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纽约刮起荷兰设计风

更新时间:2014-10-16 11:34:46 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Dutch Are Back in Town
纽约刮起荷兰设计风

On Sept. 24, in an avant-garde condo tower that butts up against the High Line, an unusual gallery called Chamber will open in Chelsea. Like a 17th-century cabinet of curiosities, it will be filled with the eclectic treasures of intrepid explorers.

9月24日,在切尔西(Chelsea),一座名为Chamber的独特画廊将在一栋毗邻高线(High Line)的前卫共管公寓楼内开业。和17世纪的珍奇百宝屋(Cabinet of Curiosities)一样,画廊内将摆满各种珍宝,都是从大胆无畏的探索者那里搜罗来的。

Chamber will sell objects like a wall lamp mounted with a pair of nerdy black spectacles and a sound-diffusing cabinet that looks like a chaotic pile of raw wood. (The piece has functional drawers, but how many and where they are takes some guessing.) There will even be a limited-edition perfume distilled exclusively for the gallery, its scent “based on the experience of a Louis Kahn structure.” (That’s the news release talking.)

Chamber画廊将销售一系列物品,比如一盏装在一副另类黑框眼镜上的壁灯;一台声学扩散器,看起来就像一堆杂乱无章的原木(这台机器配备了具有实用功能的抽屉,但是这些抽屉在哪里、具体有多少个,还有待猜测);甚至还将有一款专为Chamber画廊蒸馏制成的限量版香水,其香味“基础是路易·卡恩(Louis Kahn)的一座建筑给人的审美体验。”(新闻发布会上是这么说的。)

The Dutch are back in town, and this time their ships are laden with a new generation of thought-provoking objects and design ideas.
荷兰人回来了。这一次,他们的船只满载着新一代人充满创意的物品和设计理念。

Chamber’s contents may seem offbeat, but they will not be random. They have been selected by Studio Job, an atelier based in Belgium and the Netherlands that is itself sprinkled with the dust of the Wunderkammer. Founded in 2000 by Job Smeets and Nynke Tynagel, a married couple, Studio Job has produced furniture dense with Bavarian-folk-themed marquetry, a lamp shaped like a construction crane and bronze cat sculptures with eyes that literally glow. For Chamber, it acquired, designed or collaborated with other artists in the production of 100 objects. These will be sold at the gallery over the next two years. After that, a new curator will step in with a different collection.

Chamber的展品或许看似奇异,但它们并不是随意挑选出来的。负责遴选展品的是一家位于比利时和荷兰的工作室Studio Job,本身就有着珍奇百宝屋的风格。该工作室创立于2000年,创始人是一对已婚夫妇——乔布·斯密茨(Job Smeets)和妮科·塔娜杰(Nynke Tynagel)。Studio Job的作品包括:饰有巴伐利亚民俗风情镶嵌细工的家具、一台形似建筑起重机的电灯和几座眼睛能发光的青铜猫雕像。为了Chamber,该工作室购置、设计并与其它艺术家合作制作了100件物品,将于未来两年里在画廊销售。两年之后,新的画廊馆长将走马上任,带来新一批的藏品。

Not unexpectedly, given Studio Job’s Low Countries provenance, many of the designers contributing to Chamber are Dutch. Some, like Mr. Smeets, were members of Droog, the influential Dutch collaborative known for high-concept objects. Gijs Bakker, for instance, a jewelry designer who founded Droog in 1993 with Renny Ramakers, a writer, has produced a stippled titanium brooch for the gallery that represents the moon as it was first photographed in 1968 from outer space.

毫无悬念的是,考虑到Studio Job的出身于荷兰的背景,许多为Chamber贡献展品的设计师也是荷兰人。有些人,比如斯密茨,是荷兰的业界合作组织楚格设计(Droog)的成员。楚格设计拥有重大的影响力,以高度概念化的作品著称。举个例子,珠宝设计师海斯·巴克(Gijs Bakker)和撰稿人芮妮·瑞梅格(Renny Ramakers)于1993年创立楚格设计时,为Chamber画廊制作了一枚点刻的钛胸针,体现了1968年人类首次从外太空拍下的月球的样子。

Others whose work will be on display are graduates of the Design Academy Eindhoven in the Netherlands, which remains a training ground for designers in the Droog mold. (Mr. Smeets and Ms. Tynagel met there as students.)

