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入住纽约豪华公寓的穷人们

更新时间:2014-10-22 12:21:33 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Living in the Mix
入住纽约豪华公寓的穷人们

Brandon Deese lives just a few blocks from where he grew up, but it might as well be another world.

布兰登·迪斯(Brandon Deese)现在住的房子,跟他从小长大的地方只隔了几个街区,但是两者或许可以说是两个世界。

Mr. Deese, 23, spent his childhood at the Chelsea-Elliott Houses, a public-housing project in the West 20’s. But last year, thanks to a housing lottery, he beat out thousands of others for an affordable apartment at the Chelsea Park, a luxury rental at 260 West 26th Street.

迪斯现年23岁,小时候住的地方叫切尔西-艾略特住宅楼(Chelsea-Elliott Houses),是上世纪20年代曼哈顿西区的一个公共住房项目。但是去年,他在一次房屋摇号中幸运地击败了成百上千名竞争者,在位于西26街260号的切尔西公园(Chelsea Park)租到一套保障型公寓。而切尔西公园是一栋奢华的出租公寓楼。

“I used to go downstairs and see crack heads and drug dealers, and now when I go downstairs I see doormen,” said Mr. Deese, who himself works as a night doorman on the Upper West Side. He pays $540 a month for a studio, a discount of about 83 percent from the market-rate rent, which is around  $3,200 a month, according to listings on StreetEasy.

“以前我下楼,看到的是瘾君子和毒贩。现在我下楼,看到的是门卫,”迪斯说。他自己就在上西区做夜班门卫。他的单间公寓每月租金是540美元(约合人民币3321元),相当于在市价的基础上打了83%左右的折扣。根据房地产网站StreetEasy上的挂牌信息,该房屋的租金市场价在3200美元(约合人民币19682元)左右。

Private developers have taken advantage of various programs to construct more than 100 mixed-income buildings like the Chelsea Park over the past two decades, mostly in Manhattan and gentrified parts of Brooklyn. In these buildings, the majority of apartments are market rate, with set-asides, typically 20 percent, for low- and moderate-income New Yorkers. In return for including these units, developers can receive lucrative tax abatements, permission to construct larger buildings and bond financing.

近二十年来,私人开发商已经借助于各种各样的项目,建造了100多栋面向混合收入人群的建筑,如切尔西花园。它们大多位于曼哈顿及布鲁克林的士绅化地区。在这些建筑中,多数公寓是市价住宅,少数公寓——通常占比为20%,被预留给了中低收入的纽约人。通过预留这些住宅单元,开发商不仅可以获得丰厚的减税优惠,还能被获准建造更大的住宅,发行债券筹措资金。

The competition for these units in these buildings, often called 80/20s, is fierce. Thousands of New Yorkers apply, but the stipulations are strict. There are income requirements and applicants must provide extensive documentation, such as pay stubs, telephone bills and bank statements. Good credit is also a necessity, typically a score of 650 or more. Making even one mistake, such as mailing an application express rather than by regular mail, can disqualify you from a lottery. Developers are generally required to give preference to those who live in the area.

上述建筑往往被称为“80/20”(代表按市场价格租售和给低收入者预留单元的占比——译注),针对它们的竞争非常激烈。有成千上万的纽约人会提交申请,但是相关规定非常严格,只有特定收入的人群才能居住,而且申请者必须提交详实的文件资料,比如工资单、电话账单和银行对账单。良好的信用评分也很重要,一般要达到650分以上。就算只犯了一个小错误——比如采用了快递而非平邮的方式寄送申请资料,你也有可能会失去摇号资格。一般来说,开发商必须优先考虑住在本地的人。

Under Mayor Bill de Blasio, these mixed-income developments could become even more widespread. The administration has set a goal of financing the construction or preservation of 200,000 affordable units over the next 10 years. One approach is likely to be mandatory inclusionary zoning, whereby developers are required to include a certain number of lower-priced housing units within a market-rate project when building in neighborhoods that have been rezoned to allow for more density. In the past, that program has been voluntary.

在白思豪(Bill de Blasio)市长的推动下,这些面向混合收入人群的开发项目或将得到进一步普及。白思豪政府已定下目标,拟在接下来的十年里,以资金支持建设或保护20万个保障性住房单元。其中一项措施很可能是强制的包容性区域划分(mandatory inclusionary zoning)。也就是说,如果开发商的项目所在社区已被重新区划,以提高住房密度,那么开发商就必须从其市场定价的项目当中,拿出一部分作为低价住宅单元。而在以前,这一项目的执行是自愿的。

“Our goal is really to foster more economically diverse neighborhoods,” said Alicia Glen, the deputy mayor for housing and economic development. “We are committed to increasing affordable housing production, and making sure we create more mixed-income projects in the process.”

