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原因揭秘:鲨鱼攻击人类的真正动机

更新时间:2019/9/30 20:16:27 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The real reasons why sharks attack humans
原因揭秘:鲨鱼攻击人类的真正动机

The crystal-clear water beneath 13-year-old Hannah Mighall darkened for a moment. She was sitting astride her surfboard, enjoying the warmth of the sun as she and her cousin waited for the next wave in Tasmania’s idyllic Bay of Fires. Behind them the brilliant-white sandy beach was largely deserted and the surfing had been good so far.

13岁的梅格尔(Hannah Mighall)身下晶莹澄澈的海水暂时变暗了。她正坐在冲浪板上,享受着温暖的阳光,她和表哥在塔斯马尼亚岛(Tasmania)田园诗般的海湾中等待着下一次的冲浪。在他们身后,明亮的白色沙滩上散落着稀疏的人影,到目前为止,冲浪活动顺利而快乐。

The sudden shadow below made Mighall instinctively lift her feet – balls of kelp often broke off nearby rocks and drifted in the surf. “They are really slimy so I hated touching them,” she says.

突然,梅格尔脚下出现了阴影,她本能地抬起了脚——海藻球经常从附近的岩石上脱落,漂进海水中。她说:“它们黏糊糊的,我讨厌触碰它们。”

But then something took hold of her leg.

但有什么东西抓住了她的腿。

“It didn’t hurt at first, it was like something gently grabbed hold of me and then I was in the water,” says Mighall.

梅格尔说:“开始并不疼,只是有东西轻轻抓住了我,然后我就掉进了水里。”

To those who witnessed what happened, however, it was anything but gentle. The water around Mighall exploded as a five-metre-long great white shark latched onto her right leg, lifted her off the surfboard and shook her in the air before disappearing underwater.

然而,对目睹发生这一切的人来说,这是一件可怕的事。当时有一条5米长的大白鲨咬住了她的右腿,把她从冲浪板上抬了起来,在水中摇晃着,然后又快速消失在水面之下,周围炸开了水花。

“It took a few seconds for me to realise it was a shark,” she says. “When I popped back up from the water I was lying on my back but my leg was in its mouth. All I could see was my black wetsuit leg, its teeth, pink gums, teeth and the dark bit under its nose where it meets white. I thought I was having a nightmare and kept trying to blink my eyes open.”

梅格尔说:“几秒后我意识到那是条鲨鱼。当我从水里跳出来时,我仰面躺着,但我的腿在它的嘴里。我能清楚的看到,我穿着黑色潜水服的腿,还有它的牙齿和粉红色的牙床、以及牙齿和鼻子下面的黑白分界线。我以为是在做恶梦,一直想睁大眼睛。”

Mighall’s cousin, 33-year-old Syb Mundy, who had been sitting on his own board just a few metres from her, raced over and began punching the shark in the side of its head. The shark pulled away from him and as it went underwater it let go of Mighall, lunging instead for her surfboard that was still attached by a rope to her leg.

梅格尔的表哥,33岁的曼迪(Syb Mundy),坐在离她有几米远的自己的冲浪板上,见状快速划过去猛击鲨鱼头部。鲨鱼这才离开,潜入水下,放开了梅格尔,转而又扑向梅格尔的冲浪板,而冲浪板上有一根绳子绑在她的腿上。

With the board in its mouth, the shark pulled Mighall underwater for a second time. Moments later she popped back up to the surface with her damaged board. The animal had bitten clean through the fibreglass and foam.

鲨鱼嘴里叼着冲浪板,第二次把梅格尔和所有东西都拖到了水下。过了一会儿,梅格尔带着半块木板浮出水面。鲨鱼把冲浪板上的玻璃纤维和泡沫咬得干干净净。

Mundy grabbed hold of his cousin, put her on his back and paddled frantically for the shore. Earlier that day Mighall had been practicing water rescues with another girl during training with her local Surf Life Saving association, repeatedly being carried into shore as the “victim”. Now she was doing it for real.