其它展品的作者,都是荷兰埃因霍芬设计学院(Design Academy Eindhoven)的毕业生。这家学院始终为楚格设计这片沃土源源不断地输送着设计师(斯密茨和瑞梅格就是在那里上学的时候认识的)。

Maarten Baas, for example, made a sensation with his 2002 Eindhoven thesis project: traditional furniture pieces blackened with a blowtorch. He has returned to his Smoke series many times since. For Chamber, he crisped a workbench produced by Manufactum, a German company that is a favorite of the gallery’s 26-year-old Argentine founder, Juan Garcia Mosqueda.

举个例子,马腾·巴斯(Maarten Baas)就曾凭借其2002年在埃因霍芬设计学院的毕业作品引起轰动。该系列的作品定名为“烟”(Smoke),是几件用喷灯烧黑的传统家具。自此以后,他经常在自己的作品中如法炮制。他为Chamber烘烤了一张Manufactum生产的工作台。Manufactum是Studio Job画廊26岁的阿根廷创始人胡安·加西亚·莫斯奎达(Juan Garcia Mosqueda)所钟爱的一家德国设计公司。

It has been a while since so many thought-provoking Netherlandish designs congregated in a single New York venue. In the mid-1990s, at the SoHo gallery Moss, you could catch your first glimpse of work by Hella Jongerius, Marcel Wanders and Jurgen Bey, Droog designers who grew into superstars. In 1995, the curator Paola Antonelli installed pieces by Tejo Remy, Joep van Lieshout and other contemporary Dutch artists in the Museum of Modern Art’s cafe. (Mr. Garcia Mosqueda later did internships at Moss and with Ms. Antonelli.)

如此众多启迪人心的荷兰设计作品在纽约的同一个场所亮相,这样的盛况已经有一段时间没出现过了。20世纪90年代中期,在苏豪区的Moss画廊,你一眼就能看到海拉·荣格里斯(Hella Jongerius)、马塞尔·万德斯(Marcel Wanders)和于尔根·贝(Jurgen Bey)的作品,这些人都是从楚格设计走出来的超级明星。1995年,现代艺术博物馆(Museum of Modern Art)馆长保拉·安特那利(Paola Antonelli)在博物馆的咖啡厅里摆设了提欧·雷米(Tejo Remy)、琼普·凡·莱斯豪特(Joep van Lieshout)等当代荷兰艺术家的作品。

In 2009, Droog itself created a SoHo shop. It lasted less than two years, a casualty of an awkward duplex space and a global economic crisis. Mr. Bakker and Ms. Ramakers ended their partnership soon after it opened.

2009年,楚格设计在苏豪区开了一家自己的商店,经营不到两年时间,最终变成了一处古怪的复式空间,和全球经济危机的牺牲品。巴克和瑞梅格在商店开张后不久就结束了合伙关系。

But Chamber is only one token of a new Dutch design invasion here. Three hundred and fifty years after the Dutch surrendered New Amsterdam to the British, several of their more creative descendants are reclaiming this turf.

不过,Chamber并非荷兰设计界向纽约进军的唯一一座桥头堡。350年前,荷兰人将新阿姆斯特丹(New Amsterdam)割让给了英国;如今,他们有几个富有创造力的后裔正在夺回这处阵地。

In March, the first American branch of the Dutch hotel chain CitizenM opened in Times Square. Like its European siblings, it has tiny guest rooms, streamlined services and vibrant public spaces exploding with color. The design template is by Concrete, an architecture and branding company based in Amsterdam that is now working on a three-tower residential project on the New Jersey waterfront as well as affordable housing on Staten Island.

