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城市过度观光 居民不堪重负该怎么办?

更新时间:2019/10/3 10:43:38 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

What's it like to live in an over-touristed city?
城市过度观光 居民不堪重负该怎么办?

Global travel and tourism continues to grow at breakneck speed, growing faster than the global GDP and contributing more than $8 trillion to the economy every year. Yet, in some cities seeing a record numbers of visitors, governments and residents alike are starting to question whether this growth of tourism might be too much of a good thing.

全球旅游观光业发展神速,其惊人增长速度甚至超过全球GDP的增长,每年的观光经济高达过8万亿美元。然而,成也观光,败也观光,在一些观光客人数创纪录的着名旅游城市,政府和居民已开始担心,观光业这样的增长之势是否已好过了头。

In order to understand the struggles these cities could face in coming years and how they might address them, the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) and real estate firm JLL recently put together the Destination 2030 index as a way to measure tourism readiness, based on tourism growth and the cities’ ability to manage that growth. The index measures 75 tourism indicators – including the concentration of visitors, urban readiness and local policy engagement – to determine the challenges ahead for 50 of the world’s major cities.

为了解过度观光城市在未来几年将会面临的问题及其因应之道,世界旅行观光委员会(WTTC)和房地产公司仲量联行(JLL),最近综合观光业的增长数据和观光城市承受此增长之能力的数据,提出了观光胜地2030年旅游指数报告,以此来评估这些旅游胜地对未来观光旅游业的发展前景是否已做好充分准备。该报告共评估了75项旅游指数,其中有观光客集中度、城市应对水平和当地政策参与度等,判断全球50个热门观光城市是否有足够准备来面对未来的挑战。

In the report’s ‘Managing Momentum’ group, cities with high growth in tourism numbers were flagged as potentially causing strain on existing infrastructure if steps aren’t taken to manage the growth. We talked to a few residents in these cities to find out how the influx of travellers in recent years has affected them, how authorities are responding and how visitors can remain respectful of the people who live there year-round.

被报告归纳为“增势很强应受管理”这一组的城市,旅游观光增长太快,如果不采取措施应对这样的增长势头,城市现有的基础建设和旅游设施将会受到很大的冲击。我们采访了这些城市的一些居民,了解近年观光客潮水般的涌入如何打扰到他们的生活,而他们的政府又采取了什么样的因应措施,以及他们希望游客应该以什么样的方式来尊重这里的常住居民。

Amsterdam

阿姆斯特丹

With 18 million visitors last year and a population of under 1 million, Amsterdam has seen tourists add to rising real-estate prices due in part to short-term rentals, as well as contribute to overcrowded streets and problems with their relaxed drug laws. In the index, Amsterdam ranks in the highest quartile for concentration of visitors and overall ‘crunch’ (the strain on the city). Unhappy residents have given it the derogatory nickname of ‘Venice’, a symbol of a city overrun by holidaymakers.

阿姆斯特丹人口不足100万,但去年却接待了1,800万游客,过多的游客给不断上涨的房价火上浇油,部分原因是因为游客短期租房大增。此外过量游客还造成大街小巷人潮汹涌,以及大麻毒品使用宽松带来的问题。在这份报告中,阿姆斯特丹的游客集中度和城市总体“受冲击”指数排名在最高的25%的城市之列。为此感到气闷的居民以含贬义的“威尼斯”来自称他们的居住地,意味阿姆斯特丹已不是他们的家园,而是观光度假者的城市。

Still, some say the picture isn’t as bleak as the media makes it out to be. “Museums finally have enough budget and small businesses are thriving,” said Amsterdam native Hanneke Vroegindeweij, co-founder of private tour company Amsterdam Odyssey. “In 42 years of my life, I’ve never seen my city so beautiful.”

