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为什么拉伸无助于跑步?

更新时间:2019/5/27 20:56:41 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Why stretching might not make you a better runner
为什么拉伸无助于跑步?

They can be seen in city streets and parks all over the world, aggressively leaning against trees or propping their legs up on benches. It seems that most runners love a good stretch. Whether they do this before or after they have exercised, however, is still hotly debated in the running circles – some believe it is the best way to warm up cold muscles, while others insist stretching once already warm delivers the most benefits.

在世界各地的城市街头和公园,都能看到一些人随意地靠在树木上,或把腿架到长椅上做拉伸运动。大部分跑步的人都喜欢做拉伸。不过,在跑步群里,对于是在运动前做还是运动后做拉伸,存在激烈争议:有人认为这是热身的最好方法,拉伸能让僵硬的肌肉活泛起来;也有人坚持认为,运动过之后做拉伸会对身体有更大的好处。

But they might all be doing it wrong if a new analysis of the science behind running is to be believed. All that comical bending and limbering may have no impact on a running performance at all.

一项关于跑步背后科学所做的新分析是,两者可能都错了。这些滑稽好笑拉抻动作,对跑步成绩没有任何帮助。

It is one of a set of “rules for running” compiled by a group of scientists at the University of California, Santa Barbara after they analysed 70 studies on running and performance. They produced what is known as a “scientific synthesis” of tips for how runners can improve their performance.

加州大学圣巴巴拉分校(California, Santa Barbara)的一组科学家在分析了70项有关跑步和运动表现的研究后,列出一套“跑步规则”,为跑步者提供了“科学综合”建议,帮助他们提高成绩。

“Some of the findings we came across were really surprising and others confirm what many runners will already know,” says Chris Lortie, a biologist at The National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara who led the analysis and an amateur runner himself. “But we are not trying to say this is how people should train.

主持这次分析的生物学家洛尔蒂(Chris Lortie)也是一名跑步爱好者,他说:“我们看到的一些研究结果很令人惊讶,有一些是证实了许多跑步者都已经知道的东西。但我们并不想说大家就应该这样训练。”

"Everyone needs to look at their individual outcomes, what they are trying to achieve and apply what works for them. People run for all sorts of reasons – some do it to stay fit, others want to win medals and some do it because they just want to get outside.”

“每个人都很关注自己的成绩,他们想采用科学的方法,达到一定的目标。人们跑步的理由五花八门:有人为了健身,有人为了参赛赢奖牌,还有些人跑步是为了出去透透气。”

Running has seen an increase in popularity in recent years with record numbers applying to enter events like the London Marathon and the New York City Marathon. Nearly 18.3 million people took part in organised road races in the USA in 2017, while more social running events like the UK’s Parkruns now attract more than three million participants.

近年来,跑步越来越受欢迎,报名参加伦敦马拉松和纽约马拉松等赛事的人数创下了历史纪录。2017年,美国有近1830万人参加了有组织的公路赛事,英国的“Parkrun”社区公园跑步活动有300多万参与者。

Few of these people, however, can afford expensive coaches or training advice, relying instead upon the mishmash of information available in running magazines and online.

然而,多数跑步者很少有人付昂贵的费用请教练或参加专门的培训,多是依靠体育类杂志和网络上或对或错的健身信息。

“This is what made me decide to apply the kind of analysis I use for big ecological problems, like the effects of climate change, to running,” says Lortie, who is also a biology professor at York Univesity in Toronto.

洛尔蒂说:“这就是为什么我决定把我对重大生态问题的分析方法,比如气候变化的影响,应用到跑步上。”

Some of the more surprising “rules” – they consider them more guidelines than hard rules – that he and his colleagues came up with are:

他和同事们提出的这些令人惊讶的“规则”更像是指导方针,而不是硬性规则。这些规则包括:

Use cooling to increase endurance

用降温来增加耐力

For most runners, the idea of cooling down before going on a run seems to make little sense. The perceived wisdom is that it is better to warm up first to reduce the risk of injury and to get your muscles working at an optimal level. But Lortie and his colleagues found that a bit of pre-race cooling can actually have a positive impact in long distance running.

