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情迷那不勒斯

更新时间:2014-2-11 11:31:17 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Seduced by Naples
情迷那不勒斯

It doesn’t take long to understand Naples.

读懂那不勒斯,并不需要太久。

Once you make your way through the unruly traffic, honking horns, locals shouting in thick dialect across alleys lined with wet laundry, past racy black lace garters on display in shop windows, shrines to the Madonna with blue neon and plastic flowers set into palazzo walls, churches decorated with carved skulls, women squeezed into their shirts and spike heels, immigrants selling knockoff bags, helmetless teenagers on mopeds racing the wrong way down slippery one-way streets, and everywhere the smells of strong coffee, fried dough, fresh clams and the breeze blowing in from the sea — it is immediately clear that two primal forces drive this magnificent chaos of a city: life and death.

穿过混乱的车流、刺耳的笛声和本地土著口音浓重的叫嚷,你穿行于挂满湿衣服的深巷,路旁的橱窗里挂着诱人的黑色蕾丝吊袜带,圣母庙宛如宫阙,宫墙里嵌着塑料花,变幻着幽蓝的霓虹,教堂饰以精美的头骨,女人们穿着紧身衣裙与细高跟行走街头,外地小贩争相叫卖山寨包,少男少女头盔都没戴,开着电动车在湿滑的单行道上逆行,空气中飘过咖啡的香雾,混杂炸面食与新鲜蛤蜊的气息,加上耳边徐徐吹来的海风,你瞬间就会明白,那不勒斯的红尘纷扰受着两种原力的驱使——生本能与死本能。

A view of the city from the former monastery of San Martino.
从昔日的圣马蒂诺修道院俯瞰那不勒斯。

Maybe it’s the location, set on that wide bay that looks out on movie-set-perfect Capri and its poorer cousin, Ischia, and the most storied active volcano in the world at the city’s shoulders, Vesuvius, inescapable memento mori. Or maybe it’s the history of colonization — first by Greeks, then Romans, Normans and after them the Spanish, and later even Italians, and the lingering presence of organized crime. But this is a city that has seen it all, survived most of it, and, if you have the patience to explore it, will win you over and never let you go.

也许是因为地势绝佳。那不勒斯坐落在辽阔的那不勒斯湾,俯瞰风景如画的卡普里岛(Capri)和它家境欠佳的表弟伊斯基亚岛(Ischia),肩头点缀着世间故事最多的活火山维苏威(Vesuvius),“身在凡尘,终有一死”,这是无可逃脱的宿命。或者是因为它曲折的殖民史——最初被希腊人占领,然后是罗马人,再后是诺尔曼人、西班牙人甚至意大利人,直到今天,有组织的犯罪仍然挥之不去。但这个城市的确历经冷暖,阅尽兴亡,如果你肯沉静下来探寻一番,就会沉醉于它的风情,不舍离开。

Its spell can be powerful. More than elegant, restrained Florence or show-offy Rome, with its perfect, ruined beauty, and even more than otherworldly Venice, I would argue it is earthy, squalid, slightly menacing Naples that is one of the most romantic cities in the world.

那不勒斯的魔咒十分强大,胜过优雅矜持的佛罗伦萨或洋洋自得的罗马(它的颓圮之美恰如其分),甚至比仙境威尼斯还要动人。我得说,这污秽、险恶而隐含江湖气息的那不勒斯堪称天下最浪漫的城市之一。

I FIRST SAW NAPLES years ago, when I was working as a babysitter in Rome. It was winter. The city’s famous Christmas market was in full swing, as it is now. I was traveling with a group of scholars and archaeologists. They took us to every church in town, one blurring into the next, and I don’t remember much, besides being warned to hold on to my bag. (Always good advice. In Naples, street crime is fast and real.) Still living in Rome, I returned the following summer and stayed in the leafy middle-class neighborhood of Vomero, once a stopping point for Grand Tourists. “See Naples and Die” was the motto in that era, although Henry James’s Daisy Miller didn’t make it past Rome. In the hotel room, one window had a sweeping view onto the bay below, with the ships gliding in the harbor under a summer sun, and the other opened onto the towering hillside above. Captivated by the city’s enticing mix of looming enclosure and open possibility, I vowed to return to Naples again and again. And so I have.