但是也有人说,阿姆斯特丹的现状并非媒体所说的那么严峻。阿姆斯特丹当地人、私营旅游公司“阿姆斯特丹奥德赛”(Amsterdam Odyssey)的创办人之一汉内克·欧文德维(Hanneke Vroegindeweij)说,因游客增加,“博物馆终于预算充足,小商小贩也繁荣兴旺。我活了42年,还从未见过我的城市像如今天般美丽。”

That doesn’t mean there isn’t plenty to be done, and the Dutch government is working on it quickly. The city has banned short-term rentals like Airbnb in certain areas, and has plans to stop cruise ships from docking. The city also has worked on channelling tourists to other Dutch cities, like Zandvoort (only 40km from Amsterdam’s city centre), renamed ‘Amsterdam Beach’ to give people the feeling it is an accessible destination.

但这并不意味着已无可改善之处。荷兰政府正在迅速采取因应措施。阿姆斯特丹已在市区某些地段限制向游客提供短期租房服务,如Airbnb租房等。还计划禁止游轮停靠阿姆斯特丹的中央码头。该城还尽力将游客吸引疏散到荷兰其他城市,比如离阿姆斯特丹市中心仅40公里的荷兰度假城市赞德沃特(Zandvoort),并因此将该城的海滩易名为“阿姆斯特丹海滩”(Amsterdam Beach),希望以此吸引阿姆斯特丹的度假观光客也到此一游。

“The city is implementing several projects promoting different kinds of tourism with an emphasis on sustainability, ‘slow travel’ or lesser-known neighbourhoods with projects like ‘24H Noord’, [part of the 24H Amsterdam programme, which dedicates a day to exploring the lesser known and trafficked districts in the city],” Vroegindeweij said. “We aren’t against having lots of tourists in Amsterdam. We just want them – and the city – to rise above the level of mass tourism.”

欧文德维说:“阿姆斯特丹正在推行多个计划以促进多类型的旅游观光模式,重点在强调可持续性类型、‘慢游’方式,及推销知名度不高的社区旅游,比如最近推出的‘24小时北郊之行’(24小时阿姆斯特丹观光计划的一部分,这个计划是引导游客前往较僻静商贩较少的区域)。我们并不反对大量游客来阿姆斯特丹游览。我们只是希望游客,以及我们的城市,能够将旅游品质提升到大众旅游的水平之上。”

San Francisco

旧金山

California’s coastal city has always been a draw for tourists with its iconic Golden Gate Bridge and Fisherman’s Wharf, but the Silicon Valley tech boom here has put additional strain on the resources of the city, even as tourist numbers continue to grow. In the index, San Francisco ranks in the highest quartile for overall ‘crunch’.

旧金山,加州这座海滨城市,以金门大桥(Golden Gate Bridge)和渔人码头(Fisherman's Wharf)吸引着源源不绝的游客,但除了游客数字的节节上升,硅谷的科技繁荣也给旧金山的城市资源带来了额外的压力。在世界旅行观光委员会的报告中,旧金山在整体“冲击压力”指数上也属于排名最高的25%城市之列。

One of the landmark lightning rods in the city right now is Lombard Street, known as ‘the crookedest street in the world’ for its winding, steep hairpin turns. “The traffic backup to travel down this little stretch spills over into neighbouring streets and blocks the flow of traffic,” said Kristine Dworkin, whose family has lived here for generations. “Groups stop to take selfies at the bottom with seemingly no notice of the cars coming towards them. Pedestrians also don't seem to realise that the homes along Lombard are private property and frequently trespass in the yards.” In response to the complaints, the city recently approved a toll-based reservation system, which could go into effect as early as next year.