对于大多数跑步者来说,在跑步前先降温似乎是匪夷所思的事情。人们普遍认为,运动前最好先热身,这样可以降低受伤的风险,让肌肉处于最佳状态。但洛尔蒂和他的同事们发现,在长跑前做点降温工作,实际上可以带来正面的影响。

“It would seem to make sense that you want to warm the muscles up to improve performance,” says Lortie. “But if you put ice on the back of your neck, it can trick the body into thinking you are cool. You never want to ice your muscles, but putting it on your skin lets you work out harder as your body thinks its core temperature has gone down rather than up while you are running.”

洛尔蒂说:“你想通过锻炼肌肉来提高成绩,这似乎是有道理的。但如果你把冰块放在后脖子上,身体受到冷的刺激会误以为你很冷。你绝对不想让肌肉结冰,但把冰敷在皮肤上可以让身体更加用力地运动,因为大脑认为在开始跑步时基础温度下降了,而不是上升了。”

Pre-cooling in this way essentially creates a buffer that enables athletes’ bodies to do more work for longer before it starts to overheat. The exact mechanism for why this works is not completely understood, but there are a number of theories. One is that it delays the natural safeguards that dial back muscle activity in response to overheating from kicking in.

这种预冷方式本质上创造了一个缓冲器效果,使运动员的身体在开始出现过热之前,有更多时间做更多的事情。这其中的机制目前还不完全清楚,但有很多与之相关的理论,其中一种说法是,它把身体的自我保护措施推迟了,这些措施会抑制肌肉活动,以应对身体过热。

Another theory suggests that cooling may reduce lactic acid build up, which can increase at higher temperatures.

还有一种理论认为,冷却可以减少乳酸的积聚,乳酸在体温升高时会增加。

Unfortunately for those runners who prefer sprinting, however, the evidence did not show that the same trick could improve their performance. Instead it tends to work in situations where athletes are engaging in prolonged periods of exercise.

然而,对于短跑的人来说,不幸的是,没有证据表明,同样的窍门可以提高短跑成绩。只有在运动员进行长时间运动的情况下,它才有可能起作用。

Skip stretching if injury free

如果没有受伤,就不要做拉伸

Stretching has become almost a performance in itself for anyone engaging in exercise, but few of us have probably stopped to ask what we are doing it for. While it can help to improve flexibility, Lortie’s analysis suggests that if you are stretching in the hope gaining boosts in performance during your run, you are wasting your time.

对于一个运动者来说,拉伸已经成了必不可少的做法。但没人会停下来问,为什么要拉伸。拉伸虽然有助于提高柔韧性,但洛尔蒂的分析表明,如果拉伸是希望在跑步时取得好成绩,那是在浪费时间。

“This was a huge surprise,” says Lortie. “It is an accepted thing that you do some stretches after you have exercised – you see all these people doing it in parks and it looks absurd. But from a performance point of view, there is no benefit, it is not going to make you run faster or better.

洛尔蒂说:“这挺意外的。运动之后做拉伸是得到公认的事情,在公园里看到运动过后的人都在这么做,看起来挺荒谬的。从成绩的角度来看,它没有任何用处,它并不会让人跑得更快、更好。”

“A lot of professional coaches think that getting all loosey-goosey – when your limbs are all over the place – may make it more likely that you will injure yourself. You want to be like one of those tight, robotic runners from that point of view. It only seems to make sense to stretch if you are recovering from an injury as it helps the muscle fibres elongate as they heal.”

“很多专业教练认为,在比较放松的情况下,四肢肌肉松弛可能更容易受伤。从这个角度看,应该成为肌肉紧绷象机器人一样的跑步者。只有在受伤恢复时,拉伸才有意义,因为它能帮助肌纤维在愈合时拉长。”

Jump for speed

用跳跃来帮助提速

Professional sprinters know this one already, but plyometric exercises, or jump training, helps muscles exert a maximum force in a short space of time. The studies that Lortie and his team looked at showed that doing 10 weeks of at least 15 sessions per week of 80 high-intensity jumps could increase sprint speeds.

专业的短跑运动员已经知道这一点,增强式训练或跳跃训练,可以帮助肌肉在短时间内爆发最大的力量。洛尔蒂和他的团队所做的研究表明,连续10周,每周至少进行15次高强度跳跃训练,可以提高短跑速度。

“This is a lot of jumping,” says Lortie. “But it gives your muscles the ability to suddenly be explosive and turn it on.”