第一次来那不勒斯是几年前,当时我在罗马做一份照看婴儿的工作。时值冬季,城里最有名的圣诞市场和现在一样喜乐喧嚣。与我同行的是一群学者和考古学家,他们带着我游遍了城里每一座教堂,走出这座又进了那座,我都记不清了,只记得领队警告大家看紧自己的包。(这句话永远是金玉良言。猝不及防的街头犯罪在那不勒斯真的存在)我仍然住在罗马,次年夏天又来到那不勒斯,住在浓荫蔽日的中产街区佛梅洛(Vomero),大游客旅行团的一个停靠点。当年有句箴言是“见了那不勒斯,死而无憾”,尽管亨利·詹姆斯(Henry James)的小说《黛西·米勒》(Daisy Miller)还没风行到罗马。在客栈里从这个窗口望出去,那不勒斯湾在夏日的艳阳下尽收眼底,碧波上的小船来去悠然。打开另一扇窗,却只见巍峨的群峰。隐然的封闭与开放的可能,这美妙的混搭如此醉人,我发誓要再三再四地来。我做到了。

In the years I lived in Rome, whenever I wanted to escape that swampy city, with its oppressive world-weariness, its perennial ability to seduce but never to surprise, I headed for Naples — and still do — a surefire adrenaline rush, a slap in the face, a semifailed state only an hour south by train.

那些年我久居罗马,城里厌世的气息缠绵不散,固然能始终引诱你,却永远不会让你惊奇,每当我想逃离的时候,就会直奔那不勒斯。至今不变。那是肾上腺素铁定的激荡,是清脆的耳光,是亦成亦败的姿态,而到达那里,只需要一小时南行的火车。

Sometimes I start at the Café Mexico in Piazza Dante, for a perfect espresso or a “caffè shekerato,” a mix of coffee, ice and sugar shaken into a thick cream and filled with so much caffeine and sugar that it makes the back of your head throb. I calm my nerves by browsing in the secondhand bookstores that line the passageway leading to Piazza Bellini, named for the master of Neapolitan Romantic music, into the ancient heart of the city, “Spaccanapoli,” from the Italian word “spaccare,” to split. It takes its name from what is now Via dei Tribunali, slicing down the middle of the old city first settled by the Greeks.

有时候,我的旅程始于但丁广场(Piazza Dante)上的墨西哥咖啡馆(Café Mexico)一杯妙不可言的浓缩咖啡或者caffè shekerato,这种混合咖啡加了冰块和打匀的糖粉与奶油,咖啡因与糖含量很高,喝下去能感受到后脑勺的悸动。为了平息躁动的神经,我会到通向贝里尼广场(Piazza Bellini)的步道两侧的二手书店随便看看。这片广场得名于那不勒斯出生的著名浪漫主义音乐家贝里尼。然后我会走进古城的中心斯巴克拿波里(Spaccanapoli)大街,它的名称源于意大利语单词spaccare(意为分割),当年古希腊人就是用这条大街将古城一分为二的。

The area is now a warren of dingy, narrow streets, churches, pizzerias and shops selling Naples’s famous Christmas crèche figurines. There are countless Holy Families, but also little clay workers at their trades — the battery-operated baker forever putting his tiny loaves into the oven, the fishmonger with little silver fish — as well as statuettes of football stars and politicians, sometimes engulfed in the red flames of hell.

如今这里风格杂乱,五花八门,遍布狭窄昏暗的街道、教堂和比萨店,沿街的店铺里摆着那不勒斯著名的圣诞人偶,有不计其数的基督与圣父圣母小雕像,也有粘土制成的各行各业的劳动者:电池驱动的面包师反反复复地把小面包放进烤箱,鱼贩子兜售着小银鱼,还有许多球星和政客的小雕像,有的政客在地狱的烈火中挣扎。

Deep in Spaccanapoli lies one of the great wonders of Naples: Caravaggio’s “Seven Acts of Mercy,” surely one of the strangest and most breathtaking paintings in all of art history, a weird chiaroscuro tableau that unites an old man suckling a woman’s breast, a disembodied pair of dirty feet, men in armor struggling in the semidarkness, and high above them a mother and child and two angels, Neapolitan boys really, who cling to each other midfall in a strange and tender embrace.