这座城市目前最吸引人的地标之一是伦巴第街(Lombard Street),以其蜿蜒和陡峭的多个急转弯而被称为“世界上最弯曲的街道”,华人称之为九曲花街。克里斯婷·德沃金(Kristine Dworkin)的家族居住在这条街已历经数代。她说:“想沿着这一小段路而下的游客车辆,造成了交通堵塞,并影响到邻近的街区。”她说:“观光团游客聚在弯曲道的下方自拍,似乎不在意迎面驶来的车辆。步行的游客似乎也没有意识到伦巴第街两旁的房屋是私人住家,因而经常闯入人家的院子。”为了回应伦巴第街居民的投诉,该市最近通过了开车经过九曲花街需交费预约的政策,最早将于明年生效执行。

Lombard isn’t the only street where tourists get a little too close for comfort to private residences. Alamo Square Park in the centre of the city is lined with the ‘Painted Ladies’, variously coloured Victorian houses dating to the 1890s – made even more famous for being the backdrop of the opening to the sitcom Full House. “On a recent visit to Alamo Park, my kids were stunned to watch from the park as person after person walked up on the front porch of the home from Full House and snapped family portraits,” Dworkin said. “My daughter asked me, ‘Mom, do they think people don't live there? Maybe they think it’s a set from the show’.”

伦巴第街并不是唯一一条游客为了满足自己的游兴而过于靠近私人住宅的街道。旧金山市中心的阿拉莫广场公园(Alamo Square Park)有一排称为“彩妆女士”(Painted Ladies)的住宅,这些颜色缤纷的维多利亚风格房子建于1890年代,更因为作为情景喜剧《欢乐满屋》(Full House)的开场背景而举世闻名。德沃金说:“最近我带孩子去阿拉莫公园玩,我的孩子们在公园里看到一个接一个的游客走上作为《欢乐满屋》前景的那栋房子的前廊,拍摄全家福照片,感到非常的吃惊。女儿问我:‘妈妈,那些人难道以为房子没有主人吗?也许他们认为这只不过是电视剧中的一个场景而已。’”

The city generates more than $9 billion from tourists annually, so city officials are embracing the traffic and working on initiatives to clean up other parts of the city and make it more attractive for visitors. In return, it’s basic empathy and respect that residents like Dworkin would like to see.

旧金山每年的观光旅游收益超过90亿美元,因此市政府官员积极改善交通,并采取措施清洁城市的其他区域,以进一步提升旧金山的旅游吸引力。但也希望游客能以同理心和尊重回报德沃金等旧金山居民,不要干扰到他们的生活。

Prague

布拉格

Ranking in the highest quartile for overall crunch and the density of tourist traffic, the Czech Republic’s capital (a city of just 1.3 million people) attracted a record 7.9 million visitors last year. Most tourists never leave the area of Prague 1, the district with Old Town, Malá Strana (The Lesser Quarter) and the castle area, which keeps the negative effects contained.

捷克共和国首都布拉格人口130万,但去年却吸引了创纪录的790万游客,在总体拥堵和旅游交通密度方面是排名最高的25%城市之一。不过大多数游客会一直待在布拉格1区,即包括布拉格老城区、马拉·斯特拉纳区(Malá Strana, The Lesser Quarter,小城区)和城堡区这几个区域,这使得观光的负面影响仅受限于这些区域之内。

“It’s something of a shame that the centre has now been surrendered to tourists but even there, locals can find refuge and cheap-ish beers in places known mostly to university students,” said Charlie Neville, originally from London, who has lived in Prague since 2002 and works for custom tour operator JayWay Travel. “We enjoy a much less busy version of Prague in neighbourhoods like Letná with its beer garden with one of the best views of the city, tree-lined avenues of Vinohrady, trendy Karlin, and hipster Vrsovice.”

