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新生儿服用益生菌似有助降低肠绞痛发生率

更新时间:2014-1-15 20:35:07 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Probiotic Given to Newborns Appears to Help Prevent Colic
新生儿服用益生菌似有助降低肠绞痛发生率

Introducing healthy bacteria to the gut of newborns appears to decrease their likelihood of developing colic, according to a study published Monday, the latest showing probiotics' beneficial effect on the condition.

The research is thought to be the first to examine whether giving 'good' micro-organisms to infants could prevent the development of what is known as functional gastrointestinal disease, which includes colic, regurgitation and constipation.

Colic, characterized by lengthy crying, is believed to be related to digestive problems and sometimes likened to an infant form of irritable bowel syndrome. The condition has long been a source of anxiety for new parents, who are often driven to try all types of home remedies to soothe their babies in the absence of any medicines indicated for the treatment of colic. A recent study found that as many as 20% of infants suffer from colic in their first three months of life.

In the study published Monday, scientists from Aldo Moro University in Bari, Italy, had parents administer five drops of a solution containing Lactobacillus reuteri, a bacterium well-studied for its health effects, or a placebo to 589 healthy infants daily for the first 90 days of life.

At three months, the babies who received the probiotic exhibited significantly reduced crying time--an average of 38 minutes versus 71 minutes of inconsolable crying per day--fewer spit-ups and more bowel movements, which signaled less constipation, according to Flavia Indrio, a pediatrics professor at the university and the lead author on the study. The research was published Monday in JAMA Pediatrics, a journal of the American Medical Association.

Previous studies, including one of Dr. Indrio's, have found that Lactobacillus reuteri appears to help with colic, but haven't looked at ways to prevent it. Scientists and industry also are studying whether probiotics can be helpful in treating a number of conditions, including allergies, cholesterol and the common cold.

Early intervention in babies' gastrointestinal problems may be important not just for infants' well-being but also health at older ages. Research has found that colic symptoms and development of other gastrointestinal diseases later in life appear to be linked. There have been no reports of adverse events so far in human Lactobacillus reuteri studies.

The latest work, considered the largest human study of probiotics on colic to date, is 'very well done' and the results are encouraging, according to Bruno Chumpitazi, a professor in the department of pediatrics at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, who wasn't involved in the research but wrote an editorial to accompany the study. The long-term effects of the bacterium on health are still unknown and need to be studied, he said.

Colonies of Lactobacillus reuteri appear to reduce intestinal inflammation, improve movement in the intestines and lessen sensitivity to pain, according to Dr. Indrio, but more research is needed to understand exactly what the bacterium does in the body, she and other experts say. Dr. Indrio plans to follow the cohort of infants to study their rates of irritable bowel syndrome and gastrointestinal disorders at older ages.

By intervening early or even preventing the start of gastrointestinal distress in infancy, the path of disease development may be changed. 'Maybe the intestine and the brain have a different script to follow,' said Dr. Indrio.

周一发布的一份研究结果显示,向新生儿肠道引入益生菌似乎可以降低他们发生肠绞痛的几率。这是显示益生菌有助缓解肠绞痛的最新研究结果。

该研究被认为是首次检验新生儿服用益生菌能否预防功能性肠胃病发生的研究,功能性肠胃病包括肠绞痛、返流和便秘。

肠绞痛被认为与消化问题有关,有时被解释为婴儿的肠易激综合征,往往伴随新生儿的长时间哭闹。这种状况一直是新生儿父母焦虑的原因,在没有针对性治疗药物的情况下,新生儿父母经常用尽所有办法来安抚婴儿。最近的一份研究发现,多达20%的婴儿在出生后的头三个月会遭受肠绞痛。

周一发布的研究显示,来自意大利巴里阿尔多•莫罗大学(Aldo Moro University)的科学家让589名健康婴儿的父母在他们孩子出生后的头三个月每日给孩子服用五滴包含罗伊氏乳杆菌的滴剂或者安慰剂。罗伊氏乳杆菌对健康的影响已经经过充分研究。

据该研究的主要作者阿尔多•莫罗大学儿科教授弗拉维亚•因德里奥(Flavia Indrio)称,
在头三个月,服用了益生菌的婴儿的哭闹时间大大减少,每天难以安抚的哭闹时间平均从71分钟降至38分钟,吐奶次数减少,同时肠蠕动增加,这意味着便秘情况减少。这份研究报告周一刊登在美国医学协会(American Medical Association)的期刊《JAMA Pediatrics》上。

此前的研究(包括因德里奥的一项研究)已经发现,罗伊氏乳杆菌似乎有助于缓解肠绞痛,但还没有研究预防肠绞痛的方法。科学家和医学界还正在研究益生菌是否有助于治疗一系列疾病,包括过敏、高胆固醇和感冒。

对婴儿肠胃问题的早期干预可能不仅对婴儿的健康有好处,而且对他们长大后的健康也非常重要。研究发现,肠绞痛症状和长大后发生的其他胃肠疾病似乎有关联。截至目前人类对罗伊氏乳杆菌的研究还没有出现有关不良事件的报道。

休斯顿贝勒医学院(Baylor College of Medicine)儿科系教授Bruno Chumpitazi称,最新的研究做的非常好,结果令人鼓舞。该研究被认为是迄今为止人类对益生菌缓解肠绞痛进行的最大规模的研究,Chumpitazi没有参与该研究但为研究报告撰写了一篇评论。他称,益生菌对健康的长期作用仍是未知的,还需要进行研究。

因德里奥说,罗伊氏乳杆菌菌群似乎降低了肠炎的发生率、改善了肠道运动并缓解了疼痛,但她和其他专家表示,还需要进行更多研究来了解益生菌在人体中到底做了什么。因德里奥计划继续追踪这些婴儿以便研究他们在长大后肠道易激综合症和肠胃紊乱的发生率。

早期干预甚至在婴儿期防止胃肠痛的发生可能会改变这些疾病的发展轨迹。因德里奥说,也许肠道和大脑会因此发生改变。

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