斯巴克拿波里大街的深处是那不勒斯最伟大的奇迹之一:画家卡拉瓦乔(Caravaggio)的名作《七善事》(Seven Acts of Mercy),这是艺术史上最怪异也最摄人心魄的绘画作品,用明暗对照法展现了惊人的对比:老头吸吮美人的乳房;形状莫辨的脏脚;铠甲武士在半明半昧中挣扎;高处一对母子;两个天使——其实是两个那不勒斯男孩——在奇异而温柔的拥抱中自半空降落。

The unfathomable painting is tucked into the tiny church of Pio Monte delle Misericordie, inside a palazzo so unassuming and smog-stained that an unwitting visitor could walk past it entirely. In contrast, the city’s other great Caravaggio, “The Flagellation,” at the Capodimonte Museum, is showcased with drama, placed at the end of a suggestively long hallway of galleries. It captures the moment just before Jesus’s tormentors unleash their fateful blows. Every time I’ve visited the Capodimonte, once the hunting lodge of the Bourbon rulers of Naples and now one of the world’s great museums, it is nearly empty, a sign that this city remains an acquired taste, not completely discovered.

这幅高深莫测的名画就藏在小教堂仁慈山(Pio Monte della Misericordia),挂在一间低调而昏暗的房屋里,如果游客的目光不那么敏锐,很容易与它失之交臂。与此相反的是,卡拉瓦乔的另一幅杰作《被鞭挞的耶稣》(Flagellation)则受到了戏剧般的礼遇。它收藏于卡波迪蒙特博物馆(Capodimonte Museum),安放在引人遐想的长廊尽头,两侧都是展厅。它捕捉了鞭刑官挥起长鞭对耶稣实施致命惩罚之前的瞬间。卡波迪蒙特博物馆过去是波旁王族在那不勒斯狩猎时的行宫,而今成了世界上最伟大的博物馆之一。每次我来,都发现这里门巷萧然,证明这个城市的审美的确耐人寻味。

The tourists who do come, many of them embarking for only a few hours from cruise ships, tend to flock to Naples’s Archaeological Museum, with its vast rooms of ancient statuary and frescoes from Pompeii as fresh as the day they were painted. (Don’t be surprised if many rooms are closed; the museum says it lacks funding for guards.)

假使真有访客,他们往往是刚下邮轮没几个小时,直奔那不勒斯考古博物馆,那些宽敞房间里陈列的庞贝(Pompeii)古雕像和壁画依然笔触鲜艳,清晰如昨。(如果你发现很多房门都上了锁,请不要惊讶,因为馆方说资金太少,雇不起太多保安。)

Here, you can see the Secret Cabinet of ancient erotica collected by the aristocratic Farnese family and kept hidden from public view for centuries. There are little bronze men with giant phalluses, images of couples in flagrante, a satyr pleasuring himself. Some items were amassed by a Borgia cardinal with interesting taste, but most were discovered at Pompeii and nearby Herculaneum, leading Christian moralists to believe that those cities were destroyed by volcano and mudslide as divine punishment for lasciviousness. Many currents of thought have emerged from Naples over the centuries. Moralism was never one of them.

这儿有个暗橱陈列着法尔内塞(Farnese)世家秘藏了好几个世纪的古代情色艺术品,包括阳具伟岸的青铜人偶、夫妻春宫画及登徒子自慰图。有些是博尔吉亚(Borgia)红衣主教的收藏,品味奇特,但大多数发掘于庞贝古城及附近的赫库兰尼姆(Herculaneum),以至于后世的卫道士坚信这几座城市最终为火山与泥石流摧毁是因淫荡而招致的天谴。几百年来,那不勒斯涌现出了无数思潮,但道德主义从来不在其中。

ONE PERFECT SPRING DAY a few years ago, some friends and I took the funicular to the former monastery of San Martino, high above the city. From the garden, there is a stunning view of the sweep of the bay — the crumbling, close-packed houses, satellite dishes, the spires of churches with plants sprouting from their cupolas, the industrial port and, in the distance, Vesuvius. San Martino’s central courtyard, with slightly unkempt grass and fruit trees, is decorated with comely skulls. Its walls are heavy with marble detailing, the work of Cosimo Fanzago, the master sculptor of the Neapolitan Baroque and a favorite of Anthony Blunt, the British art historian who pursued a second, even more baroque, career as a Russian spy. The marble is elaborately worked into ripe apples, ornate flowers, curved shapes suggestive of both male and female genitalia. Even in the cloister, one finds another inescapable essence of Naples: the coupling of sex and death.

