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排名与解雇:考核不应如此草率

更新时间:2013-11-27 12:08:23 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

'Rank-and-Yank'? That's Not How It's Done
排名与解雇:考核不应如此草率

Every now and again-like just this week, for instance, with the announcement that Microsoft will be changing its performance-appraisal system-some news event unleashes a fresh round of debate about the management practice dubbed 'rank-and-yank.' That's the term used to describe how companies supposedly identify their worst performers once a year and then, boom, fire them.

每隔一阵子,就会有新闻事件——比如上周微软(Microsoft)宣布将改革其绩效考核制度——引发新一轮对一种名为“排名与解雇”(rank-and-yank)的管理方法的争议。这个词被用于描述企业一年一度挑出业绩最差的员工,然后突然把他们炒掉的做法。

It makes me want to scream. And I know I'm not alone.

这种做法让我想大声尖叫,我知道我不是唯一一个想这么做的人。

Because most experienced businesspeople know that 'rank-and-yank' is a media-invented, politicized, sledgehammer of a pejorative that perpetuates a myth about a powerfully effective real practice called (more appropriately) differentiation.

这是因为,大多数阅历丰富的商界人士都知道,“排名与解雇”是一个由媒体创造出来、政治化且极具贬义的词。它使一个对某种效力强大的切实做法的谬见持续流传下去,这个做法被(更适当地)称为差异化。

Unlike 'rank-and-yank'-I hate even using that term-differentiation isn't about corporate plots, secrecy or purges. It's about building great teams and great companies through consistency, transparency and candor. It's about aligning performance with the organization's mission and values. It's about making sure that all employees know where they stand. Differentiation is nuanced, humane, and occasionally complex, and it has been used successfully by companies for decades. Maybe that's not as headline-worthy as you-know-what, but reality rarely is.

与“排名与解雇”不同——使用这个词都让我觉得讨厌——差异化与公司阴谋、秘密和大清洗无关。它的目的是通过一致性、透明度和坦诚来打造优秀的团队和卓越的企业;将员工绩效与企业的使命和价值观结合起来;而且要确保所有员工都知道他们的排名。差异化是细致入微的、人性化的,而且有时还是错综复杂的,它已经被众多企业成功地运用了数十年。它或许不像那个东西那么有新闻价值,但事实都是鲜有新闻价值的。

Speaking of reality, here's a quick description of how differentiation works, including a look at the most common criticisms of it.

说到事实,下文简略介绍了差异化的操作方式,以及对它最常见的批评意见。

Differentiation starts with communication-exhaustive communication-of a company's mission (where it's going) and its values (the behaviors that are going to get it there). I'm not talking about putting a plaque on the lobby wall with the usual generic gobbledygook. I'm talking about a company's leaders being so specific, granular, and vivid about mission and values that employees could recite them in their sleep.

差异化始于对企业使命(它的发展目标)及其价值观(把它带到目的地的行为准则)的传达——详尽无遗的传达。我并不是说要在大厅的 上挂上一块牌子,上面写着寻常那种泛泛的官话。我要表达的是,企业的领导者要极其具体、细致和生动地阐述企业的使命与价值观,让员工在睡梦中都能脱口说出它们。

Why? Because the 'guts' of the differentiation management system are performance appraisals that candidly evaluate employees at least once (and preferably twice) a year on how their results are advancing the company's goals and how well they're demonstrating its values. Two points here:

为什么呢?因为差异化管理制度的“精髓”是每年至少一次(最好是两次)坦诚地评估员工表现的绩效考核方法,它包括考核员工的业绩在推进公司目标方面的表现以及他们在展示公司价值观方面的表现。这里有两点要注意:

First, candor is absolutely essential to make differentiation work. Second, differentiation's performance appraisals are not-I repeat, are not-just about 'the numbers.' Yes, the system does assess quantitative results-say, an employee's sales numbers or inventory turns. But it also looks just as carefully at behaviors, the qualitative factors. Does this person embrace the company value of sharing ideas? Does the employee relish building leaders? What about going the extra mile to delight customers?

首先,坦诚是使差异化考核起作用绝对不可或缺的因素。其次,在这里我要重申,差异化的绩效考核制度不只是与“数据”有关。没错,该制度确实要评估量化成绩,比如说员工的销售数据或库存周转数据。不过,它同样也细致地评估员工的行为,即质的因素。例如,这个人接受公司共享创意的价值观吗?该员工是不是助领导者为乐?付出更多努力让客户满意方面做得如何呢?

