chemicals in recent decades. Cigarettes with ventilated filters were initially marketed as safer, though smokers tend to cover up the filters and inhale more deeply, pushing toxins farther into the lungs.

'I think they are more harmful today. We're certainly worried,' Surgeon General Boris Lushniak said in an interview.

Spokesmen at Marlboro maker Altria Group Inc. and Camel maker Reynolds American Inc., which together sell about three of four U.S. cigarettes, reiterated that no cigarettes are safe. They declined to comment on whether current cigarettes are more dangerous than those from half a century ago.

While American smokers have more tobacco-cessation products and alternatives such as electronic cigarettes to help them kick the habit, they aren't being encouraged to quit smoking as aggressively as they once were because funding for antismoking campaigns has declined, public health officials say.

The report estimates the U.S. smoking rate could still be as high as 15% in 2050 based on recent trends, above the government's 2020 target of 12%. It says 5.6 million Americans currently younger than 18 would die prematurely from smoking, adding to the more than 20 million early deaths linked to smoking in the past 50 years.

'We haven't been investing in tobacco control adequately,' Tom Frieden, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said in an interview.

For the first time, secondhand smoke was cited as a cause of stroke, increasing risk by between 20% and 30%, according to the report.

The report said the risk of lung cancer, the nation's most common cancer killer, has skyrocketed in the past half century for smokers. For male smokers, risk of lung cancer was 25 times that of nonsmoking peers, up from 12.2 in 1959, according to cited studies by the American Cancer Society. For women who smoke, the divergence is even starker, with lung-cancer risk 25.7 times that of nonsmokers, up from 2.7.

The surgeon general said there is sufficient evidence that the rise in lung-cancer incidence was caused by changes in the design and composition of cigarettes since the 1950s. The government increasingly believes that perforated filters and increased levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines 'have played a role,' the report added.

In the 1970s, tobacco companies began marketing 'light' or 'mild' cigarettes that typically featured ventilated filters and often contained less nicotine.

Machine tests indicated they were less harmful because the holes allowed air to dilute the tobacco smoke. But researchers say in practice, smokers cover the holes with their mouth or fingers.

Tobacco companies, which marketed them as less harmful, have been prohibited from labeling cigarettes as light or mild since 2010. But they remain hugely popular under different names. Top-selling Marlboro Light is now called Marlboro Gold and Camel Light cigarettes are now sold as Camel Blue.

美国卫生局长发布的一份新报告显示,香烟比人们之前认为的更加致命,并与更多疾病相关。50年前美国政府首次发出了吸烟危害生命的警告。

美国顶级医生在这份将于周五发布的报告中警告说,美国每年与吸烟有关的死亡人数约为48万。这远高于政府此前估计的44.3万人,尽管美国的烟民人数已经减少,而且吸烟者的吸烟频率也降低了。

报告说,被确定以香烟为致病因素之一的疾病和症状又增加了10种,其中包括糖尿病、结肠直肠癌、关节炎和勃起功能障碍,从而使与香烟有关的疾病总数超过30种。新增的这10种疾病之前并未被认为明确与吸烟有关。

1964年出自卫生局局长的一份里程碑式的报告明确将吸烟列为引发肺癌、喉癌以及支气管炎的一个原因。这份报告推动了香烟盒加印警告和广告禁令等监管规定的诞生。自那以来,此类限制措施推动了美国吸烟率的下降,但近年来下降速度有所放缓。2012年美国成人吸烟率已从1965年的42%降至18.1%。

周五的报告显示,如今的香烟在设计和成分上都比上世纪50年代要更具危险性,原因是近几十年来采用了通风滤嘴,而且致癌化学成分含量上升。使用通风滤嘴的香烟最初在推广时都打着更为安全的旗号,但吸烟者倾向于盖住滤嘴,更深地吸入,进而将有毒物更深地吸入肺中。

卫生局长Boris Lushniak在接受采访时说,我认为现在的香烟危害更大了,我们确实感到担忧。

万宝路(Marlboro)制造商奥驰亚集团(Altria Group Inc.)的发言人以及骆驼(Camel)的制造商Reynolds American Inc.重申,没有一种香烟是安全的。美国每四支香烟中有三支是这两家公司出售的。对于目前的香烟是否比半个世纪前更具危险性的问题,他们未予置评。

公共卫生官员说,尽管美国烟民有更多的戒烟产品和香烟替代品(比如电子香烟)来帮助他们戒烟,但反吸烟运动由于资金支持减少宣传力度已不如从前。

报告估计,基于当前的趋势来看,到2050年美国吸烟率可能仍将高居于15%,高于政府2020年的目标12%。报告称,吸烟将导致560万目前不满18岁的美国人过早死亡,过去50年与吸烟有关的过早死亡人数已超过2,000万人。

美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)的负责人弗里登(Tom Frieden)在一次采访中说,我们对烟草控制的投入一直不足。

报道称,二手烟首次被认为是引发中风的一个原因,使中风发病风险上升20%-30%。

报告称,过去半个世纪吸烟者患肺癌(美国最常见的癌症杀手)的风险已经大幅上升。据美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)引述的研究报告,男性吸烟者患肺癌的风险是不吸烟男性的25倍,1959年是12.2倍。女性吸烟者患肺癌的风险是不吸烟女性的25.7倍,1959年是2.7倍。

卫生局长说,有足够证据证明肺癌发病率的上升是香烟设计和成分自上世纪50年代以来的变化所致。报告称,政府越来越相信使用多孔滤嘴和烟草特有亚硝胺水平的上升造成了一定影响。

上世纪70年代烟草公司开始推广“淡味”或者“柔和”香烟,这些香烟通常使用通风滤嘴,并且含有更少的尼古丁。

机器测试显示,这些香烟危害更小,因为这种滤嘴的孔会把空气引入,从而稀释烟雾。但研究者说,实际上,吸烟者的嘴或者手指会盖住这些孔。

自2010年以来,那些曾在这些香烟的推广中打着危害更低旗号的烟草公司,已被禁止给香烟贴上淡味或者柔和的标签,但这类香烟换个名仍极受欢迎。最畅销的特醇万宝路(Marlboro Light)现在名为金装万宝路(Marlboro Gold),特醇骆驼(Camel Light)现在名为骆驼(蓝)(Camel Blue)。

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