若干年前一个美好的春日,我和几个朋友乘缆车上行,寻访昔日的圣马蒂诺(San Matino)修道院。从花园向下望,那不勒斯湾的清幽风景一览无余——挨挨挤挤的旧屋、圆盘般的卫星接收器、教堂的尖顶圆顶、青翠的林梢、繁华的工业港及遥远的维苏威火山。圣马蒂诺修道院内装饰着精美的头骨雕刻,庭院里是一片略嫌杂乱的草坪和果树。四周的院墙上满是繁复的壁画,包括雕塑大师科西莫·凡扎戈(Cosimo Fanzago)的作品。这位那不勒斯出生的巴洛克艺术家是英国艺术史专家安东尼·布兰特(Anthony Blunt)的心头大爱,而布兰特的第二职业更为光怪陆离——苏联间谍。大理石四壁上刻着成熟的苹果、精美的鲜花及细致入微的男女私处,人们发现即使是在清修之地,那不勒斯的精髓也无处不在:性与死的痴缠。

Wandering around San Martino that day, a friend and I came across a room with landscape paintings of the Bay of Naples, the luminous stretch of coastline that first caught the attention of the Greeks in the eighth century B.C. They made land just up the coast from Naples and named their settlement Cuma after Kymi, the village on the Greek island of Evia from which they first set sail. (Naples, Neapolis, the new town, came later.) Kymi is also on a bay that rises up a steep hillside. The landscapes, old and new, echo each other. And maybe, I thought to myself that day, the history of the West begins with a handful of Greeks setting sail for farther shores, searching for a place that reminds them of home.

那天我跟一个朋友闲庭信步,走进圣马蒂诺修道院的一间屋子,观赏了几幅那不勒斯湾风景画。早在公元前八世纪,明媚的海岸风光就引起了希腊人的注意,他们在那不勒斯湾边的土地上垦荒耕田,给这片新家园起名库迈(Cuma),因为希腊人当初挥别希腊小岛依维亚(Evia)时,就是从海岸的凯迈(Kymi)小村出发扬帆至此的。(后来才建起了“那不勒斯”,意为“新城镇”。)凯迈小村的地势也是高踞陡峭的绝壁俯视港湾,眼前的库迈似曾相识。那天我默默地想,也许西方的历史就始于几个泛舟远游的希腊人,他们在遥远的彼岸,不断地寻找着与故乡相似的新土地。

After Cuma, the Greeks moved down the shore to Naples and called this settlement Parthenope, after the siren who tried to lure Odysseus to the rocks. Even today, you can tell that Naples was once a Greek city. It is the quality of light, which is stronger and clearer and feels more ancient and essential here — and in all of Magna Grecia, the Southern Italian regions that were once Greek colonies — than the light of Rome, with its softer pinks, or the steady, subtle light of the Italian north, with its countless shades of gray.

后来希腊人离开库迈,迁居到海岸高处的那不勒斯,并把这片村落称作帕尔特诺珀(Parthenope),即希腊神话中那位海妖,她曾痴想用美妙的歌声引诱奥德修斯撞上礁石。哪怕是今天,一见到无比灿烂的阳光,你就明白那不勒斯曾经是个希腊城市。这就是南意大利昔日的希腊殖民地——大希腊(Magna Grecia)区,它比罗马更加古意盎然,更纯更真,因为罗马的阳光是另一种样子,像北意大利那样柔和微妙,弥漫成层次无穷的灰。

For centuries, Naples lorded itself over Rome by asserting its Greek origins. “By staying Greek and not being a political player in the region at all, Naples became everything Rome was not,” Peter Robb writes in “Street Fight in Naples,” his excellent 2011 book, which brings the dramatic history of the city to life. “Neapolitans were free not to be serious. Free to cultivate their Greek garden, and not unaware how deeply Romans remained in awe of Greek culture. Being Greek was a kind of revenge, a soft power of its own kind.”