曼迪一把抓住表妹,把她背在背上,疯狂地划向岸边。当天早些时候,梅格尔还在当地冲浪救生协会的训练中与另一名女孩练习水上救援,多次扮演“受害者”被抬上岸。现在她是真的成了受害者。

“The shark was circling us underwater,” says Mighall. “Then this wave came in and Syb just said, ‘We have got to catch this as it is going to save our lives.’ I was just tapping the water as I was terrified but he was really paddling and the wave carried us to shore. The shark came with us all the way up to the beach as there is a deep gutter running up to it. We could see its fin as it surfed in on the same wave.”

梅格尔说:“鲨鱼在水下围着我们打转。恰在此时海浪朝岸边涌起,曼迪说,‘我们必须顺着海浪抓住机会,只有它能拯救我们。’我很害怕,也没有力气只是在轻拍水面,但曼迪拼力地划水,海浪终于把我们带到了岸边。这条鲨鱼也一路追着我们来到海滩,身下划出一条很深的沙沟。我们与鲨鱼同在一个波浪上,可以清晰地看到它的鳍。”

Luckily for Mighall, among the few people on the beach who witnessed what had happened that day were a doctor and a nurse. They gave her vital first aid while waiting for an ambulance to arrive.

对梅格尔来说是不幸中的幸运,在海滩上廖廖无几的目击者中,有一名医生和一名护士。在等候救护车到达时,他们对梅格尔进行了重要的急救。

More than 10 years later, she still carries deep scars on her leg that trace the outline of the shark’s mouth. Her right leg is noticeably weaker than her left – so much so that she has to lift it with her hands when she wants to kick-start the dirt bike she rides occasionally.

10多年后,她的腿上仍留有深深的疤痕,形状类似鲨鱼嘴的轮廓。她右腿的功能也明显弱于左腿,以至于她想要启动偶尔骑的越野摩托车时,不得不用手帮忙把右腿抬起来。

Mighall was one of roughly 83 people around the world to be attacked unprovoked by sharks in 2009. It is a figure that has remained around the same level over the past decade. The average number of unprovoked attacks between 2013-2017, for example, was 84.

2009年全球约有83人无端遭到鲨鱼袭击,梅格尔是其中之一。在过去10年里,这个数字基本保持不变。例如,2013年至2017年间,遭袭击的平均数为84起。

But recent research indicates that shark attacks in some parts of the world appear to be on the rise. The eastern US and southern Australia have seen shark attack rates almost double in the past 20 years, while Hawaii has also seen a sharp increase. But why?

但最近的调查显示,鲨鱼袭击事件,在世界的某些地区有所上升。在过去20年里,美国东部和澳大利亚南部的鲨鱼袭击率翻了一番,而夏威夷的鲨鱼袭击事件更是急剧增加。这其中原因是什么?

“Shark bites are strongly correlated to the number of people and number of sharks in the water at the same time,” says Gavin Naylor, director of the Florida Program for Shark Research, which maintains the International Shark Attack File. “The more sharks and people there are in one place, the greater the chance of them bumping into each other.”

佛罗里达鲨鱼研究项目主管内勒(Gavin Naylor)说:“被鲨鱼咬伤的人数与水中同时出现的人数和鲨鱼的数量密切相关。”国际鲨鱼攻击档案(International Shark Attack File)记录,“鲨鱼和人类在一个地方的数量越多,它们相互碰撞的概率就越大。”

This seems like an obvious point, but when you look closer at where attacks are taking place there are some clues as to what might be going on. The large human populations along the southern coast of Australia and the eastern coast of the US mean large numbers of people enjoying the water. But southern Australia has also seen rising numbers of fur seals along its coastline, the favourite prey of great white sharks in the region.