3月,荷兰连锁酒店CitizenM在时代广场开设了其在美国的第一家分店。跟欧洲的店面一样,这家店有着较小的客房、高效的服务和色彩耀眼、充满活力的公共空间。设计方案出自总部设在阿姆斯特丹的一家建筑与品牌公司Concrete之手。他们目前正在新泽西码头开展一个包含三座大楼的住宅项目,同时在斯塔腾岛(Staten Island)建造保障性住房。

This month, finishing touches are being put on Huys, an office building at Park Avenue and 28th Street that has been converted into a 58-unit luxury condo. Huys (which is pronounced, and means, “house”) is an all-Dutch affair: The developer is Kroonenberg Groep, based in Amsterdam, and the designer is Piet Boon, who practices a lush, restrained international style. Karin Meyn, Mr. Boon’s wife, styled the cream-colored décor and selected the art, much of it by her compatriots. Piet Oudolf, the landscape designer probably best known to New Yorkers for planting feathery perennials on the High Line, is in charge of the rooftop garden. And at press time, workers were preparing to hoist Frederik Molenschot’s biomorphic cast-bronze chandelier in the lobby. (Mr. Molenschot, an Amsterdam artist, also supplied all of the room numbers, which are solid brass.)

本月(9月——译注),Huys大楼正在做最后的修整。这座大楼位于公园大道(Park Avenue)和第28街,以前是座办公楼,目前已被改建成了包含58个单元的奢华共管公寓楼。Huys(其发音和意思都同“house”一样)从里到外都出自荷兰人的手笔:开发商是来自阿姆斯特丹的Kroonenberg Groep,设计师皮特·布恩(Piet Boon)采用了讲究而不浮华的国际风格。布恩的妻子卡琳·梅恩(Karin Meyn)设计了奶油色的装潢,并甄选了艺术装饰品,其中大多为荷兰人的作品。园林设计师皮特·奥多夫(Piet Oudolf)负责屋顶花园,或许他最为纽约人所熟知的地方,就是为高线公园种植了羽状多年生植物。在本文发稿时,工人们正准备将弗雷德里克·莫伦绍特(Frederik Molenschot)的铸铜生物形态枝形吊灯悬挂在大厅里(阿姆斯特丹艺术家莫伦绍特还制作了所有实心黄铜制的房间号码)。

With Huys getting ready to open in October, Mr. Boon has moved on — to Brooklyn. He designed Oosten (Dutch for “east”), a condominium to be built on the two-acre site of a former brewery at 429 Kent Avenue in South Williamsburg. Scheduled for completion in 2016, the complex, the first ground-up American project of the Chinese XIN Development Group International, will have 216 units, including 15 townhouses, and a 55-foot-long swimming pool.

Huys已准备好于10月开放。因此,布恩已经开始转战布鲁克林。他设计了名为“东河湾”(Oosten,荷兰语,意为“东方”)的共管公寓楼,它将建在南威廉斯堡肯特大道(Kent Avenue)429号的一处占地2英亩(约合0.81公顷)的地皮上,这里以前是家酿酒厂。该建筑群定于2016年完工,是中国房企鑫苑置业旗下的XIN Development Group International在美国建起的首个项目。它将建造216个单元,包括15套联排住宅和一座55英尺长(约合17米)的游泳池。

And then there’s Moooi (“beautiful” in Dutch, with an extra “o” for emphasis). The design company, founded 14 years ago by Marcel Wanders, is known for selling eccentricities like Studio Job’s massive, stripped-down furniture made of paper. Early next year, it will open its first American showroom on East 31st Street and Madison Avenue.

此外还有Moooi(荷兰语,意为“美丽”,原本只有两个“o”,多出来的那个“o”是为了表强调)。这家设计公司于14年前由马塞尔·万德斯创立,其销售的产品出了名的古怪,比如Studio Job那巨大的极简主义纸质家具。明年初,它将在东31街和麦迪逊大道(Madison Avenue)开设其在美国的第一间陈列室。

Why New York? Why now? Like a chorus of old vaudevillians, the people who were asked to explain the recent influx of Dutch design all used the same word: timing. The American economy has bounced back faster than Europe’s, they said, and New York remains a cultural capital, with an international assortment of big spenders.