几百年来,那不勒斯自称希腊人的苗裔,遗世独立于罗马的统治之外。“那不勒斯保持希腊风骨,不屑于周围的政治游戏,因此与罗马处处相反。”彼得·罗伯(Peter Robb)2011年出版的杰作《那不勒斯街头战》(Street Fight in Naples)刻画了这座城市惊心动魄的历史,书中写道:“那不勒斯人潇洒随性,玩世不恭。他们悠闲地侍弄着自己的希腊花园,深知罗马人对希腊文化多么敬畏。它的希腊风骨是一场复仇,是独特的温柔一刀。”

Naples is also a realm of the spirit. In “The Aeneid,” written by a poet from Mantua who felt most at home in Naples, observing the power politics of Rome from afar, Aeneas stops at Cuma on his way back from the Trojan War before founding Rome. There, the Cumean Sybil, so beautifully depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel ceiling, advises Aeneas how to descend to the underworld from nearby Lake Avernus to visit his father, but warns of the danger of the journey. “Offspring / of gods by blood, Trojan Anchises’ son, / The way downward is easy from Avernus ... but to retrace your steps to heaven’s air, / There is the trouble, there is the toil,” she says. Lake Avernus is still here today, now in the semisuburban sprawl outside Naples, surrounded by a NATO outpost.

那不勒斯也是灵性王国。诗人维吉尔(Virgil)抛下曼图亚(Mantua)的故园,离开那不勒斯来到罗马,冷眼旁观帝国的强权政治。在他的长诗《埃涅阿斯纪》(The Aeneid)中,英雄埃涅阿斯(Aeneas)从特洛伊凯旋归来创建罗马城之前,曾经在库迈停下了脚步。库迈的先知女神希比尔(Cumean Sybil)指引埃涅阿斯如何经由附近的阿维尔努斯湖(Lake Avernus)进入地狱寻访亡父,也告诫他此行多么凶险。米开朗琪罗曾在西斯廷天顶壁画中,将这位女先知画得美轮美奂。“天神的骨肉,安奇塞斯(Anchises)之子,从深湖入地狱易如反掌……但召你重上天庭,却太难太难。”希比尔在诗中说。时至今日,这片圣湖仍然存在于此,就在那不勒斯郊外的城乡结合部,北大西洋公约组织的岗哨分布在四周。

These days, the grotto of the Sybil — where Ingrid Bergman’s character has a breakdown in “Voyage to Italy,” Roberto Rossellini’s 1955 film — is an ill-marked site reachable on confusing local roads, their signs obscured by rushes, in the grim areas that stretch from Naples northward up the coast and are the stronghold of the Camorra, the Neapolitan Mafia. A friend and I once went on a rainy afternoon. A handful of mustachioed guards waved us past without asking us to pay. Inside, we were the only visitors. The cave is a long tunnel with a few narrow slats for light. From the woods, you can see the ocean below. I found the site profoundly depressing. The rain, the weight of history, filled me with sadness, a sense of the futility of human endeavor. Had so many centuries of civilization led only to this, a Mafia-infested area of ugly concrete, bad roads, poor zoning?

说到希比尔的洞穴,在罗伯托·罗西里尼(Roberto Rossellini)1955年的电影《意大利之旅》(Voyage to Italy)中,英格丽·褒曼(Ingrid Bergman)扮演的女子就在这里痛哭失声。山洞位于那不勒斯北海岸阴暗的危崖上,如今是那不勒斯黑手党克莫拉(Camorra)的大本营,通向此地的几条路上,路牌都因海浪冲刷而字迹模糊,难以辨认。一个阴雨连绵的下午,我和朋友来到这里,三五个大胡子卫兵挥手放我们通行,没有提到任何费用。洞里寥落冷清,我们是仅有的访客,长长的隧道只有几条狭缝透光,树林外可以看到低处的海浪,只觉黑云压城,满怀愁绪。沉重的雨水和幽暗的历史让人心生悲凉,感觉一切努力都是徒劳。千百年文明之后,剩下的竟然只是这些——猖獗的黑手党、坎坷的道路与丑陋的水泥屋?