查理·内维尔(Charlie Neville)说:“布拉格市中心现在已拜倒在观光客膝下,这很可惜。不过当地人还是可以在只有大学生才知道的街区找到幽静的地方和平价啤酒。”内维尔来自伦敦,2002年以后定居布拉格,现在在JayWay客制化旅游公司工作。他说:“我们喜欢布拉格不那么热闹的街区,比如莱特纳(Letna),这里有啤酒花园,可俯瞰布拉克最美景色的观景地,还有维诺拉迪(Vinohrady)的林荫大道,以及时尚的卡林(Karlin)和潮人汇集的维休维吉(Vrsovice)。”

To keep the effects of tourism in check, the Prague city council has worked to enforce night-quiet rules, has banned Segways and is currently working on a ban on traffic-impacting ‘beer-bikes’, popular pedal-powered trolley bikes that tour breweries and bars in the city centre.

布拉格市政府为了控制游客泛滥对市民生活的影响,已制定措施以维护夜晚的宁静,并禁止在街上使用赛格威电动平衡车(Segways),目前还在努力禁止会影响交通的“啤酒自行车”。所谓“啤酒自行车”是指一种受游客欢迎的电动踏板车,因在市中心的酿酒坊和酒吧间穿梭而得名。

Much like in Amsterdam, the Czech tourism bureau is working on moving people out of the capital. “Český Krumlov [a Bohemian castle town 170km south of Prague] is already too busy with day trips, but the [country’s] second largest city, Brno, is a pleasant tourist-free alternative, as is Olomouc,” Neville said.

如同阿姆斯特丹一样,捷克旅游局也正想方设法将游客分散出首都布拉格。内维尔说:“布拉格以南170公里外的波希米亚城堡小镇克鲁姆洛夫(Česky Krumlov)已经有太多一日游的游客,但捷克第二大城市布尔诺(Brno)观光客比较少,捷克东部城市奥罗姆(Olomouc)也是一个不错的选择。”

Barcelona

巴塞罗那

Barcelona has struggled in recent years to manage the number of tourists descending on its sun-soaked streets, and ranked in the index’s highest quartile for overall ‘crunch’. With more than 30 million visitors last year, tourists can far outnumber the local population of 1.6 million, which puts a strain on city resources.

西班牙的巴塞罗那也是整体压力指数最高的25%城市之一。巴塞罗那阳光普照的大道游客人头汹涌,去年迎来3000多万游客,远远超过了这座城市160万的人口,这给城市设施资源带来了很大压力。因此巴塞罗那近年来一直在努力控制游客数量。

“Tourists bother me when a group of eight or more take the neighbourhood bus – a small minibus that neighbours use to go uphill to their homes, especially for elderly and families with kids or strollers or people carrying heavy shopping bags,” said Barcelona native Marta Laurent Veciana, owner of tour company ForeverBarcelona.com. Big tourist groups also often block the subway ticket validating machines. “Leave at least one machine available for locals so they don’t have to wait until your entire group has validated their ticket to go in.”

巴塞罗那当地人,旅游公司ForeverBarcelona.com的老板马塔‧维西纳(Marta Laurent Veciana)说:“游客如果一团8人或以上乘搭本地社区巴士,会让我很不安。因为这是附近居民乘坐回家的小巴,这是一条上坡路,对年老长者、或携带孩子和幼儿的父母及带着沉重购物袋的人,是不可或缺的交通工具。”大型旅游团也经常堵住地铁站的所有验票机。“至少应该给当地人留一台机器,这样当地人就不用等到成团人都验票后他们才能进到地铁站。”

As a beach destination, Barcelona can sometimes attract badly behaved tourists. “It’s really annoying when you see tourists throwing garbage on the streets, or drunk gringos [foreigners] at night vomiting around,” said María José Castro, who moved here a year ago. Veciana also has a problem with people who feel like it’s OK to wander naked in the streets, a sight that is all too common. “There are two nudist beaches, if they want! Also, men shouldn’t go bare-chested outside of the beach area.”