这是一个显而易见的结论,当仔细观察袭击事件发生的地点时,会发现一些线索。澳大利亚南部海岸和美国东海岸人口众多,这意味着有大量的人享受着海水带来的快乐。但澳大利亚南部沿海的海豹数量不断增加,海豹正是大白鲨最喜欢的猎物。

Similarly, seal populations off Cape Cod on the coast of Massachusetts in the US have rebounded in recent years, largely thanks to protection by the US’s Marine Mammal Act introduced in 1972. This has led to increased numbers of great whites in the area too during the warm summer months as they look to feast on the seals that pull themselves out to bask on the beaches.

同样,近年来,美国马萨诸塞州海岸科德角(Cape Cod)附近的海豹数量也有所增加,这归功于1972年美国出台的《海洋哺乳动物法》(Marine Mammal Act )的保护。这同时导致了该地区大白鲨数量的增加,在温暖的夏季,白鲨的美味海豹会在温暧的海滩上晒太阳。

Sadly, last autumn, Massachusetts suffered its first fatal shark attack in 82 years and growing numbers of shark sightings have led to a string of beach closures.

不幸的是,去年秋天,马萨诸塞州遭遇了82年来首次致命的鲨鱼袭击,越来越多的鲨鱼袭击事件,致使许多海滩被迫关闭。

But there is no real evidence that sharks are actively hunting humans, according to the scientists who study them. Great whites in the North Atlantic, for example, show seasonal movement patterns, migrating thousands of miles to warmer waters further south during the winter months. Some mature adults will venture out into the open ocean for months at a time, covering tens of thousands of miles and diving to depths of 1,000m as they seek prey.

但据研究鲨鱼的科学家说,没有证据表明鲨鱼正在猎食人类。例如,北大西洋的大白鲨表现出季节性的迁徙模式,在冬季的几个月里,它们会迁徙数千英里到更温暖的南部水域。一些成年鲨会冒险进入开阔的海洋数月,覆盖数万英里,在寻找猎物时潜入千米深处。

“We are like helpless little sausages floating around in the water,” says Naylor. But despite being potentially such an easy meal, sharks are really not that interested in hunting humans. “They generally just ignore people. I think if people knew how frequently they were in water with sharks, they would probably be surprised.”

内勒说:“人类就像漂浮在水中无助的小香肠。”尽管这可以是鲨鱼简单的一餐,但它们对捕猎人类真没什么兴趣。“鲨鱼通常是忽视人类存在的。我想,如果人们能知道和鲨鱼在一起的频率有多高,就会感到惊讶。”

However, Naylor believes that the official statistics on shark attacks are probably an underestimate. Most reports come from highly developed countries with large populations and highly active news media. Attacks on remote islands or in less developed communities probably go unreported.

然而,内勒认为,官方统计的鲨鱼袭击数据可能被低估了。大多数报道来自人口众多、新闻媒体活跃的发达国家。而对偏远岛屿或欠发达地区的袭击事件可能并没有报道和统计。

Looking at the statistics for the number of shark attacks last year can reveal some fascinating trends. Last year, there were just 66 confirmed, unprovoked attacks, roughly a 20% fall compared to previous years. Just four of these were fatal according to the International Shark Attack File, although another database of shark attacks records seven deaths. So far in 2019, there have been four fatal shark attacks.

从去年鲨鱼袭击事件的统计数字中,能发现一些趋势。去年有66起未经证实的、无端的袭击,与几年前相比下降了20%左右。根据国际鲨鱼袭击档案记录,其中有4人死亡,尽管另一个鲨鱼袭击数据库记录有7人死亡。2019年到目前为止,已经发生了4起致命的鲨鱼袭击事件。

The reason for the fall – which bucks the overall trend of growing numbers of attacks – has been attributed to a sharp decline in the number of black-tipped sharks. These sharks account for many of the bites around the south-eastern US, migrating down the coast of Florida due to rising sea temperatures that have led their prey to become more dispersed.