“我们的目标,是切实构建出更多经济多元化的社区。”纽约市负责住房和经济发展的副市长艾丽西亚·格伦(Alicia Glen)表示,“我们致力于增加保障性住房的建设活动,同时确保在这一过程中创造更多面向混合收入人群的项目。”

For many people, the current system is working, even with the occasional problems that inevitably crop up.

对于很多人来说,当前的体系是有效的,只不过偶尔也会出现不可避免的问题。

Farse Omar, 27, grew up with Mr. Deese at the Chelsea-Elliott Houses, although he, too, left public housing recently for a nearby luxury rental building, on West 28th Street. That move almost didn’t happen.

法尔斯·奥马尔(Farse Omar)现年27岁,从小和迪斯一起在切尔西-艾略特住宅楼长大。虽然他最近也搬离公房、住进了不远处的西28街上的一栋豪华出租公寓楼,但他差点就错过了这个机会。

Last October, Mr. Omar was walking to Public School 41 in the West Village, where he works part time as a teacher’s aide, when he saw a woman handing out fliers. “I went right by her and thought nothing of it,” he said. “But then, when I was halfway down the block, I thought better of it and went back and took one.”

去年10月的一天,奥马尔正步行去西村的第41公立学校——他在那里当兼职助教。走到半路,他看见有位女士在发传单。“我直接从她身边走过去,什么也没想,”他说,“但是走过半个街区,我改变了主意,回去拿了张传单。”

On the flier was information for a housing lottery for the AVA High Line, a sprawling development at 525 West 28th Street. The rental building is adjacent to the elevated park and features a backyard fire pit, a fitness center and an enormous lobby resembling a furniture showroom, with artfully hung mirrors, scattered seating areas and bookshelves stocked playfully with board games like Monopoly. The building, which has 710 market-rate apartments, offered 142 affordable spaces — 50 studios, 69 one-bedrooms and 23 two-bedrooms. Mr. Omar entered the lottery, setting his sights on a studio, which required applicants to earn between $19,749 and $36,120 a year.

传单上介绍了AVA高线大楼(AVA High Line)的房屋摇号信息。AVA高线大楼是一个正在扩张的开发项目,位于西28街的525号。这栋出租住宅楼毗邻那座空中公园,其亮点是后院有一处营火坑、楼内设有一间健身房和一个家具陈列室般的超宽敞大厅。大厅里悬挂着多面镜子,看起来颇有艺术气息;休息区零星分布在各个角落;书架上摆着大富翁(Monopoly)这类桌游,看起来颇具戏谑意味。这栋楼内有710套市价公寓,并提供142套保障性住房——包括50套单间公寓、69套一居室和23套两居室。奥马尔加入了抽签,将目标锁定在一套单间公寓上。这套公寓的申请者年收入必须在19749美元(约合人民币12.1万元)到36120美元(约合人民币22.2万元)之间。

Mr. Omar, who earns $22,000 a year, won a spot, and in June moved into a $520-a-month studio; for a market-rate apartment in the building, rent starts at $3,065 a month, according to the building’s website.

奥尔马的年收入是22000美元(约合人民币13.5万元),他中了签,于今年6月搬进一套租金为每月520美元(约合人民币3198元)的单间公寓。根据该楼盘官网上的信息,楼内市价公寓的月租至少在3065美元(约合人民币18851元)。

Like some but not all mixed-income buildings, the AVA High Line allows all residents to use amenities such as the backyard and the lounge, although the fitness center costs an additional $500 a year, a fee Mr. Omar says he is unlikely to pay.

和部分(但非所有)面向混合收入人群的住宅楼一样,AVA高线大楼允许所有住户使用后院、休息室等设施,只不过使用健身中心还需每年多花500美元(约合人民币3075元)。奥马尔说,他不太可能花这个钱。

Though under the same roof, low-income and market-rate apartments are not identical.

虽然是同一屋檐下,但是低价公寓和市价公寓并不相同。

“There are significant differences between affordable and market-rate rents,” said Martin Piazzola, a senior vice president of AvalonBay, the building’s developer. “There are of course some differences between the units in finishes — stainless steel versus solid colors in kitchens — but appliances are similar and of the same size.”

“保障性住房和市价房的租金差别很大,”大楼开发商Avalon Bay的高级副总裁马丁·皮亚佐拉(Martin Piazzola)说,“这些单元的装修肯定会有差别——比如厨房里是用不锈钢橱柜还是单色橱柜——不过电器设备都是差不多的,大小也一样 。”

Mr. Omar, who was living with his mother when the lottery wheel — actually a computer — spun his way, said renting the studio has made him more mature; he’s now keeping a budget and shopping for himself, for example.