巴塞罗那也是海滩旅游胜地,有时也会因此招来不文明的游客。一年前移居巴塞罗那的玛丽亚·卡斯楚(Maria Jose Castro)说:“看到游客在街上扔垃圾,或者晚上看到外国醉鬼呕吐得一地都是,是很令人讨厌的。”令维西纳感到头痛的是,有人觉得在街上赤身裸体游荡没有问题,而这竟然是常见到的景象。维西纳说:“如果他们想要赤身裸体,这里有两个裸体海滩可以去!而且,除非在海滩,男士不应该赤裸上身。”

Residents say tourists could take basic steps of not littering and staying quieter at night to ease some of the burden on locals. The government has also worked in recent years on initiatives to reduce the strain. They recently implemented a new shuttle bus from Alfons X subway station (L4, yellow line) to Gaudi’s Park Güell, free of charge with a park ticket purchase; and worked to pedestrianise many of the streets around the Sagrada Família basilica. They’ve also passed laws restricting Segway and bike tours to certain areas, away from crowded areas like the waterfront.

巴塞罗那居民表示,游客只要稍微收敛一下行为,比如不乱扔垃圾,晚上不要喧闹,就可以少给当地人带来麻烦。巴塞罗那近年来也采取一些措施以减少游客对城市的冲击。他们最近开设了一种新的穿梭巴士,连接地铁4号黄色线的Alfons X站和高迪设计的奎尔公园(Park Guell),有公园入场券的可免费乘搭。此外,还会将游客最多的圣家堂周围的许多街道改为步行街。巴塞罗那还通过法律,在某些地区限制游客使用赛格威电动平衡车和自行车,如人口密集的海滨等的地区。

Toronto

多伦多

Not every city sees the growing number of visitors as a bad thing. “Personally, I love seeing more people flocking to our great city of Toronto,” said Kyle Collier, founder of tech startup Phaze. “I've lived in Shanghai, China, so from my standpoint Toronto has lots of space.” That doesn’t mean Toronto doesn’t face challenges ahead ­– the index ranks the city in the highest quartile for overall ‘crunch’.

游客增加并非每个城市都认为是件坏事。科技初创公司Phaze的创办人凯尔‧科利尔(Kyle Collier)说:“我本人喜欢看到我们伟大的城市多伦多客似云来。我在中国上海生活,因此就我的视角来看,多伦多容纳游客的空间很多。”空间多并不意味多伦多未来不会面临挑战。世界观光旅游委员会的报告已将多伦多列入整体“冲击压力”指数中排名最高的25%城市之中。

While the tourism industry seems ready to take on the influx of visitors, according to locals, it’s housing where residents are feeling the real pressure. “Toronto was already facing an affordable housing shortage. Especially in the downtown core, this has been exacerbated by the advent of holiday rentals (such as Airbnb),” said resident Eric Wychopen, who blogs about the province at Ontario Away. “It’s common now to see condo terms and conditions prohibiting renters from posting their properties for holiday rent. However, it’s also common knowledge that some tenants still illegally rent their properties.”

据多伦多居民说,虽然多伦多旅游业似乎已做好准备迎接大量游客的到来,但让当地居民感到真正压力的是住房。多伦多居民埃里克‧维丘朋(Eric Wychopen)是位旅游博客写手,专门介绍加拿大安大略省的旅游信息。他说:“多伦多本来已有可负担经济住房出现短缺的问题。特别是在市中心,由于假日短期租房,如Airbnb的出现,更加剧了房荒。现在,租用公寓房的条款和条件普遍禁止租户在网上出租假日公寓。不过也众所周知,仍然有一些租户在非法出租他们的公寓。”

For tourists, a little respect for the environment goes a long way for locals. “Littering is something that disappoints me,” Collier said. “You certainly wouldn't want people littering in your home, so why do it to everyone else? Respect the planet, and people, especially those you don't know.”

游客对所到之处只要略示尊重,而当地居民已是受惠不浅。科利尔说:“乱扔垃圾让我很失望。你肯定不希望别人到你家作客而乱扔垃圾,那为什么要对别人做同样的事呢?我们要尊重地球,尊重他人,尤其是你不认识的人。”

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