黑头鲨数量锐减是导致鲨鱼数量下降的原因之一——这一趋势与袭击数量的增长趋势大相径庭。这些鲨鱼占据了美国东南部的大部分咬伤事件,由于海水温度上升导致它们的猎物更加分散,它们沿着佛罗里达海岸迁徙。

The findings highlight one of the key challenges in understanding why sharks bite humans. There are dozens of different species responsible for bites, each with their own unique behaviour, hunting strategies, prey and preferred habitat – although in many cases the species can be misidentified or not identified at all.

这些发现找到了鲨鱼为什么会咬人的关键因素之一。咬人的有几十种不同的物种,每一种都有自己独特的行为、狩猎策略、猎物和偏好的栖息地——尽管在许多情况下,这些物种可能被错误识别,或者根本没有被识别。

The majority of unprovoked attacks on humans where a species is identified involve three large culprits: the great white, tiger and bull sharks. Yet great whites – the species depicted in the film Jaws and demonised by Hollywood ever since – isn’t just a separate species, but an entirely different taxonomic order from the other two.

大多数无端攻击人类三大祸首是:大白鲨、虎鲨和牛鲨。被好莱坞电影《大白鲨》(Jaws)妖魔化的大白鲨,不仅是一个单独的物种,而且与另外两个物种的分类顺序完全不同。

“There are 530 different species of shark and there is so much diversity among them. You can’t just group them together,” says Blake Chapman, a marine biologist who has studied shark sensory systems and recently wrote a book on shark attacks on humans. “Different species have such a range in terms of their sensory biology, how they behave, their motivations and the habitats they live in.”

研究鲨鱼感官系统的海洋生物学家查普曼(Blake Chapman),最近写了一本关于鲨鱼攻击人类的书。他说:“世界上有530种不同的鲨鱼,种类繁多。不同的物种在感官生物学、行为方式、动机和栖息地方面都有很大的差异。”

Bull sharks, for example, tend to hunt in shallow, murky water that will require them to rely less on vision and more upon their sense of smell and electroreception, which allows them to detect minute electrical fields produced by their prey.

例如,牛鲨喜欢在浅而浑浊的水中捕猎,它们很少利用视觉,主要靠嗅觉和电波感受器,它们能够探测到猎物产生的微小电场。

“(Great) white sharks, which often hunt in very clear water use their vision a lot more and their eyesight is much better,” says Chapman. There is also some evidence that shark teeth may also function as mechanosensory structures – similar to touch – to help the animals learn more about what they are biting.

查普曼说:“大白鲨经常在非常清澈的水中捕猎,因为视线更好,它们主要利用自己的视觉来捕食。”也有证据表明,鲨鱼的牙齿有一种机械感觉结构——类似于触觉,能帮助鲨鱼感知在咬什么。

Chapman believes there may be a complex set of reasons for why unprovoked attacks on humans appear to have risen in recent decades. Aside from rising human populations along coastlines, the destruction of habitat, changing water quality, climate change and shifts in prey distribution are leading sharks to gather in greater numbers at certain hotspots around the world.

查普曼认为,近几十年来,无端袭击人类事件的增加,有一系列复杂的原因。除了海岸线上人口数量增加外,在栖息地方面,水质、气候及猎物分布的变化,导致鲨鱼大量聚集在某些热点地区。

In 1992, for example, there was a sudden spate of shark bites off the coast of Recife, Brazil – an area that had no unprovoked attacks for the entire previous decade. Chapman believes that heavy commercial port construction in the area damaged large areas of reef and mangrove, potentially displacing species like bull sharks, which moved to new areas like Recife in search of prey.

例如,1992年,巴西累西腓(Recife)海岸突然发生的大量鲨鱼咬人事件,在过去的十年里,该海岸从未发生过鲨鱼袭击事件。查普曼认为,该地区大规模的商业港口建设,破坏了大片珊瑚礁和红树林,破坏牛鲨等物种的栖息地,牛鲨为了寻找猎物迁移到了累西腓等新区域。

Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean – renowned for its beautiful, unspoiled marine habitats – has seen a dramatic rise in tourism but in recent years it has also suffered a growing number of shark attacks by the bull and tiger sharks that live in the surrounding waters. Since 2011, there have been 11 fatal attacks on Reunion, mainly on surfers. Those who survive often lose limbs. Researchers have found that around two-thirds of the Reunion attacks have occurred in turbid water and swells of more than two metres – the favoured environment for bull sharks, which are thought to be responsible for most of the attacks.

