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小心!老板正在监视你!

更新时间:2013-11-22 0:26:56 来源:华尔街日报中文网 作者:佚名

Memo to Workers: The Boss Is Watching
小心!老板正在监视你!

Dennis Gray suspected that workers in his pest-control company were spending too much time on personal issues during the workday. So the general manager of Accurid Pest Solutions in southern Virginia quietly installed a piece of GPS tracking software on the company-issued smartphones of five of its 18 drivers.

丹尼斯·格雷(Dennis Gray)是弗吉尼亚州南部害虫防治公司Accurid Pest Solutions的总经理。他怀疑员工工作时间在私事上花了太多的时间,于是他从18名司机中选了五个人,悄悄在公司发给他们的智能手机上安装了一款GPS追踪软件。

The software allowed Mr. Gray to log onto his computer to see a map displaying the location and movement of his staff. One employee, he discovered, was visiting the same address a few times a week for a few hours during the workday. At that point, Mr. Gray told the driver he was being tracked.

格雷用这款软件可以登录自己的电脑查看显示员工位置和行踪的地图。他发现,有一名员工每周在工作时间都会去同一个地方好几次,每次都会待好几个小时。随后格雷告诉这名司机他正在被追踪。

The employee confessed he was meeting a woman during work hours. Another driver admitted he was blowing off work. Both men were let go. 'We were certainly impressed with the software,' said Mr. Gray.

这名员工承认他在工作时间去见一个女人。另一名司机承认他在工作时间偷懒。两个人都被开除了。格雷说:“这款软件确实让我们很震撼。”

Blue-collar workers have always been kept on a tight leash, but there is a new level of surveillance available to bosses these days. Thanks to mobile devices and inexpensive monitoring software, managers can now know where workers are, eavesdrop on their phone calls, tell if a truck driver is wearing his seat belt and intervene if he is tailgating.

蓝领工人一向都被管得很紧,而现在又有了新的监督手段供老板们使用。有了移动设备以及便宜的监测软件,经理们现在可以掌握员工的去向,窃听他们的手机,可以知道卡车司机是不是系了安全带,并在他紧跟前车行驶的时候及时进行干涉。

'Twenty-five years ago this was pipe dream stuff,' said Paul Sangster, CEO of JouBeh Technologies, a Canadian company that develops tracking, or 'telematics,' technology for businesses. 'Now it is commonly accepted that you are being tracked.'

JouBeh Technologies是加拿大一家专门为企业开发追踪或“远程信息”技术的公司。首席执行长保罗·桑斯特(Paul Sangster)说:“25年前这是不可想象的事情。现在人们对受到监控都普遍接受了。”

Office workers have come to expect that their every keystroke is tracked on a server somewhere, but monitoring for hourly and wage workers has long been limited to video cameras in the break room and GPS on delivery trucks. Companies are now watching a wider swath of blue-collar workers more closely to ensure work is getting done.

办公室职员已经默认自己的键盘动作会受到某个地方一台服务器的监控,但领取时薪和周薪的蓝领雇员向来只是在休息室受到视频监控以及在运货卡车上受到GPS追踪。各公司现在正对更多的蓝领工人展开更为密切的监控,以确保工作进度。

A 2012 report from research firm Aberdeen Group found that 37% of companies that send employees out on service calls track the real-time location of workers via their hand-held devices or vehicles.

研究公司Aberdeen Group 2012年的一份报告指出,将员工派出服务的公司中,有37%的公司通过员工的手持设备或交通工具实时追踪员工的位置。

High-tech monitoring feels like a violation of privacy to some workers, but employers say such measures improve workplace safety and productivity while also helping to reduce theft, protect secrets and investigate harassment or discrimination claims, among other things.

对有些员工来说,高科技监控感觉像是对隐私的侵犯,但雇主们说这种措施会改善工作场所的安全性和工作效率,同时有助于减少偷窃、保护秘密以及调查性骚扰或歧视指控等。

Workplace tracking technology is largely unregulated, and courts have found that employees have few rights to privacy on the job.

工作场合的监控技术基本未受到监管,法庭已经发现员工在工作中很少有隐私权。

No federal statutes restrict the use of GPS by employers, nor force them to disclose whether they are using it. Only two states, Delaware and Connecticut, require employers to tell workers that their electronic communications--anything from emails to instant messages to texts--are being monitored.

没有联邦法规限制雇主对GPS的使用,也没有强制他们披露是否在使用GPS。只有特拉华和康涅狄格两个州要求雇主告知员工他们的电子通信──包括从电子邮件到即时消息到短信在内的所有通信──是否受到了公司监控。

'It's not a question of whether companies should monitor,' said Lewis Maltby, founder of the National Workrights Institute, which promotes employee privacy. 'It's a question of how.'

职工隐私维权组织美国工作权利学会(National Workrights Institute)创始人刘易斯·莫尔特比(Lewis Maltby)说:“问题并不在于公司是否应该监控,而是该如何监控。”

His group advises companies to clearly explain how workers are watched and set procedures for monitoring of workers suspected of misdeeds.

该学会建议公司清楚地解释员工是如何被监控的,并为监控有不良行为嫌疑的员工制定规程。

Though companies say monitoring isn't solely used for discipline, that is often exactly what they are doing, Mr. Maltby added. 'Employers suspect that some of their field service workers are goofing off and they want to catch them,' he said.

