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逃离战乱的天才:为西方带来现代主义建筑设计

更新时间:2019/6/14 20:47:34 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The design geniuses who fled turmoil
逃离战乱的天才:为西方带来现代主义建筑设计

By 1939, more than 300 modernist architects from Germany and Austria – along with others from Russia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary and Romania – had settled in the UK, many of them émigrés from Nazi-controlled Europe. The more famous of these included architects Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, Berthold Lubetkin and Erich Mendelsohn. Many, but not all, were Jewish refugees.

1939年,有超过300名现代主义建筑师定居伦敦,有的来自德国、奥地利,也有的来自苏联、捷克斯洛伐克、波兰、匈牙利和罗马尼亚。他们中的多数,都是从纳粹控制下的欧洲逃亡出来的难民。这一批建筑师中,比较出名的有格罗皮乌斯(Walter Gropius)、布劳耶 (Marcel Breuer)、莱伯金(Berthold Lubetkin)和门德尔松( Erich Mendelsohn)等。难民中很多都是犹太人。

Some re-emigrated to the US after brief stints in Britain, or moved directly to the States and to other places, including Tel Aviv. Erich Mendelsohn, a German Jewish architect, co-designed the De La Warr Pavilion at Bexhill-on-Sea in 1935 – with the Russian-born, British Serge Chermayeff – and created modernist buildings in British-controlled Palestine, including Villa Weizmann near Tel Aviv, before moving to the US.

在英国短暂停留后,有的建筑师又一次动身,移居美国。也有的到了英国后直接启程前往美国或其他地方,如特拉维夫。前往美国的有德裔犹太人门德尔松,他在1935年时参与设计了英国滨海圣地贝克斯希尔(Bexhill-on-Sea)的德拉瓦尔亭(De La Warr Pavilion)。前往美国的还有俄国出生的英国建筑师谢尔马耶夫(Serge Chermayeff)。彼时的巴勒斯坦被英国占领,两人在赴美前曾在那里设计了许多现代主义建筑,包括特拉维夫附近的魏茨曼之家(Villa Weizmann)。

As the current UK-wide arts festival, Insiders/Outsiders highlights how these émigrés’ work greatly enriched British culture. “About two years ago I was in Hampstead, taking in how it had been a major cultural hub in the 1930s, with such modernist buildings as Lawn Road Flats, also known as the Isokon building,” says Monica Bohm-Duchen, creative director of the festival and author of an accompanying book. “I sensed a need for a wider look at the impact made by Nazi refugees on Britain. It wasn’t easy for émigrés to adapt. Anti-German feelings – dating back to World War One – as well as anti-Semitism, were rife. It was inadvisable to speak German in public. There was a book that taught Jewish people British etiquette.”

全英艺术节上,不论内行外行,大家都一直认为这些移民建筑师的作品极大丰富了英国文化。波姆-杜辰(Monica Bohm-Duchen)是本次艺术节的创意总监,有一本书即将出版,她说:“两年前我在汉普斯特德(Hampstead),讲解上世纪30年代时此地何以成为伦敦的文化中心。著名的现代主义建筑‘草坪路公寓楼’(Lawn Road Flats),也有人称之为伊索肯公寓楼(Isokon building),就坐落在此。当时我认为,人们低估了这些逃离纳粹的建筑师对英国的影响。对于他们来说,适应英国并不是一件容易的事情。英国人的反德情绪能够追溯到一战,而且和反犹太主义情绪一样普遍。在公众场合也不方便说德语。那时候曾经出版过一本书,专门教犹太人英国的礼仪。”

Many émigrés to the UK had been talented, experimental teachers or alumni of the highly influential Bauhaus school of art and design, founded by Gropius in 1919. This year marks the centenary of the school’s foundation, but this celebration – marked by exhibitions worldwide and a plethora of new books – should not detract from its turbulent final years.

这些流亡到英国的建筑师中,不乏才华横溢的实践型教师,有的毕业于包豪斯(Bauhaus)学校。这所学校由格罗皮乌斯创办于1919年,至今仍有巨大的影响力。今年是学校创建100周年纪念,但这场由全球展览和各种新书出版构成的庆典,并不能够掩饰学校最后几年动荡的状况。

Its promotion in the 1920s and 30s of unadorned, functionalist architecture, later dubbed the International Style, backfired as the Nazis’ power grew. Not only was the school’s cosmopolitan mix of cultures deemed anti-German, but its buildings’ flat roofs were perceived through irrational Nazi prejudice as unsuited to northern climes and therefore Jewish. In 1933, stormtroopers invaded the school and rounded up students for interrogation, forcing it to close. Gropius wasn’t Jewish but he was ostracised for his associations with the ‘degenerate’ modern art despised by the Nazis. Architectural commissions dried up and he had little choice but to emigrate.