THE CITY’S PAST sometimes seems to shine brighter than its present. After the quieter years in the 13th and 14th centuries of the Angevin French, who left their mark on some of the city’s most stately medieval architecture, it was the Bourbons who helped turn Naples into the cosmopolitan capital of the vibrant Spanish empire, which it remained for centuries, a hub of commerce and learning. The young Cervantes was stationed here for five years as a marine, and the Quartieri Spagnoli, now a bustling working-class neighborhood, was built to house the Spanish troops back in the days of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the period when southern Italy was under Spanish rule. Back then, the Italian south was far richer than the impoverished north. After Italy’s unification in the mid 19th century, living standards and per capita income in the south plummeted. To this day, many in Naples believe the south was better off before unification.

这座城市的过去还算辉煌。十三至十四世纪,在法国安如望族(Angevin)统治下,那不勒斯度过了一段宁静的光阴,迄今城里最堂皇的中世纪建筑就是他们的遗产。然后,哈布斯堡(Habsburg)王朝把那不勒斯定为动荡的西班牙帝国的首都,在随后的几个世纪里,它都是商业和教育的枢纽。青年塞万提斯(Cervantes)曾在这里当过五年海员。两西西里王朝时期,意大利南部处于西班牙统治之下,特地建起西班牙区(Quartieri Spagnoli)驻扎西班牙军队,而今这里是人声籍籍的劳工生活区。意大利南部当年可比北部安逸得多。十九世纪中叶,意大利统一之后,南部的生活标准和人均收入大幅下降。直到今天,很多那不勒斯人还相信统一之前南方才是温柔富贵乡。

Naples now has a left-wing mayor, Luigi de Magistris, a former anti-Mafia magistrate, who has tried to solve the city’s persistent garbage crisis, a phenomenon deeply linked to organized crime. The city has never been easy to govern. In 1547, the Neapolitans revolted against the imposition of the Spanish Inquisition. A century later, Neapolitan peasants revolted against their Spanish overlords, furious that they were being impoverished through taxes to pay for Spain’s foreign wars. In 1943, when the Nazis began rounding up Neapolitan men, the furious women of Naples fought back, successfully driving the Nazis out of town, albeit on a killing spree, in a rare mass citizens’ revolt against the German occupation.

今日的那不勒斯市长是左翼人士Luigi de Magistris,这名反黑手党官员多年来力图解决城内肆虐已久的垃圾危机,而这一现象与有组织的犯罪息息相关。这座城市从来都不好管。1547年,那不勒斯人奋起反抗西班牙宗教法庭施加的苛捐杂税。一百年后,那不勒斯农民反抗西班牙领主的统治,因为他们重税压身,深陷赤贫,税款竟被用于西班牙海外战争。1943年,纳粹德国围捕那不勒斯男人,妇女们愤然反击,成功地将纳粹赶出城市,尽管那场罕有的大规模反抗德国占领运动最终沦为一场浴血杀戮。

In “Naples ’44,” his remarkable diary from a year spent as a British intelligence officer in the city at the end of World War II, Norman Lewis recounts tales of mothers prostituting their daughters and Allied officials making devil’s bargains with local gangsters. Everywhere, people looked for miracles, believing the intercession of the saints would save them, while one smiling priest takes another tack, selling umbrella handles carved from the bones of the saints. “He, too, had to live,” Mr. Lewis concludes.

“二战”晚期,英国情报官诺尔曼·路易斯(Norman Lewis) 在那不勒斯工作,后来他在《那不勒斯1944》(Naples ’44)一书中以日记方式记录了发生在这座城市里的故事,比如母亲组织女儿卖淫及盟军将领与当地黑帮的幕后交易等等。人们到处寻找奇迹,相信神灵会拯救自己,一个笑面牧师想了个点子,兜售圣徒骨头制成的伞把。“是的,他也需要活下去。”路易斯先生写道。

In Naples, survival instincts alternate with leaps of faith. It is here that the faithful flock to the cathedral to see the miraculous liquefaction of a vial of the blood of San Gennaro, and where even St. Thomas Aquinas, the theologian most committed to the demands of the rational, believed that a painting of the crucifixion in the church of San Domenico Maggiore spoke to him. Somehow, in Naples, this all makes sense. Here, the line between the realistic and the supernatural is forever blurred.