印度洋上的留尼旺岛(Réunion Island)以其美丽的、未受破坏的海洋栖息地而闻名,近年来,旅游业出现了突飞猛进的增长,但该岛也遭受了越来越多的生活在周围水域的牛鲨和虎鲨的袭击。自2011年以来,留尼旺岛发生了11起致命袭击事件,主要攻击目标是冲浪者。那些受攻击幸存下来的人经常失去四肢。研究人员发现,约三分之二的聚集攻击发生在浑浊的水域和超过两米以上的海浪中,这是牛鲨最喜欢的环境,人们认为牛鲨是多数攻击事件的祸首。

Naylor believes that in most cases, sharks bites are a case of mistaken identity.

内勒认为,多数情况下,鲨鱼咬人是一种错误的识别。

“If these animals are chasing bait fish, the flash of the white sole of a foot from someone kicking on a board might cause them to dart at it,” he says. “When you have a large animal like a tiger or a white shark, which move quickly, a bite is far more likely to be fatal.”

他说:“如果这些动物是在追逐诱饵鱼,那么当有人在一块木板上踢来踢去,白色脚底一闪而过时,就可能导致鲨鱼朝”饵料鱼“猛扑过去。当被行动迅速的大型动物大白鲨咬一口时,很可能就是致命的。”

Great whites typically attack from below, delivering a massive catastrophic bite. In some cases they will withdraw while their prey bleeds to death before returning to eat.

大白鲨通常会从下方攻击猎物,造成的伤害也是灾难性的。在某些情况下,它们会在猎物流血至死后再返回觅食。

“A great white in full predatory mode is quite a sight,” says Greg Skomal, a marine biologist with the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries who has been tagging and tracking great white sharks since 2009. He should know – last year, as he was leaning over the pulpit on the bow of a research vessel while trying to tag a shark, a large great white breached directly underneath him with its jaws agape.

马萨诸塞州海洋渔业部门的海洋生物学家斯科玛(Greg Skomal)自2009年以来就一直在追踪大白鲨,他说:“一只在捕食状态下的大白鲨非常惊人。”他还记得去年,当他俯身在一艘科考船船头的讲坛上试图标记一条鲨鱼时,一条大白鲨张着大嘴尖锐的下颚从他的正下方突袭而来。

“It gave me some idea of what a seal feels like,” he says. “I’ve seen that behaviour a couple of times over the years we have been doing this. Most of the time we put a camera in the water and the sharks are completely complacent. We must have done it thousands of times. But on a handful of occasions they attack straight away, breaking the pole and the camera. It is like they are in a heightened predatory state where their senses lock onto any kind of stimuli.

“这让我对海豹的感觉有了一些了解。”他说。“这些年来,我见过好几次这样的行为,大多数时候,我们把摄像头放在水里,进行观查,鲨鱼并不在意。我们做过成千上万次。但只有极少数情况下,鲨鱼会直接攻击,折断杆子和摄像头,就像它们处于一种高度掠夺状态,它们的感官锁定在任何一种刺激上。”

“I wonder if those strikes on people that are not merely investigative are the result of a person being in the wrong place at the wrong time with a shark in this kind of heightened state.”

“我想知道,那些袭击事件,是不是一个人在错误的时间,出现在错误的地点,与处于这种高度紧张状态的鲨鱼在一起。"

But for every attack on a person, there are just as many stories of people who have managed to get up close to these giant predators without any harm. Take Ocean Ramsey for example, who swam alongside an enormous 20-feet-long great white off the coast of Hawaii and made headlines around the world.