上世纪20年代和30年代,包豪斯学校力推不加修饰的功能主义建筑风格,后来人们将这种风格称作是“国际风格”(International Style)。随着纳粹权力日益扩大,这种建筑风格备受打压。有人认为,学校荟萃全球文化的行为暗示了其反对德国的内核,就连学校的平面屋顶设计也为纳粹所诟病,强词夺理说这种设计不适合高纬度气候,并将之划为犹太人行径。1933年,纳粹冲锋队冲入学校,围捕在校学生,并进行审讯,学校不得已关闭。格罗皮乌斯不是犹太人,但是由于他“堕落”的现代主义建筑风格为纳粹所鄙视,也遭到了排挤。至此,建筑委员会已经空无一人,格罗皮乌斯没有办法,只能离开德国。

The Bauhaus adhered to the principle of the Gesamstkunstwerk, meaning a complete work of art, and students there took a preliminary one-year course, called the Vorkurs, during which they became acquainted with a wide spectrum of media before specialising in one discipline. This pioneering approach provided the template for the standard foundation course in British and US art schools. On emigrating, the Bauhaus’s architects, its textile, toy and graphic designers and its ceramicists went on to disseminate Bauhaus ideals around the world.

包豪斯学校坚持“整体艺术品”(Gesamstkuynstwerk)的原则。学生在校第一年必须学习基础课程。在此期间,他们能够熟悉各个不同的学科,最后决定自己的专业。这种方法颇具开创性,为英美艺术学校的预科课程设置提供了模板。包豪斯学校的建筑师、织品设计师、玩具和平面设计师,以及陶艺师们在流亡的过程中,把学校的理念不断传向世界各地。

Spreading the word

推广包豪斯理念

“Thanks to the thorough grounding Bauhaus students received, they were more adaptable as émigrés,” says Alan Powers, author of new book Bauhaus Goes West: Modern Art and Design in Britain and America. Whether refugees from Nazi-controlled Europe could settle in a new country or not was determined by how well-connected they were, and by their ability to secure work. Gropius himself had a headstart: “His arrival to Britain was masterminded by Philip Morton Shand, an architecture critic and modernist enthusiast,” says Fiona MacCarthy, author of a new biography, Walter Gropius: Visionary Founder of the Bauhaus (Faber & Faber). “A prearranged architectural partnership was a precondition of his entry into England. He was also offered free accommodation by Jack Pritchard at Lawn Road Flats and the promise of work through Pritchard’s development firm, Isokon.”

新书《包豪斯的西进:英美的现代艺术和设计》(Bauhaus Goes West: Modern Art and Design in Britain and America)的作者珀尔思(Alan Powers)说:“包豪斯给学生打下了牢固的基础,在流亡过程中也更能适应环境。”难民从纳粹掌控之中逃脱,能否在其他国家扎根,主要取决于他们是否能和该国建立联系,以及能否维持设计水平,找到稳定的工作。格罗皮乌斯本人的起步不差。麦卡锡(Fiona MacCarthy)是最新传记《格罗皮乌斯:包豪斯学校创始人的远见卓识》(Walter Gropius: Visionary Founder of the Bauhaus)的作者,她说:“格罗皮乌斯到英国,是由建筑批评家、现代主义爱好者尚德(Phillip Morton Shand)一手操办的。他要来英国,就要预先确定两人在建筑事业上的合作伙伴关系。普理查德(Jack Pritchard)为他在‘草坪路公寓楼’里安排好了住所,并在自己的开发公司(伊索肯)为他留好了工作。”

Hampstead in north London was, like nearby Swiss Cottage and St John’s Wood, a centre for left-wing thinking, and in the 1930s several thousand German-speaking refugees, also known as the Hitler émigrés, lived there, including Sigmund Freud. The exhibition, Isokon and the Bauhaus in Britain, also the title of a book by Magnus Englund and Leyla Daybelge, was recently held at The Aram Gallery in London. Today the flats are fully occupied and its ground-floor gallery has attracted more than 15,000 visitors since opening in 2014.