当摇号机(其实是一台电脑)的轮子还在转动时,奥马尔跟母亲住在一起。他说,自从自己租了单间公寓以后,他变得更成熟了。比方说,他现在有了一笔固定的预算,自己采购生活用品。

“Since moving in, I’ve become more independent,” Mr. Omar said recently, standing among a group of summer campers as he organized a game of kickball. In addition to working as a part-time teacher’s aide, Mr. Omar is also an activities coordinator at the Hudson Guild, a neighborhood community center. “I don’t really know exactly what I want to do, if I want to continue working two jobs. But moving out on my own has forced me to become more responsible and to think about those things.”

“自从搬进来以后,我变得更独立了,”奥马尔最近说,当时他组织了一场儿童足球游戏,正站在一群夏令营营员当中。除了兼职做助教以外,奥马尔还是哈德森协会(Hudson Guild)的活动协调员。哈德森协会是当地的一个社区中心。“如果我想继续身兼二职的话,我也不知道自己到底想要做什么。但是既然一个人搬出来住了,我就不得不变得更负责任,开始考虑那些问题。”

Ray Bell, 24, is Mr. Deese’s neighbor at the Chelsea Park. Mr. Bell works in finance and moved to the building from Murray Hill last month with two roommates. He did not know, until a reporter told him, that interspersed among the luxury apartments were low-income units.

现年24岁的雷·贝尔(Ray Bell),是迪斯在切尔西公园的邻居。贝尔在金融行业工作,上个月才和两名室友从穆雷山(Murray Hill)搬进这栋大楼。在记者告诉他之前,他还不知奢华公寓里夹杂着面向低收入人群的单元。

“I had no idea, no one ever told us,” Mr. Bell said.

“我不知道,没人告诉过我们。”贝尔说。

“If someone asks, I’m perfectly happy to explain it,” said Adam Disick, the chief executive of the Triumph Property Group, which leases out the Chelsea Park with the Heller Organization. “I would not disclose it without being asked because I don’t think it is material to leasing the apartment. It isn’t like I would say, ‘Hey, the person next door to you is a banker and makes $3 million,’ or ‘The person on the other side won a housing lottery.’ It is a delicate balance, but if they ask, I’m fully transparent.”

“如果有人问,我会很乐意解释的,”胜利地产集团(Triumph Property Group)的首席执行官亚当·迪希克(Adam Disick)表示。胜利地产集团目前正与海勒组织(Heller Organization)共同负责切尔西公园的租赁。“要是没有人问,我不会披露这件事,因为我觉得这对租房并不重要。我不会说,‘嘿,住你隔壁的人在银行工作,收入有300万美元(约合人民币1845万元),’或者,‘住你隔壁的人是因为摇号中了签才搬进来的。’这是一个难以掌握的平衡,但是如果他们问起来,我什么也不会隐瞒。”

Building policies vary. For instance, the AVA High Line website notes at the bottom of a list of “social features”: “Affordable housing available.” And some market-rate residents are well aware that there are lower incomes under the same roof.

不同的楼盘有不同的政策。举个例子,AVA高线大楼的网站在“社交特色”一栏的最后一条里就注明,“提供保障性住房”。有些市价房的住户心里很清楚,楼里有一些低收入的住户跟他们同住在一个屋檐下。

“It is pretty obvious,” said Matt Amico, a real estate broker at Urban Compass and a market-rate tenant of the Westminster, a luxury rental at 180 West 20th Street. Some residents of the building’s affordable units spend a lot of time in the lobby with their laptops, making use of the free Wi-Fi service, said Mr. Amico, who knows some of them. “It is a rental building, and you know going into it that it’s an 80/20, so it isn’t a big deal,” he said. “And if it is a big deal, then you won’t go there.”

“这很明显。”Urban Compass公司的房地产经纪人马特·阿米科(Matt Amico)说。阿米科是西20街180号威斯敏斯特(Westminster)奢华出租住宅楼的市价房租户。他说,大楼里有些租住保障性住房的居民,会带着笔记本在大厅里待很长时间,因为那儿有免费的Wi-Fi服务。他认识其中的一些人。“这是个出租楼,你从一开始搬进去的时候就知道它是个‘80/20’,所以没什么大不了的,”他说,“如果真的那么介意,你就不会搬进去了。”

Like most New Yorkers who live in close quarters, tenants in mixed-income buildings rarely socialize beyond a polite nod of the head or a brief wave. And while they may live in the same neighborhood, they tend to patronize different stores — Mr. Omar, for example, does his food shopping at Western Beef, a grocery store on West 16th, where prices are a far cry from the $5 iced coffees at the Chelsea Market across the street.