但是,每次攻击一个人时,都会有许多人接近这些巨大的食肉动物,并没有受到任何伤害。以拉姆齐(Ocean Ramsey)为例,他在夏威夷海岸与一条20英尺长的巨大白鲨同游,并成为世界各地的头条新闻。

Skomal and his colleagues are now using new high-resolution tags that can give the researchers minute by minute and second by second data on what the sharks are doing.

斯科玛和他的同事们正在使用新的高分辨率标签,这些标签能为研究人员提供关于鲨鱼每分每秒的行为数据。

He hopes it might help to answer questions about the behaviour of these animals as well as about where and how they breed. It could, ultimately, also help to tell us something about the reasons underlying attacks on humans, he says.

他们希望这些数据,能有助于回答关于这些动物行为的问题,以及它们在哪里如何繁殖的问题。他说,最终帮助我们了解攻击人类的潜在原因。

Some researchers are turning to forensic methods to try and unravel some of the reasons behind attacks. They are developing techniques to use DNA and bite-mark patterns to identify species, while others are examining video footage of attacks and comparing these to injuries to get a better understanding of what happened.

一些研究人员正借助于法医的方法,试图解开袭击背后的原因。他们正在开发利用DNA和咬痕模式来识别物种的技术,而另一些人正在研究攻击的视频片段,并将其与伤害情况进行比较,以便更好地了解真实状况。

Data from shark spotters in South Africa have shown that great whites are more active near the surface, and so more likely to be seen, when water temperatures are above 14C, during a new moon and in the afternoon. Other research, however, has suggested that great whites are more successful hunters at night when there is a full moon.

来自南非鲨鱼观测者的数据显示,大白鲨在水面附近更为活跃,所以当水温超过14摄氏度时,在新月期间和下午更容易被发现。然而,另一项研究表明,在满月的夜晚,大白鲨有更强的捕猎能力。

Other researchers have suggested juvenile great whites may attack humans as they hone their predatory skills, in much the same way that young lions will experiment with whatever prey they can take on.

有研究人员提出,幼年大白鲨可能会在练习捕食技能的过程中攻击人类,就像年轻的狮子会用它们能捕捉的任何猎物进行实验一样。

But regardless of the reasons for attacks on humans, the risks involved are still vanishingly small. In Australia the rate of shark attacks is in the order of 0.5 attacks per million people, while in the US it is less than 0.2 attacks per million. It is worth noting that in 2018, the US figures dropped to around 0.08 attacks per million while in Australia they rose to 0.8 attacks per million people.

但不管袭击人类的原因是什么,遇袭风险是很小的。在澳大利亚,每百万人中发生鲨鱼袭击事件约为0.5次,而在美国,每百万人中发生袭击事件还不到0.2次。

These figures are blunt instruments, of course. They fail to account for the comparatively fewer numbers of people who actually use the water, and the fewer still who swim in water inhabited by dangerous sharks. But these statistics, however ridiculous or comforting they might seem, do little to dampen our fear of sharks.

当然,这些数字是粗糙的。没有考虑实际使用这片水域的人数相对较少,而在鲨鱼居住的水域游泳的人就更少。这些统计数字,无论多么可笑或令人欣慰,都无法减轻人们对鲨鱼的恐惧。

“Fear has played a very important role in our evolution,” adds Chapman. “Humans don’t need to be eaten themselves by a sabre tooth tiger to learn to fear them. We learn that fear very quickly from a single story. People who have never seen a shark before fear them because we hear or watch stories about them.”

查普曼补充说:“恐惧在我们的进化过程中发挥了重要的作用。人类不需要被剑齿虎吃掉才能学会害怕它们。人们从一个案例中就学到了这种恐惧。从未见过鲨鱼的人同样害怕它们,是因为听到或看到过有关它们咬人的故事。”

The focus on the risks that sharks pose to us also diverts attention from the far greater threat we pose to their survival due to over fishing and human-induced climate change. Some estimates suggest shark numbers in Australian waters, for example, have declined by between 75-92%.

