您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 华尔街日报中英文版 >> 医疗 >> 正文

感冒时应该吃什么?

更新时间:2013-12-20 20:56:40 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

What Should You Feed A Cold?
感冒时应该吃什么?

The sneezing. The coughing. The lethargy. It's enough to make a cold sufferer's appetite disappear completely. Studies show that certain foods can help alleviate the symptoms of a common cold-and sometimes shorten its duration. One expert, Sharon Horesh Bergquist, assistant professor at Emory School of Medicine and a primary-care physician with a specialty in internal medicine at Emory Healthcare, offers her take on what to eat and what to avoid.

打喷嚏,咳嗽,无精打采,这些足以让一位感冒患者胃口全无。研究显示,某些食品可以帮助缓解普通感冒症状,有时还可以缩短病程。埃默里大学医学院(Emory School of Medicine)助理教授、埃默里医疗集团(Emory Healthcare)内科初级治疗医师伯奎斯特(Sharon Horesh Bergquist)是这方面的专家。她提供了有关感冒饮食和禁忌的建议。

Dairy Decoded

为乳制品平反

The most common misconception about a cold, says Dr. Bergquist, is that dairy should be avoided because it increases mucus production. The belief likely hails, she says, from the fact that when saliva comes into contact with any high-fat drink, it can mimic mucus.

伯奎斯特说,对感冒最常见的一个错误观念是应该避免食用乳制品,因为乳制品会使粘液分泌增多。她说,这种观念可能来源于这样一个事实:当唾液与任何高脂饮料接触时,都会产生类似于粘液的感觉。

Australian scientists debunked that assumption in a series of 1990s studies where they gave hundreds of common-cold patients either cow's milk or soy milk, and found no difference in mucus production between the two groups.

在上世纪90年代的一系列研究中,几位澳大利亚科学家驳斥了这一说法。在研究中,他们让数百名普通感冒患者饮用牛奶或豆奶,结果发现两组患者粘液分泌量没有差异。

A body needs hydration when it is sick, says Dr. Bergquist. 'So if your beverage of choice is a latté, that counts as hydration.'

伯奎斯特说,人生病时需要多喝水。如果你选择的饮料是拿铁,那也可以算作是在补水。

Cocktail as Cure?

鸡尾酒治感冒?

Just make sure the latté is decaf, since any diuretic, such as caffeine, can promote dehydration, which usually worsens a cold. 'When you're hydrated, your mucus membranes are lubricated, which will help you feel better,' says Dr. Bergquist.

只要确保拿铁是无咖啡因的,因为咖啡因等利尿剂都能促进脱水,而脱水通常会令感冒加重。伯奎斯特说,当你水分充足时,你的粘膜是润滑的,这会让你感觉舒服些。

She puts alcohol, also a diuretic, in a 'mixed' category. 'Mild inebriation can cause pain relief...hence the hot toddy and brandy cure,' she says. But while liquor may temporarily relieve symptoms, it, too, can cause dehydration.

她把同样有利尿效果的酒类归为“作用好坏参半”一类。她说,微醉能够缓解疼痛……所以热棕榈酒和白兰地有治疗效果。但尽管酒类可能暂时缓解症状,它也能导致脱水。

'Mom's Penicillin'

妈妈的盘尼西林

Chicken soup may have benefits even beyond the hot liquid and vapors that open sinuses and lubricate mucus membranes. Studies suggest that the chicken and vegetables themselves inhibit the mobilization of neutrophils, immune cells that are the main culprit in causing inflammatory symptoms like stuffy nose and aching bones, says Dr. Bergquist.

鸡汤可能还有别的好处,而不止是热热的液体和蒸汽可以打开鼻窦,润滑粘膜。伯奎斯特说,研究表明,鸡肉和蔬菜本身可以阻止中性粒细胞的移动。中性粒细胞是一种免疫细胞,是导致鼻塞和骨头酸痛等炎症的罪魁祸首。

Spices, especially pungent ones like hot peppers, can also help open sinus passages and provide short-term relief. But no one spice has been scientifically proven better than any other, says Dr. Bergquist.

辣椒等尤其辛辣的调味料也能帮助打开窦道,提供短期的缓解。伯奎斯特说,但科学上还没有证明有哪一种调味料是最好的。

Go Steady on the C

定期服用维生素C

According to the most recent review of studies on vitamin C and colds, Dr. Bergquist says, scientists find that people who regularly take 200 milligrams a day of the vitamin can decrease the severity and duration of a cold by continuing to take that high dose. (Starting vitamin C after the cold's onset doesn't provide the same benefit.) To maintain a steady level in your system, she says, 'it's reasonable to drink a glass of orange juice every day during cold season.'

伯奎斯特说,据对有关维生素C和感冒的研究进行的最新回顾显示,科学家们发现,每日定期服用200毫克维生素C的人,若在感冒后持续服用这样高剂量的维生素C,能够降低感冒的严重程度,缩短病程。(感冒后才开始服用维生素C则不会带来这样的好处。)她说,为保持体内有一个稳定的维生素C水平,在感冒高发季每天喝一杯橙汁是适宜的。

Zinc is a bit more controversial, 'largely because the studies are not high quality,' she says. A recent meta-review of research showed that taking zinc within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms can reduce the duration-but not the severity-of a cold by one day.

她说,锌则更为有争议,主要是因为有关锌的作用的研究质量不高。最近对研究的荟萃分析显示,出现感冒症状24小时内服用锌,能够将病程缩短一天,但不会减轻感冒的严重程度。

'However, the dose that is the most studied is 75 mg or greater, and you'd have to take that daily throughout the duration of the cold, which is very hard to get through food,' says Dr. Bergquist. You'd need to eat 12 oysters, 2 racks of ribs, 10 cups of cashews or 12 cups of chocolate, she says.

伯奎斯特说,不过,研究最多的剂量是75毫克及以上,而且你必须在患感冒的整个期间每天服用这个剂量的锌,锌很难通过饮食获得。她说,你需要吃掉12只蚝,2大块排骨,10杯腰果或2杯巧克力,才能获得所需剂量的锌。

A zinc lozenge is the way to go, but only for short spans; studies show that long-term zinc megadoses can cause copper deficiency.

可以服用锌锭,但仅限短时间内;研究显示,长期大剂量的服用锌会导致缺铜。

本文版权归道琼斯公司所有,未经许可不得翻译或转载。

相关文章列表