跟多数挤住在小房子里的纽约人一样,在面向混合收入人群的公寓楼里,租户们也很少互相来往,见了面只是礼貌地点点头,挥挥手。他们虽然可能住在同一社区,但是一般会光顾不同的店面——比方说,奥马尔购买食品的地方是Western Beef,这是一家位于西16街的副食店,那里的物价跟街对面的切尔西市场(Chelsea Market)可不在一个水平。在切尔西市场,一杯冰咖啡要5美元(约合人民币31元)。

Yet while they may not overlap often, there is occasional friction between the two groups. At the Westminster, for example, Mr. Amico said he has heard some grumbling about the tenants hanging out in the lobby, and notices have been posted reminding residents of proper lobby etiquette, although a spokeswoman for the building’s owner, the Related Companies, said she knew of no complaints.

然而,虽然这两个群体之间可能鲜有交集,却也时有摩擦。比如说,在威斯敏斯特大楼,阿米科说他听说有些人对聚集在大厅里的租户颇有怨言,大楼里张贴了告示,提醒居民注意保持得体的大厅礼仪。只不过,大楼所有者Related Companies公司的女发言人表示,她没有接到过相关的投诉。

For Mr. Deese, who is African-American and stands at an imposing 6-foot-1, there have been some uncomfortable moments. He and a friend were walking out of Mr. Deese’s apartment and down the hallway when a white neighbor, seeing them approach, “slammed her front door, locking all the locks,” he said. “It was ridiculous, because the door locks automatically when you close it, so no one ever uses the extra locks.”

作为一名身材高大、身高6.1英尺(约合1.86米)的美国黑人,迪斯经历过一些令人难受的时刻。有一次他跟朋友从家里出来,准备下楼到大厅去,有个白人邻居看到他们走近,“把前门哐的一声关上,锁上了所有的锁,”他说,“这很荒唐,因为门在关闭时就会自动锁上,所以从没有人会去上那些备用锁。”

Mr. Omar, who only just moved into the AVA High Line, is still a bit self-conscious of his status. “If there was a building-wide social event, like drinks or something, I would go, but I would want to bring a friend,” he said. “I wouldn’t want to show up and stand out, like, ‘Oh, there goes the low-income guy.’ ”

奥马尔才搬进AVA高线大楼,他依然有点在意自己的身份地位。“如果楼里举办面向全体居民的社交活动,比如酒会什么的,我会去参加,但我会带上一个朋友,”他说,“我不想去了之后就在那傻站着,给人的感觉就像,‘噢,那个低收入的家伙来了。’”

In most of these 80/20s, the affordable and market-rate units are interspersed throughout the same building, and the two groups of tenants live cheek by jowl.

在大多数“80/20”中,保障性住房和市价单元混杂在同一栋楼里,两个租户群体紧紧相邻。

At some mixed-income developments, however, the affordable apartments and the market-rate units are in separate buildings. And then there is the so-called poor door, a separate entrance for nonmarket-rate tenants. That setup has come under fire in recent months, and the city says it is working to revamp a 2009 change in the zoning regulations that allowed 40 Riverside Boulevard, for example, to have the separate entrances.

但是,在有些面向混合收入人群的开发项目中,保障性公寓和市价单元被安排在不同住宅楼内。此外还有所谓的“寒门”,那是给非市价房租户准备的单独入口。近几个月来,这样的安排受到了抨击。2009年,市政府曾对区划法规做出改动,允许滨江大道(Riverside Boulevard)40号这类住宅楼针对不同群体设置不同的入口。而今,市政府表示将对这一改动做出修订。

“It reminds you of who you are,” said Daisy Fermin, 34, of her living situation in the affordable low-rise component of the high-rise Edge in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. Her building, at 34 North Sixth Street, has neither a doorman nor amenities, and its small lobby is painted an institutional green, with just a few wilting houseplants and an ATM machine. It is a far cry from its sister building, a market-rate luxury tower just a few doors down, where residents enjoy unimpeded views of the water, numerous amenities and a soaring lobby with a fireplace, glossy tiles and a concierge. Douglaston Development, which declined to comment, constructed both buildings as part of a mixed-income project.