为何要来纽约?为何要选在现在?当被问及为什么最近荷兰设计师纷纷涌向纽约时,所有人都不约而同地说出了一个词:时机。他们说,美国经济比欧洲复苏得快,而且纽约依然是个文化之都,这里有来自各国的、形形色色的大金主。

Lesley Bamberger, chief executive of Kroonenberg Groep, Huys’s developer, said he bought the building at 404 Park Avenue South 14 years ago as an investment. Then the New York real estate market heated up, and there is no one like the Dutch to seize a commercial opportunity. “The Dutch have always been tradesmen,” he said, adding that Huys is 90 percent sold. All that remains available (and only because they haven’t been listed) are five of the six penthouses, priced from $6.75 million.

Huys的开发商Kroonenberg Groep的首席执行官莱斯利·班贝尔格尔(Lesley Bamberger)说,14年前,他买下了公园大道南404号的这栋大楼,用作投资。接着,纽约房市火了起来,没有人像荷兰人那样善于抓住商业机会。“荷兰人向来是生意人。”他说,同时指出,Huys有90%的房源已经售出了。其余的待售房源(之所以没卖出去,只因尚未挂牌)包括6套顶层公寓中的5套,起价在675万美元(约合人民币4146万元)。

“There are lots of business reasons and lots of emotional reasons” for the decision to open in New York, said Casper Vissers, Moooi’s co-founder and chief executive. Over the last four years, the company’s American sales have doubled every year and now represent 25 percent of its business.

之所以决定在纽约开拓市场,“是有很多商业和情感上的原因。”Moooi的联合创始人兼首席执行官卡斯珀·菲瑟斯(Casper Vissers)说。近四年里,公司在美国的销售额每年都翻一番,美国业务的占比如今已达到了25%。

On top of that, he added, New York is filled with architects and designers who are Moooi’s primary customers, although they may not realize that the company produces furniture. (Eighty percent of what Americans buy from Moooi is lighting, Mr. Vissers said, including a wiry LED-studded sphere called Raimond that is currently the company’s biggest seller in the States.) Moooi is also looking to expand to the West Coast and Chicago.

他还说,最重要的是,纽约到处都是建筑师和设计师,他们是Moooi的主要客户。只不过他们可能没有意识到,Moooi公司也生产家具(菲瑟斯说,美国人从Moooi购买的产品有8%是灯具,包括一款名为Raimond、点缀着LED的球形灯,是公司目前在美国卖得最好的产品)。Moooi还在寻求向西海岸和芝加哥扩张。

Robert Kloos, director for visual arts, architecture and design at the Netherlands Consulate General in New York, said that the recession did some Dutch designers a backhanded favor by causing the generous government subsidies awarded to the Dutch cultural sector to be cut by 20 percent.

罗伯特·克鲁斯(Robert Kloos)是荷兰驻纽约总领事馆负责视觉艺术、建筑和设计的官员。他说,经济衰退反而给一些荷兰设计师带来了好处,因为它使荷兰文化界从政府那里得到的优厚补助减少了20%。

As a result, designers diversified their practices and sought markets abroad. Compared with 2008, Mr. Kloos said, “I’m pleasantly surprised that these days not only are there 40 to 50 percent more projects by Dutch artists and designers in the U.S., but the quality has also accelerated.”

于是,设计师们走上了多元化经营的道路,开始开拓海外市场。克鲁斯说,与2008年相比,“我惊喜地发现,现在荷兰艺术家和设计师在美国的项目增加了40%到50%……而且质量也改善了。”

Yet it was precisely those subsidies that allowed Dutch designers to braise in the juices of their creativity without worrying about paying the rent. Piet Boon’s sleek, creamy neutrality makes him an easy sell. But how will the quirky creations associated with the phrase “Dutch design” fare today in the land of Ethan Allen?

但是,正因为享有政府补助,荷兰设计师们才得以充分发挥他们的创造才能,而不需要担心交房租的问题。皮特·布恩主打奶油色的时髦、中性风格,这使他的作品非常好卖。但是具有“荷兰设计”元素的古怪作品,怎样才能在伊顿·艾伦(Ethan Allen,美国经典家具品牌,在北美地区及英国有近300家连锁门店——译注)的土地上打开销路呢?