莫尔特比还说,尽管公司纷纷表示监控并不只是为了纪律,但通常他们就是这么做的。他说:“雇主怀疑有些现场服务职员在偷懒,他们想抓住这些偷懒的人。”

Last year, Jane Rodgers, finance manager of Plants Inc., a Chicago business that provides interior landscaping services to homes and workplaces, bought a mobile monitoring program from Awareness Technologies to keep watch over employees who work mostly outside the office.

Plants Inc.是芝加哥一家专为家庭和公司提供室内景观服务的公司。去年,该公司财务经理简·罗杰斯(Jane Rodgers)从Awareness Technologies购买了一款手机监控程序,以监控大多数时间不在办公室工作的员工。

She installed the software on the company-issued phones of nine of its 16 employees.

她从16名员工中选了八个人,将该软件安装在了公司发给他们的手机上。

While she has the capability of viewing any photo, text message, or email sent over company phones, along with call logs and website visits, she said she uses only the geolocation tracking feature--and turns to it only when customers raise questions.

虽然她可以查看任何通过公司手机发送的图片、短信或电子邮件,还有通话记录和网站浏览记录,但她说她只使用地理位置跟踪功能──并且只在顾客提出问题时才会用。

She also advised her workers to turn off their work phones at night if they didn't want her to know their whereabouts.

她还建议员工如果晚上不想让她知道自己行踪的话就关掉工作手机。

One Plants customer recently called to ask if a technician had visited the client. Ms. Rodgers pulled up the program and saw that the employee was at the site between 10 a.m. and 10:30 a.m.

最近一名顾客打电话询问一位技师是否去了客户那里。罗杰斯打开程序,发现这名员工在上午10点和十点半之间在那里。

'You feel more confident,' she said. 'You want to find out who the troublemakers are.'

她说:“你会觉得更有信心。你会想找出惹麻烦的人是谁。”

Rockwell Vance, a Plants Inc. technician, didn't think much about Ms. Rodgers's monitoring efforts, but said some of his co-workers felt their privacy was invaded.

该公司技师罗克韦尔·万斯(Rockwell Vance)对罗杰斯的监控措施并没有多想,但他说有些同事觉得隐私遭到了侵犯。

Telematics goes beyond GPS tracking, which was pioneered by the trucking and logistics industries decades ago; now, the latest software can, say, decelerate a truck if a driver fails to take action if a rig gets too close to another vehicle.

远程信息监控不仅仅是GPS追踪,GPS追踪是卡车和物流行业在几十年前最先应用的。如今,最新的软件功能很强大,比如如果一辆卡车离另一辆车太近时司机不采取行动的话,软件可以让卡车减速。

Trucking company Schneider National Inc. uses software from Telogis Inc. to see whether drivers are braking too hard or heading into an area with high risk of theft. The company uses that data not only to discipline drivers, but also to reward those with top safety records, said Don Osterberg, Schneider's senior vice president of safety. He concedes, that 'there are some who don't like the eye in the sky looking over their shoulder.'

卡车运输公司Schneider National Inc.使用Telogis Inc.的软件检查司机是否刹车太猛或把车开到偷窃风险高的区域。Schneider负责安全的高级副总裁唐·奥斯特伯格(Don Osterberg)说,公司不光用这些数据来制约司机,同时也用来奖励那些安全记录高的司机。他承认说“有些人不喜欢被监视的感觉”。

Companies that keep quiet about tracking efforts may miss out on the benefits of deterrence. A 2013 academic study of NCR Corp.'s theft-monitoring software used in 392 restaurants found a 22% reduction in server theft after the software was installed and staffers were told about it. Drink sales, meanwhile, rose 10%. Being watched, researchers found, made waitstaff work harder. (The software alerts managers to excessive numbers of sales that are voided--an activity that suggests cash is being pocketed.)

对监控活动保密的公司或许会错过威慑力带来的好处。2013年一项对392家使用NCR Corp.公司盗窃监控软件的餐厅所做的学术研究发现,安装软件并告知员工后,服务员盗窃事件减少了22%。与此同时饮品销售额上升了10%。研究人员发现,受到监控让服务员工作变得更努力。(该软件可以让经理们发现是否有过多被列为无效的消费单──这说明有人在偷拿现金。)

At Accurid Pest Solutions, Mr. Gray said the phone-tracking tool costs about $50 per quarter per user, compared with about $200 per quarter per car for a GPS tracker.

在Accurid Pest Solutions,格雷说手机追踪工具的花费约每人每季度50美元,而GPS追踪器每辆车每季度的花费约200美元。

Since rolling it out, he has cut back the monitoring to a monthly review of a handful of employees.While he terminated two additional workers this summer, he said overall the technology has made drivers more productive and prompted more honesty, he said.

这项措施展开后,他将监控活动缩小为对少数几名员工的每月评估。虽然今年夏天他又解雇了两名员工,但他说这项技术整体上让司机们变得更有效率并且更诚实。

'If guys have to veer off, they call us and say we are taking a little personal time,' he said. 'It is changing their behavior in a positive way.'

他说:“如果要绕道,他们会打电话说要去办点私事。监控正在以一种积极的方式改变着他们的行为。”

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