“这样的安排会提醒你注意自己的身份,”戴西·费尔敏(Daisy Fermin)谈到自己的生活状况时说。费尔敏现年34岁,住在布鲁克林威廉斯堡的高层项目Edge附属的一栋低层建筑里。她住的这栋楼位于北6街34号,既没有门卫,也没有配套设施,窄小的大厅被漆成单调的淡绿色,里面只放了几盆枯萎的室内植物和一台ATM机。条件跟几步之遥的的另一栋Edge住宅楼相差甚远。那栋楼里都是奢华市价房,住户们坐拥一览无余的水景和众多配套设施。大厅也超级宽敞,里面安装了壁炉,铺着闪闪发光的面砖,还配备了门房。这两栋楼由开发公司Douglaston Development建设,隶属于同一个面向混合收入人群的项目。Douglaston Development拒绝对此发表评论。

“These people have an amazing building with a pool, all kinds of amenities. I can see it through my window, but it isn’t like I can go in there myself,” said Ms. Fermin, who works as an eligibility specialist at the New York City Human Resources Administration. She earns $31,500 a year, and her rent is $976  a month. Her take-home pay, she said, is $1,600 a month, “and rent is almost a thousand, so it doesn’t leave me much.”

“这些人住的楼,条件好得惊人,里面有泳池和各种各样的设施。我可以从窗口看到,但我自己应该是没法进去的,”费尔敏说。她在纽约市人力资源局(New York City Human Resources Administration)担任资格认定专员,年收入31500美元(约合人民币19.4万元),房租每个月976美元(约合人民币6003元)。她说自己一个月实际到手的收入是1600美元(约合人民币9841元),“而房租已经将近一千美元,所以交完房租后,我就没剩多少钱了。”

Because of the rising rents, and an apartment that she says features vinyl countertops that buckle when they get wet and tile floors that chip, Ms. Fermin is looking to re-enter the housing lottery and move.

由于房租在上涨,而且据她说,公寓的乙烯基柜面一沾水就会弯曲,地板砖上也有裂口,因此费尔敏正准备再次摇号,找个房子搬出去。

But the housing lottery is a formidable process. “They tell you to submit the application by regular mail — not express, not registered mail — and you have to follow every direction perfectly or you will be disqualified,” said Natalia Padilla, an agent at Citi Habitats, who has applied to the housing lottery herself and has helped clients with their applications.

但摇号是个艰难的过程。“他们让你用平邮寄送申请材料——不能用快递,也不能用挂号信。而且你必须滴水不漏地完成每一个指示,要不然就会失去资格。”Citi Habitats公司的经纪人娜塔莉亚·帕迪亚(Natalia Padilla)说。她自己申请过摇号,也帮客户申请过。

When Ms. Fermin was applying for the studio on North Sixth Street, for example, she was rejected twice and appealed both times. “At one point they said I made too much, then they said I made too little, then finally they said I made the right amount. I was like Goldilocks.”

举个例子,费尔敏申请参加针对北6街的单间公寓的摇号时,被拒绝了两次,她两次都提出了异议。“他们先是说我赚得太多,后来又说我赚得太少,最后终于说我赚得不多不少了。我就像金发姑娘似的(Goldilocks,金发姑娘的故事出自格林童话,讲的是一个金发姑娘误闯进了三只熊的家,看见桌上有三碗粥,她不吃热粥,不吃冷粥,只挑不冷不热的吃,吃完后挑了张刚好舒适的床睡了——译注)。”

With the number of mixed-income developments expected to jump — about 1,100 new affordable apartments are to come online in Downtown Brooklyn alone over the next three years, according to the Downtown Brooklyn Partnership — housing advocates, often in conjunction with developers, have begun holding tutorials to help applicants through the process.

面向混合收入人群的开发项目有望增加,根据布鲁克林商业区伙伴关系(Downtown Brooklyn Partnership)组织的数据,单是布鲁克林商业区就会新增1100套保障性公寓。在这种情况下,支持保障性住房的人士已开始提供指导,帮助申请者完成手续。

Some are also pushing to soften the strict income cap requirements, which dictate that applicants must earn a certain amount — and not a dollar less or a dollar more — while still having strong credit and the ability to cover the rent. Another concern is that many mixed-income developments exclude very low-income New Yorkers in favor of higher earners, and that many of the buildings have studio and one-bedroom apartments, with few larger units for families.

还有一些人正在推动放宽严苛的收入限制。目前的收入限制要求申请者的收入水平必须满足特定数额——多一美元或者少一美元都不行;同时还要有良好的信用评分,有能力支付租金。人们担心的另一个问题是,许多面向混合收入人群的开发项目,将收入非常低的纽约人排除在外,反而青睐收入更高的人群,而且许多住宅楼里提供的房型都是单间公寓和一居室公寓,很少有适合家庭居住的较大单元。

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