和周遭的瑞士小屋(Swiss Cottage)、圣约翰林(St John's Wood)一样,伦敦北部的汉普斯特德是左翼思想的摇篮。上世纪30年代,数千名难民来到此地定居。他们说着一口德语,被当地人称为希特勒流亡者(Hitler émigrés)。佛洛依德(Sigmund Freud)就是其中的一员。英格伦德(Magnus Englund)和戴贝尔吉(Leyla Daybelge)曾经出版过一本书,名为《英国的伊索肯公寓楼和包豪斯风格》。如今在伦敦的阿兰姆画廊(The Aram Gallery )正在举行同名的展览。如今的伊索肯公寓楼已经住满了租客,底楼的画廊于2014年开放,至今访客已逾15000人次。

Pritchard had visited the Bauhaus at its second site in Dessau in 1931 with modernist architect Wells Coates to find it closed by the Nazi-controlled council. He and his psychiatrist wife Molly commissioned Coates to design Lawn Road Flats.

1931年,普理查德和现代主义建筑师科茨(Wells Coates)一起前往已迁校至德绍(Dessau)的包豪斯学校。他们发现,学校因委员会受纳粹控制而关闭了。随后,他和精神病医生妻子莫里(Molly)一起,委托科茨设计了“草坪路公寓楼”。

Pritchard had lobbied the British government to allow in refugees from Germany and Austria, and many came to live in this experimental building, also occupied by Hungarians Marcel Breuer, former head of the Bauhaus’s furniture department, and László Moholy-Nagy, who had run its metal workshop. Yugoslav-born Otti Berger, who had taught weaving at the school, lived in nearby Belsize Park; after returning to the Continent to look after her mother, she was arrested by the Nazis and died at Auschwitz in 1944.

普理查德说服英国政府,接受了许多德国和奥地利的难民,就居住在这栋实验性的大楼里。当时楼里还居住着包豪斯的家具系的前部门主任、匈牙利人布劳耶(Marcel Breuer)、金属件工作室的主理人莫荷里-纳吉(László Moholy-Nagy),以及负责教编织工艺的博尔戈(Otti Berger)。博尔戈出生于南斯拉夫,逃亡到英国后居住在贝尔赛公园(Belsize Park)附近。后来,她回到欧洲大陆照顾生病的母亲,不幸被纳粹逮捕,于1944年死于奥斯维辛集中营。

Gropius was championed by another German émigré, Nikolaus Pevsner, who promoted Bauhaus values via his 1935 tome, Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius. Gropius, too, propagated modernist ideas with his book The New Architecture and the Bauhaus of 1935. Its avant-garde jacket, designed by Moholy-Nagy, pictured a measuring device and diagonal, scarlet sans-serif typeface.

佩夫斯纳(Nikolaus Pevsner)也是逃离纳粹德国的难民,同时也是格罗皮乌斯的支持者。1935年,佩夫斯纳出版巨著《现代运动的先驱:从莫里斯到格罗皮乌斯》(Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius),大力推广包豪斯学派的理念。格罗皮乌斯也在自己1935年出版的《新式建筑与包豪斯学派》(The New Architecture and the Bauhaus)之中宣传了现代主义思想。该书的封面由莫荷里-纳吉设计,配了一个测量装置的图片,中间用红色灯芯体字体写出书名,十分大胆前卫。

Moholy-Nagy worked for menswear shop Simpsons in Piccadilly, overseeing its displays that comprised bent plywood cabinets and clean-lined pendant lights. Breuer, who was born Jewish but renounced his religion on marrying his first wife Marta Erps in 1926, relocated to London on Gropius’s suggestion in 1936. He created furniture for Pritchard’s design company Isokon – his curvilinear plywood pieces, produced when tubular-steel furniture had become a cliché, chimed with a more romantic, organic take on modernism that prevailed in the 1930s. Pritchard also enlisted Austrian-born Egon Riss, another resident of Lawn Road Flats, to design pieces for Isokon, including the plywood Donkey storage unit for books, magazines, bottles and glasses.