Ghislaine Van Loosbroek Viñas, a New York interior designer born in the Netherlands and raised in South Africa, likes to sprinkle Moooi designs into her projects. One of her litmus tests with clients is a table the company developed in 2006 with the Swedish design collective Front, a life-size black pig balancing a tray on its head. “I love, love, love that table,” she said. “I can’t tell you how many people I showed it to before I found one who liked it.”

吉士兰·凡·洛斯布鲁克·比尼亚斯(Ghislaine Van Loosbroek Viñas)是一名生于荷兰、在南非长大的纽约室内设计师。她喜欢将Moooi的设计作品糅合到自己的项目之中。她测试客户的方法之一,就是拿出该公司在2006年与瑞士设计团队共同制作的一张桌子。那是一头实物大小的黑猪,头顶一个托盘的样式。“我非常、非常喜欢那张桌子,”她说,“我都不知道自己给多少人看过那张桌子,终于找到了喜欢它的人。”

Ms. Viñas first balked at making generalizations about Dutch design, but soon identified some hallmarks. There is the abundant and adroit use of color, she said, and a playfulness that Americans might consider childish but is merely contemporary. “I think that what the American audience may not be ready for,” she added, “and what they don’t get automatically, is the irony and wit that so much Dutch design has.”

比尼亚斯一开始不愿意大而化之地概括荷兰设计作品的风格,但她很快指出了一些特点。她说,荷兰设计师喜欢在作品中巧妙地运用大量色彩,这种俏皮的心态可能会让美国人觉得幼稚,但那只是一种当代风格。她还说,“我觉得美国受众还没习惯许多荷兰设计作品当中蕴含着的讽刺与智慧,他们也不能马上就心领神会。”

Will Moooi’s witty offerings be culled for an American market? Mr. Vissers said that what you see in Amsterdam you will get in New York, in an environment whose mise-en-scène resembles that of the flagship showroom.

Moooi会不会为了迎合美国市场,而剔除掉那些别有新意的产品?菲瑟斯说,你在阿姆斯特丹看到的产品是什么样,在纽约就会是什么样的。它们的展示环境也会跟旗舰店里的陈列室相似。

But over all, the company has been toning things down. “For sure, in the past our collection was not fit to complete a house with,” said Mr. Wanders, the company’s creative director. “It was more you’d add a few Moooi pieces to give a place some extra character.” That is changing, he said, with the addition of quieter pieces that are not intended to start conversations, but simply furnish a room. “More and more, you see the collection of Moooi as a collection you can build interiors with.”

不过总体而言,该公司的风格一直在向柔和的方向转变。“的确,以前我们的产品系列并不适宜整体家居布置,”公司的创意总监万德斯说,“人们更倾向于挑选几件Moooi家具来给房间增添一些情调。”这种状况发生了改变,他说,公司新增了一些更低调的家具,其设计初衷并不是为引发议论,而只是装饰房间。因此,“你会发现,Moooi的产品系列已经变得越来越宜家了,你可以采用它们布置居室。”

Speaking of the early years of Droog and the work that set so many tongues wagging, the avant-garde design purveyor Murray Moss made a distinction: “It wasn’t clever, it was smart,” he said.

在谈到楚格设计的早期阶段,和那些引发热议的作品时,前卫设计师穆雷·莫斯(Murray Moss)做出了如下区分:“那不是聪明,而是明智。”他说。

Mr. Moss believes that the “wow factor” of curios like Mr. Wanders’s porcelain bud vase created from a burned-away sponge or Peter van der Jagt’s doorbell that rang a pair of wineglasses overwhelmed their ingenuity and depth. “There was humor, and there was hubris, and it resulted in a redefinition of what beauty was,” he said.

莫斯认为,无论是万德斯用一块烧过的海绵制作的瓷花瓶,还是彼得·凡·德·贾格特(Peter van der Jagt)用一对酒杯制作的门铃,这类作品当中的猎奇色彩都盖过了它们的创造性和深度。“它们蕴含着幽默,也蕴含着傲慢,其结果就是重新定义了美的范畴。”他说。

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