But for those who are afraid and want to know how to protect themselves from a shark, some advise punching a biting shark in the gills or poking it in the eyes. Swimming in groups and staying close to the shore are known to reduce the risk of attacks. Wearing dark clothing and avoiding wearing jewellery can also help to reduce the chance of attracting a shark’s attention in the first place.

如何保护自己免受鲨鱼攻击,一些人建议:用拳头打鲨鱼的鳃或戳它的眼睛;集体游泳或在靠近岸边的地方可以降低被攻击的风险;穿深色衣服和避免佩戴珠宝首饰也能减少鲨鱼的注意。

There are also a number of shark deterrents on the market that use electrical or electromagnetic pulses to interfere with the animals’ senses, but these have mixed results, according to research.

市场上也有一些使用电脉冲或电磁脉冲干扰动物感官的鲨鱼威慑剂,但研究结果是好坏参差不齐。

In some areas, the local authorities themselves have taken action. Traditionally, some authorities have used shark nets to protect areas used by swimmers, but these are controversial due to the harm they do to other wildlife.

在一些地区,当地政府也采取了一些行动。传统上,有使用鲨鱼网来保护游泳者使用的水域,但这会对其它野生动物造成伤害,所以这种做法存在争议。

Instead, smart drum lines – which use baited hooks attached to a system that sends out an alert when triggered – are now being trialled at several beach locations along the coast of western Australia. When a shark takes the bait, an alert is sent to response teams who catch, tag and then release the shark in a safer location.

取而代之的是,智能鼓线——使用带诱饵的挂钩连接到一个系统,当触发时会发出警报,现正在澳大利亚西海岸的几个海滩上试用。当鲨鱼触钩时,系统会向应急小组发出警报,应急小组负责捕捉、标记鲨鱼,然后将其释放到更安全的地方。

Another approach being tested in Cape Town, South Africa, is an electromagnetic cable that aims to discourage sharks from approaching areas used by swimmers. Scientists have also been testing an electromagnetic barrier as an alternative to shark nets.

南非开普敦正在测试的另一种方法是,电磁电缆,目的是阻止鲨鱼接近游泳者使用的水域。科学家们也在测试一种电磁屏障系统作为鲨鱼网的替代品。

These could be important steps as the harm caused by shark attacks can extend far beyond their immediate victims.

这些可能是重要的步骤,因为鲨鱼袭击造成的伤害远远超出直接受害者的范围。

“Shark attacks cause a lot of personal loss, but the impact they can have on the wider community is often not considered,” says Dave Pearson, one of the founders of Bite Club, which offers support to the survivors of shark attacks. He himself was attacked by a bull shark while surfing eight years ago in south-west Australia, nearly losing his arm when the animal smashed into him, bit into his forearm to the bone and carried him underwater.

为鲨鱼袭击幸存者提供支持的齿痕俱乐部(Bite Club)创始人之一皮尔森(Dave Pearson)表示:“鲨鱼袭击不仅造成个人损失,它还有更广泛的群体影响。”8年前,他在澳大利亚西南部冲浪时,遭到了公牛鲨的袭击,这头公牛鲨撞到了他身上,咬伤了他的前臂,并把他带到水下,差点让他失去手臂。

“After my attack, lots of my friends didn’t go back into the water for a long time,” he says. “The fear spreads really quickly.”

他说:“在我受到攻击之后,我的很多朋友在很长一段时间里,都不敢下水。恐惧蔓延得非常广。”

On a recent visit to Ballina, a surfing hotspot in New South Wales, Australia, he saw just what a shark attack can do to a town. The area has suffered a spate of attacks, including two fatal ones on surfers in 2015.

最近,他访问澳大利亚新南威尔士州的冲浪热点地区巴利纳(Ballina)时,亲眼目睹了鲨鱼袭击对一个小镇的影响。该地区曾遭受过一系列袭击,包括2015年对冲浪者的两起致命袭击。

“I was standing there watching these perfect waves coming in but there was not one person in the water,” he says. “One of the local coffee shops said they had suffered an 85% drop in business and the surf shop couldn’t give boards away. They were both thinking about closing.”