莫荷里-纳吉曾在皮卡迪利(Piccadilly)一家名为辛普森的男装店工作过,主要工作是确保陈列无误,胶合板橱柜弯折地恰到好处,吊灯陈列整齐。布劳耶出生自犹太家庭,但在1926年和第一任妻子俄普斯(Marta Erps)结婚时宣布抛弃犹太教信仰。1936年,他听从格罗皮乌斯的建议,搬到了伦敦。布劳耶受雇于普理查德的设计公司伊索肯,专门设计家具。当时钢管家具已经过时,布劳耶设计的曲线胶合板件浪漫、多用有机材料,完美地融入了20世纪30年代盛行的现代主义风格。里斯出生于奥地利,当时也住在“草坪路公寓楼”中。应普理查德之邀,也为伊索肯公司设计过不少作品,其中包括一种胶合板制成的驴型收纳柜,能够轻易收纳书籍、杂志、酒瓶和眼镜。

One of Gropius’s UK commissions – Impington Village College in Cambridgeshire, co-designed with Maxwell Fry – echoed this sensibility of a softer modernism with its use of local brick. Pevsner lauded it as “one of the best buildings of its date in England.”

格罗皮乌斯曾经受雇设计了剑桥郡的伊平顿乡村学院(Impington Village College)。当时与他合作的设计师福莱(Maxwell Fry)用当地的砖,来回应了格罗皮乌斯这种柔和的现代主义情感。佩夫斯纳称它是“英格兰最完美的建筑之一”。

However, Gropius found his spell in Britain disappointing. “The main reason for this was lack of work,” MacCarthy tells BBC Designed. Britain at the time wasn’t receptive to modernist architecture, she adds: “Anthony Blunt rightly gave the reason for the English dislike of modernist buildings as being ‘because they’re not homey’.” In 1936, Gropius accepted an offer to become chair of the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University, which had shown a great interest in the Bauhaus while it was still active.

格罗皮乌斯还是认为,在英国的这段时间并不如意。麦卡锡告诉BBC设计栏目的记者说:“主要原因是没有活干。”当时英国人对现代主义建筑风格接受度不高,她补充道:“布朗特(Anthony Blunt)说的挺对的,英国人不喜欢现代主义建筑的原因,是‘看着没有家的感觉’。”包豪斯学校尚存之时,哈佛大学对其表现出了极大的兴趣。1936年,哈佛向格罗皮乌斯抛出了橄榄枝,他成为了哈佛设计学研究生院的首席教授。

In 1937, Gropius was given a lavish send-off – a dinner at the Trocadero, Piccadilly attended by 136 guests, among them HG Wells and furniture designer Gordon Russell – an indication of the esteem in which he was held.

1937年,在皮卡迪利的特罗卡德罗(Trocadero)酒店,人们为格罗皮乌斯举行了盛大的送别晚宴。当时共有136位嘉宾出席,其中包括著名小说家威尔斯(HG Wells)和家具设计师罗素(Gordon Russell)等,由此可以看出英国人对格罗皮乌斯的敬意。

In some ways it was easier for Bauhaus émigrés to settle in the US than in the UK because America had taken an interest in the school earlier – since the 1920s. By contrast, in the UK, despite the efforts of Pritchard and others, British avant-garde culture was “still ruled by the predominantly French aesthetic promoted by Roger Fry and the Bloomsbury Group,” as MacCarthy points out.

某种意义上来说,相比英国,从包豪斯学校里走出来的人确实更容易在美国扎根。因为早在上世纪20年代,美国就对这一学派表现出了极大的兴趣。相反地,麦卡锡也指出,即使有普理查德等人的推广,英国的前卫文化先驱“还是屈居于福莱(Roger Fry)、布卢姆斯伯里集团(Bloomsbury Group)等推行的法国主流审美之下”。

In the US, in 1926, the Brooklyn Museum mounted the International Exhibition of Modern Art, which included work by Bauhaus artists. In 1932, Harvard academic Alfred Barr Jr – who created the first course in the US on modern art and architecture – and colleagues Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock staged the famous International Style exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

1926年,美国的布鲁克林博物馆(Brooklyn Museum)举办了一场国际现代艺术展,有不少包豪斯学派的艺术家作品参展。1932年,哈佛大学学者巴尔(Alfred Barr Jr)设置了美国的第一门现代艺术与建筑课程,他的同事约翰逊(Phillip Johnson)和希区柯克(Henry-Russell Hitchcock)也在纽约现代艺术博物馆(Museum of Modern Art)举办了一场著名的国际风格展览。

Soon after Gropius arrived in the US, he urged Breuer to follow him across the pond: “It’s fantastic here! Don’t tell the English but we are ecstatic that we have escaped the land of fog and of psychological nightmares… Here people are open and free and I believe you would have a very broad field here.” In the US, Breuer and Gropius briefly formed a business partnership, co-designing the Alan I W Frank House of 1939-1940 in Pittsburgh.