Now, one of the most common criticisms of differentiation is that it destroys teamwork. Nonsense. If you want teamwork, you identify it as a value. Then you evaluate and reward people accordingly. You'll get teamwork, I guarantee it.

目前,对差异化最常见的批评是它会毁掉团队精神。这是无稽之谈。如果你想要团队精神,那你就把它确定为一个价值观,然后据此评估和奖励员工。我保证,你会看到团队精神的。

Another criticism of differentiation is that it requires managers to let every employee know where he or she stands-how they're doing today, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and what their future with the company looks like. Are they a star in terms of both results and values (say, in the top 20% of the team), about average (say, about 70%), or not up to expectations (the bottom 10%)? Note: The 20-70-10 distribution is not set in stone. Some companies use A, B, and C grades, and there are other approaches as well.

另一个对差异化的批评是,它要求管理层要让每名员工都知道自己绩效的排名——目前他们在量和质方面的表现如何,以及他们在公司的前途如何。他们在业绩和价值观这两方面都表现超群吗(也就是说高居团队的前20%),还是大约处于一般水平(比如,约处于前70%)或不符合期望(最低的10%)。请注意:20-70-10的比例分配并非固定不变的。有些企业采用了分A、B、C三级的方式及其他分级方法。

Without a doubt, some companies use differentiation but leave this 'grading' part out. Indeed, over the past 12 years, I've spoken to more than 500,000 people around the world and I always ask audiences, 'How many of you know where you stand in your organization?' Typically, no more than 10% raise their hands. That's criminal! As a manager, you owe candor to your people. They must not be guessing about what the organization thinks of them. My experience is that most employees appreciate this reality check, and today's 'Millennials' practically demand it.

毫无疑问,有些企业采用了差异化制度但未采用“评级”这一方法。确实,在过去12年间,我与遍布全球的逾500,000人进行了交谈,我一直会问他们的问题是,“你们当中有多少人知道自己在公司的排名?”通常的情况是,只有不超过10%的人表示知道。这真是罪过!作为管理者,你应当坦诚对待你的下属。他们不应去猜测公司对自己的看法。依据我的经验,大多数员工会感谢这种现实检验,现如今的“千禧一代”事实上还会做此要求。

Yes, I realize that some believe the bell-curve aspect of differentiation is 'cruel.' That always strikes me as odd. We grade children in school, often as young as 9 or 10, and no one calls that cruel. But somehow adults can't take it? Explain that one to me.

是的,我了解有些人认为差异化考核中的钟形曲线比较“残酷”。我一直觉得这个观点很奇怪。在学校中,我们会给只有九岁或10岁大的孩子排名,但没有人认为这种做法残酷。但是为什么有些成年人就接受不了它呢?请和我说说为什么。

The final component that makes differentiation work so effectively is feedback and coaching. Your stars know they are loved and rarely leave. Those in the middle 70% know that they are appreciated, and they receive clear guidance about how to improve their performance. And the bottom 10% is never surprised when the conversation sometimes turns, after a year of candid appraisals, to moving on. No, they are not summarily shown the door. When differentiation is done right, their manager helps them find their next job with compassion and respect.

促使差异化高效发挥作用的最后一个因素是反馈与指导。表现超群的员工知道他们非常受公司器重,所以极少会离开。处于中间70%的人知道他们受到认可,接下去他们要受到有关如何提高自己绩效的明确指导。至于那表现最差的10%,经过一年坦诚的评估之后,有时在要求他们离开的谈话到来时,他们也绝不会惊讶。是的,他们不应被草率地打发走。如果差异化操作得当,他们的上司还能以同情心和尊重帮助他们找到下一份工作。

Differentiation is not something to be feared, dumbed down or politicized, but instead needs to be understood and implemented. Cruel? No way. Harsh? Just the opposite. With its candor and transparency, differentiation provides dignity, develops future leaders, and creates winning companies.

差异化并非大家要惧怕、简化或政治化的事物,它需要我们去理解和执行。残酷?绝非如此。严苛?正好相反。它坦率而透明,给人以尊严,有助于培养未来的领导者和打造成功的企业。

本文版权归道琼斯公司所有,未经许可不得翻译或转载。

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