洛尔蒂说:“这个跳跃量是很大,但它能启动肌肉的爆发力。”

Recovery is critical

恢复至关重要

For most of us, a recovery day might involve relaxing in front of the television or spending some time in the pub with some friends. For anyone wanting to improve their running, however, Lortie has some bad news.

对大多数人来说,在恢复期间,可能会坐在电视机前放松一下,或者跟朋友去酒吧。然而,对于想提高跑步成绩的人来说,洛尔蒂有些坏消息。

“This was the one that probably most interesting for the researchers and coaches I work with,” he says. “There was one study where they had a very high number of cross-country skiiers who were competing and training. They told half to go enjoy the next couple of days in the chalet and the other half did some light jogging or workouts on the treadmill. The next day those that had done the light work outs absolutely crushed it relative to those who sat in the lodge.

他说:“对于跟我合作的研究人员和教练来说,这项研究可能是很有趣。我们找来很多参加比赛和训练的越野滑雪者。告诉他们在接下来的几天里,一半人呆在小屋里休息,另一半人则在跑步机上做轻微的慢跑或锻炼。第二天,那些稍做锻炼者的表现要好于那些坐在小屋里的人。”

“It is something all of us could do a bit differently, regardless of our training levels. Try to plan a little active recovery rather than passive recovery.”

“不管我们的训练水平如何,每个人都可以有所不同。尝试规划一点主动恢复,而不是被动恢复。”

Taper

逐渐减少运动量

At first it might make little sense to reduce your training before a competitive event, but tapering can bring huge increases in performance, according to the studies that Lortie looked at. The studies he examined showed that reducing training volume two weeks before an event could bring a 41-60% increase in performance on average.

洛尔蒂的研究结果显示,在比赛开始前减少训练可能听起来是不对的,但逐渐减少训练可以大大提高成绩。他仔细分析了那些研究结果,在比赛前两周减少训练量,可以使成绩平均提高41%~60%。

“A lot of training programmes for marathons, for example, recommend cutting down your mileage in the last two weeks,” he say. “For a lot of people that is going to seem counterintuitive, but the research really shows it can bring a big increase in performance. It is perhaps important to remember that not all runners are going to see a 40% increase in their performance, but on average there does seem to be this kind of increase.”

他说:“比如,很多马拉松训练项目都建议在最后两周内减少跑步量。对很多人来说,这似乎有违常识,但研究确实表明,这样做能大幅提高成绩。重要的是应该知道,并不是所有的跑步者都能把成绩提高40%,但平均来说有这样幅度的提升。”

Get a goal-centred mental state

以目标为中心的精神状态

“This is often the secret sauce that a lot of people who are do sport are missing,” says Lortie. “It’s about keeping your eye on the prize throughout the suffering. Once you lose that, it is all over. There are a lot of physical things that you can do, you can get all the right equipment but unless you have the right mental state, you will never give your best performance.”

洛尔蒂说:“这往往是很多从事体育运动的人所缺少的秘诀。就是在整个艰苦的训练过程中,始终把注意力放在奖赏上。一旦你失去了它,一切就结束了。有很多用具准备上的事情可以做,你可以有所有好的装备,但只有饱满昂扬的精神状态,你才能有最佳的表现。”

For those just starting out running he recommends picking small, achievable goals that can help you push that little bit harder during a run.

对刚开始练跑步的人,建议选择一些容易实现的小目标,这些小目标可以帮助你在跑步过程中不断地为实现目标而努力。

“I pick a tree or something else that I am going to run to and when I reach it pick another one,” he says. “In a race I might pick someone ahead of me who I am going to try to keep up with and it has made me run far faster than I ever could when training.”

他说:“我会选择一棵距离较近的树或其他什么地方作为跑步的终点,抵达后,我再选择下一个目标。在比赛时,我会选择一个领先者作为目标,我要努力跟上他,这让我比训练时跑得更快。”

This sort of goal-centred thinking has implications outside the world of running too.

这种以目标为中心的思维方式,对于跑步之外的事情也有意义。

“Being mindful of your goals and outcomes is probably a good exercise in life whatever your endeavour is,” Lortie adds.

洛尔蒂补充道:“无论是做什么,始终牢记要达到的目标和要取的成绩,可能都是生活中一种很好的锻炼方式。”

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