格罗皮乌斯抵达美国后不久,便让布劳耶也到美国来找他:“美国太棒了!别告诉英国人,这里没有雾霾的困扰,也没有各种心理上的噩梦。这里的人们开放、自由,你在这里也会找到更广阔的空间。”布劳耶和格罗皮乌斯在美国有过一段短暂的商业合作关系。1939年至1940 年之间,二人共同设计了匹兹堡的艾伦·弗兰克之家(Alan I W Frank House)。

In 1933, Johnson invited Bauhaus émigrés Anni Albers, the textile designer, and her artist husband Josef to teach at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, an innovative, multidisciplinary art school founded that year. Anni Albers kept the Bauhaus teaching tradition alive in the US by having an open mind about materials: there were no looms set up at the college when she arrived, so she encouraged students to go outside and find weaving tools in nature just as ancient weavers had done. She later carved out a successful career creating fabrics for such high-profile design brands as Knoll.

1933年,约翰逊把包豪斯流亡者阿尔博思(Anni Albers)请到美国。阿尔博思是纺织品设计师,她丈夫约瑟夫则是艺术家,夫妻俩一起去北卡罗来纳的黑山学院(Black Mountain College)任教。时年,这所学校刚刚成立,如今已经成为一所跨学科的创新型艺术学院。即使在美国,阿尔博思也秉持了包豪斯学校的教学传统,在材料上不设任何限制。刚来时,学校还没有配备纺织机,她便鼓励学生模仿古代织工,到自然界中寻找编制工具。她后来成功开创了一番事业,成为了诺尔(Knoll)等高端设计品牌的织物供应商。

In 1938, German-born architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe – a former director of architecture at the Bauhaus – moved to the US to head up the Armour Institute in Chicago (later the Illinois Institute of Technology). He went on to establish a successful architecture practice, designing such iconic buildings as the Farnsworth House (1945-1950) outside Chicago and the Seagram Building (1954-1958) in New York.

德裔设计师范德罗(Ludwig Mies van der Rohe)曾是包豪斯学校的建筑系主任。他于1938年搬到美国,在芝加哥创立了阿莫理工学院(Armour Institute),即伊利诺伊理工学院(Illinois Institute of Technology)的前身。他在建筑界一如既往的成功,曾设计了许多标志性建筑,如芝加哥外的范斯沃斯住宅(Farnsworth House ,1945年 -1950年),以及纽约的西格拉姆大厦(Seagram Building ,1954年-1958年)等。

After the war, Gropius co-designed the Pan Am building (1960-1963) in New York with Pietro Belluschi and Emery Roth & Sons. In 1964, he became involved with the Architects’ Collaborative (TAC), founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which perpetuated a passion for teamwork that had been initiated at the Bauhaus. “The group’s method involved all partners discussing designs in progress, with thorough consideration and criticism,” writes Powers in Bauhaus Goes West.

战后,格罗皮乌斯与贝鲁斯齐(Pietro Belluschi)、埃梅里·罗斯家族建筑设计公司(Emery Roth&Sons)一起,共同设计了纽约泛美大厦(1960年-1963年)。1964年,他加入了建筑师合作协会(Architects' Collaborative, TAC)。该协会成立于马萨诸塞州的剑桥市,继承了包豪斯学校团队合作的热情。珀尔思在《包豪斯的西进》(Bauhaus Goes West)中写道:“设计过程中,协会要求所有成员参与讨论,循序渐进,给予批评和建议。”

By now settled for good in the US, Gropius lived with his wife Ise in a house he designed in Massachusetts (built in 1938) until his death in 1969. In 1955, writing to Jack Pritchard, Ise reminisced about how living in 1930s London had benefitted them: “How immensely it helps to see places to develop a sense for the interrelationships of countries and peoples; Lawn Road Flats was our first step in this direction and remains unforgettable.” Their house in Lincoln, Massachusetts is now a museum ­– a homage to a genius architect and his extraordinary circle of fellow designers.

来到美国后,格罗皮乌斯和妻子伊瑟(Ise)一直居住在马萨诸塞州,直到1969年去世。房子是自己设计的,1938年建成。 1955年,在给普里查德的信中,伊瑟回忆了30年代的伦敦生活让他们受益:“游览各个地方,给了我们很大的帮助。我们观察到了不同国家、民族之间的相互联系;‘草坪路公寓楼’让我们迈出了第一步,至今都令我难以忘怀。”如今,人们将格罗皮乌斯夫妻在林肯市的房子改造成了一个博物馆,向这位天才建筑师和他那个圈子中其他非凡的设计师致敬。

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