他说:“我站在海滩上,看着美丽的海浪涌过来,但水里没有一个人。当地一家咖啡店老板说,他们的生意下降了85%,冲浪板店里也无人需要提供冲浪板。他们都在考虑停业。”

A similar story is unfolding in Reunion where the local authorities have banned surfing and swimming in the water at certain times of the year due to fears about further shark attacks. The number of bites on humans have reduced as a result, but it has also taken its toll on the tourism industry.

在留尼汪岛也发生了类似的事情,由于担心发生更多的鲨鱼袭击事件,当地政府在一年中的某些时候禁止冲浪和游泳,鲨鱼咬人事件减少了,但旅游业损失惨重。

Despite the fear and economic costs of shark attacks, like many of those who survive encounters with sharks, Hannah Mighall doesn’t want to see these animals being punished with culls or by killing those animals that stray into areas being used by humans.

尽管鲨鱼袭击造成了恐惧和经济损失,但像许多在鲨鱼袭击中幸存下来的人一样,梅格尔不希望看到那些误入人类活动区域的动物遭到捕杀。

The personal effect of her attack, however, has been long lasting. While she got back onto a surfboard within six months of her attack and went “shark mad”, plastering her bedroom walls with pictures of the animals, she says her passion for surfing gradually ebbed away.

然而,鲨鱼的攻击对个人的影响也是长期的。梅格尔在遭受袭击6个月后,才又回到冲浪板上。而且她还在卧室墙上贴满了鲨鱼的照片。由于这些动物,她说她对冲浪的热情逐渐减弱了。

“I’d be fine and then I’d get this weird feeling and start looking around,” she explains. “I never had that before – I was a water baby and loved the water. Now I am scared of it. I used to think sharks were cool, but now I am terrified of them, although I still [have] respect for them.”

她解释说:“我会没事的,但现在我总会有种奇怪的感觉,不自觉的环顾四周。这在以前从来没有过,我是一个水宝宝,我爱水。现在我害怕了。我过去认为鲨鱼很酷,现在我害怕它们,尽管仍然尊重它们。”

Her shark posters have gone, as has her enjoyment of the sea. Instead she tends to prefer swimming or kayaking on rivers. But she still has the occasional nightmare about sharks.

现在,她房间墙上已经不再贴鲨鱼海报了,但是她对海洋的热情也不见了。她现在更喜欢在河里游泳或划皮划艇。但她偶尔还是会做关于鲨鱼的噩梦。

Pearson says this is a common problem in shark attack victims.

皮尔森说,这是鲨鱼袭击受害者的一个常见问题。

“Many of them never fully recover and the psychological scars can be even greater than the physical ones,” he says. “I started getting dreams and would wake up screaming at night. I ended up seeing a psychiatrist to help me get over this.”

“他们中的许多人永远无法完全康复,心理上的创伤甚至比身体上的创伤更大,”他说。“我开始做梦,晚上会尖叫着醒来。后来我去看了心理科医生,才帮我克服了这个问题。”

Mighall still has the surfboard she was riding on the day of her attack, a huge toothy bite missing from one side. Like the scars on her leg, it is a reminder of what can happen on the rare occasions that sharks do choose to attack the humans who stray into their domain.

梅格尔的冲浪板还在,她被袭击那天用的冲浪板,侧边缺了一大块,显示一个巨大的牙齿咬痕。就像她腿上的伤疤一样,这提醒我们,鲨鱼偶尔会选择攻击那些误入它们领地的人类。

They both entitle her to fear these animals. For those who fear them without having had such a close encounter she has a sound piece of advice.

被鲨鱼咬的冲浪板和她腿上的伤痕提醒梅格尔害怕这些动物。对没有经历过近距离接触鲨鱼的人来说,她有一个好的建议。

“If you are frightened, you can always stay out of the water.”

“如果你害怕,就不要下水。”

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