您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 商业 >> 正文

最懂孩子的游乐场设计师

更新时间:2014-10-30 11:53:50 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Kids at Play
最懂孩子的游乐场设计师

In the late 1990s, Ole Barslund Nielsen “basically didn’t have a career,” he says. Trained as a sculptor, he was taking whatever odd jobs he could find, mostly building sets in Copenhagen theaters. He met Christian Jensen, a furniture designer, on a freelance assignment setting up a design exhibition and quickly realized he had found a kindred spirit: Creatively, both men had hit a wall. “We had no responsibility at all,” Jensen says.

在20世纪90年代末,奥利·巴尔斯伦德·尼尔森(Ole Barslund Nielsen)用他自己的话说,“基本上没有职业”。他的专业是雕塑师,但他接下了自己所能找到的各种稀奇古怪的活儿,大多数是在哥本哈根的剧院里搭布景。在为一次设计展兼职搭布景的过程中,他结识了家具设计师克里斯蒂安·詹森(Christian Jensen),然后很快就意识到,自己找到了同类:两个人都陷入了创作的瓶颈期。“我们一点职责也没有。”詹森说。

The two started brainstorming possible collaborations. They came up with many bad ones, including an organization that would run team-building exercises for adults, like rafting trips, “something that we wouldn’t know anything about,” Nielsen says.

两人开始头脑风暴地探讨合作的可能性。他们想出了很多糟糕的点子,包括建立一个组织,为成年人开办漂流旅行这类团队建设活动,“都是一些我们一窍不通的事。”尼尔森说。

They might have pursued one of these doomed ideas had a more fruitful possibility not presented itself. Nielsen had volunteered to help choose a new playground for his son’s kindergarten class. He realized that, for the budget allotted, he could build something like a theater set. He designed a three-story pink “Princess Tower” connected to a massive rocket and then merged the two structures with classic playground elements: a ladder, two bridges and a slide.

要不是找到了一种前途更光明的可能,他们或许就会尝试那些注定失败的点子了。有一次,尼尔森自告奋勇地帮助儿子的幼儿园班级,选择一个新的游乐场。他意识到,在给定的预算下,自己可以建造出一座像剧院布景般的游乐场。他设计了一个三层的粉色“公主塔”(Princess Tower),将它与一个巨大的火箭相连,然后将经典的游乐场元素融入其中,包括一个攀爬梯、两座桥和一座滑梯。

Nielsen enlisted Jensen’s help to finish the project, and the two have been building playgrounds together ever since. Their company, Monstrum, is based in Hvidovre, Denmark, but in the past two years they have had projects throughout Europe and in Russia, Bermuda, Hong Kong and Singapore. (Their first U.S.-based project, in Tulsa, Okla., is set to open in 2016.)

尼尔森找到詹森帮自己完成了项目,从此以后,两人就开始一起建造游乐场。他们的公司Monstrum设在丹麦的维兹奥勒(Hvidovre),不过近两年来,他们的项目已经遍及欧洲各地以及俄罗斯、百慕大、香港和新加坡(他们在美国的第一个项目位于俄克拉荷马州塔尔萨[Tulsa],定于2016年开放)。

It would be difficult to mistake a Monstrum playground for anyone else’s. They are all elaborate, enormous and highly imaginative. (Asked to describe their style, Nielsen laughed and said, “Really confident.”) Their designs often feature giant creatures, both natural and fantastical, that children can climb, swing from, slide down and incorporate into their play.