在那不勒斯,求生本能与昂扬的信念并肩而行。一群群虔诚的信徒涌入圣热内罗(San Gennaro)大教堂,渴望见证瓶中圣人血液融化的神迹。连史上最理性的神学家圣托马斯·阿奎那(St. Thomas Aquinas)也宣称,圣多梅尼克马焦雷 (San Domenico Maggiore)教堂中一幅《受难图》(Crucifixion)中的耶稣曾经对他开口讲话。不知为什么,在那不勒斯,这些都能自圆其说。现实与超自然的界限在这里永远是模糊的。

The history of conquest has also left its mark. “O Francia o Spagna pur che se magna,” the old Neapolitan saying goes: It doesn’t matter if we’re governed by France or Spain, so long as we eat. This Neapolitan realpolitik, a cynicism about power, can seem dangerously close to nihilism. And yet this city is bursting with life. The food especially lingers in the mind — fresh fish carpaccio and Sancerre at the Pescheria Mattiucci on a cool evening on the cusp of spring; the paccheri alla Genovese with beef and caramelized onions at L’Europeo di Mattozzi; a simple margherita pizza at Di Matteo, its dough just slightly springy, its marinara sauce not too salty or sweet (“this pizza,” a friend once said, “is like a kiss on the forehead”).

那段征服史毕竟抹不去踪影。那不勒斯的老前辈有句格言:“管它法国西班牙,只要有饭吃,我就无所谓。”这就是那不勒斯人的政治信念,对待权杖争夺的嘲讽几近虚无主义。然而,这座城市又如此地热爱生活,尤其是它的美食时刻在我脑中萦绕不去。料峭的初春之夜,到Pescheria Mattiucci饭馆品尝鲜鱼白汁牛肉与桑赛尔白葡萄酒;去L’Europeo di Mattozzi餐厅点一份热那亚意粉配牛肉和焦糖洋葱;在Di Matteo饭馆来一块简简单单的玛格丽特比萨饼,面饼劲道弹牙,海员沙司甜咸相融,恰到好处。(“这片比萨饼,”一个朋友曾说,“美得就像印在额上的吻。”)

I once read my horoscope in the Naples daily newspaper, Il Mattino. “Love: It’s useless to try to find a logical meaning, ask questions and analyze with the mind what’s happening, the answers are only in your heart,” it read. “Work: Chaos reigns supreme and you just can’t catch a break. Put everything aside and wait for help from the next moon.”

记得在那不勒斯一份名为《意马蒂诺》(Il Mattino)的日报上读过我的星座分析。“爱情:你想用逻辑与理性分析一切,但都是徒劳。答案其实就在心中。”它这样写道,“工作:你深陷混乱,只能稍作喘息。放下一切吧,等待下次月升之时贵人相助。”

ONE WINTER DAY I was with friends at the pastry shop Scaturchio, famous for its sfogliatella, delicate layers of pastry stuffed with ricotta and orange peel and dusted in confectioner’s sugar. We messily tried to eat as we walked, laughing so hard that we blew the powdery white sugar all over our dark coats. We passed the Gesù Nuovo church, with strange mystical symbols carved in its rocky facade, and entered the cloister of the church of Santa Chiara, a garden lined with colorful majolica scenes from the Old Testament.

一个冬日,我和朋友去Scaturchio西点屋寻访他们闻名遐迩的千层酥:层层精美的酥皮内填上意大利乳清干酪与橙皮,再洒上糖粉。我们捧着千层酥在路上边走边吃,但笑声太大,吹散了白色的糖粉,沾得黑色大衣上哪儿哪儿都是。我们路过新耶稣教堂(Gesù Nuovo church),瞥见它的岩石正门上雕刻着奇异而神秘的图腾,然后走进圣吉雅拉(Santa Chiara)教堂的回廊,花园里一排排马约利卡(Majolica)陶器绚丽多彩,宛如《旧约》。

Evening was approaching. High above the cloister walls, the sky turned a pinkish blue. The world felt far away. The sounds of the city faded. Outside, boys were playing soccer in the churchyard. There we were in Naples, like so many before us, suspended between the sacred and the profane, the silence of the cloister and the chaos of the world. Campa un giorno e campalo bene. Live for the day and live it well.

暮色渐深,修道院墙外的蓝天漫开绯色的晚霞。幻世越来越远,城市的扰攘悄然淡去了。院墙外几个少年在空地上踢球。在那不勒斯,我们与此前到来的无数过客一样,徘徊于神圣与世俗、空寂的寺院与鼓噪的凡尘之间。正如本地人常说的,“生活就是今朝有酒,不醉不归。”

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