你不太会把Monstrum的游乐场跟其它游乐场相混同,因为它们都很精巧、庞大,而且富有想象力(当被要求描述他们的风格时,尼尔森笑了起来,说道,“真的很自信。”)他们的设计往往以巨大的生物为主题,不管这种生物是自然界已有的,还是人为想象出来的。孩子们可以在上面攀爬、荡秋千、滑滑梯,尽情玩耍。

Many playgrounds also tell a story, whether derived from a classic tale, a biological phenomenon or the history of the site on which it is built. For a project in a small park in Copenhagen, “the client wanted us to have some kind of pirate theme, but we didn’t want to make the pirate thing that obvious,” Jensen says. The park, they learned, used to be a shooting range, outfitted with targets shaped like parrots. Nielsen and Jensen constructed a 13-foot-tall brightly colored parrot with a slide unfurling from its side. On one wing, children can scramble up a climbing wall, or they can climb a curved ramp on the parrot’s back.

很多游乐场都会讲一个主题故事,不管是源自经典童话、生物情景还是游乐场所在地的历史。在哥本哈根一个小公园的项目上,“客户想让我们主打海盗主题,但是我们不想让海盗元素那么明显。”詹森说。他们了解到,这座公园以前是个靶场,配备的靶子形似鹦鹉。尼尔森和詹森就建造了一个13英尺(约合4米)高的亮色鹦鹉,其一侧伸出了一座滑梯。孩子们可以沿着一只翅膀爬上一座攀岩墙,或者也可以爬上鹦鹉背上的一座弯曲的斜坡。

Nielsen and Jensen maintain that some level of risk is essential for play. Monstrum playgrounds are all built in accordance with European safety standards, which acknowledge the role of risk in development. “You have to be able to assess danger,” Nielsen says. “And that’s a skill that you have to learn.” Children are drawn to danger, he says, and if they are not challenged to test their motor skills, “they would go and climb trees instead, or on the big fence surrounding the playground, or on rooftops.” That’s the idea behind some of their more menacing structures, like a looming red octopus in Moscow or the giant beetle in Stockholm that resembles an alien with outstretched pincers. “The feeling of danger is inspiring,” Nielsen says. “It’s exciting. Riding a bike is dangerous the first time.”

尼尔森和詹森认为,适当的惊险程度对于游乐活动是非常重要的。Monstrum游乐场的建造,都符合欧洲的安全标准,这些安全标准也认可惊险元素在孩子能力开发过程中发挥的重要作用。“你必须善于评估危险,”尼尔森说,“这个技巧是你必须学会的。”他说,孩子们会被危险的事物吸引,要是游乐设施无法挑战他们的运动能力,“他们会转而去爬树、爬游乐场周围的大围栏,或者爬房顶。”正因为有了这个理念的指导,他们才会设计一些更刺激的设施,比如莫斯科的一只巨型红章鱼,还有斯德哥尔摩的一只巨型甲虫。那只甲虫就像一个舞着钳子的外星生物。“危险的感觉很刺激,”尼尔森说,“很让人兴奋。骑单车也第一次变得危险起来。”

Still, risk needs to be calibrated. Nielsen and Jensen don’t believe that every part of a playground should accommodate every child. If older children “smell smaller kids on the playground,” Nielsen says, “they wouldn’t go there for the world.” And so they build age-appropriate structures for small children and more challenging elements to interest older children, which also give the younger ones something to look forward to. For example, one playground in Stockholm is presided over by two 18-foot-tall owls. Equipped with stairs, ladders and buttons that trigger an array of chimes, they’re big-kid terrain; smaller children can clamber through a set of ground-level acorns.

不过,风险是需要评估的。尼尔森和詹森并不认为,游乐场里的每一处设施都必须适合每个小孩。要是大龄孩子“在游乐场里嗅到了小孩子的存在,”尼尔森说,“他们打死也不会再去那儿玩了。”因此,他们为小孩子建造了适合他们年龄段的设施,又通过一些更有挑战性的元素来吸引大孩子,同时给那些小孩子以憧憬。比方说,斯德哥尔摩有家游乐场里,耸立着两个18英尺(约合5米)高的猫头鹰,其中配备了楼梯、攀爬梯和可以触发一连串音乐声的按钮,那里是大孩子的领地;而小孩子可以在一组近地面高度的橡树果间攀爬。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表