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爱尔兰独有的啤酒:来自“地狱”的味道

更新时间:2019/5/15 21:20:49 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

In Ireland, a taste of the underworld
爱尔兰独有的啤酒:来自“地狱”的味道

Oweynagat cave is a place of both birth and death. An unimposing gash in the ancient misty hills of north-western Ireland, it is said to be the entrance to the underworld where fairies and demons lure mortals to their doom, and the sacred birthplace of a warrior queen. For thousands of years, the Irish have regarded Oweynagat as a site of awe-inspiring magic, weaving a rich tapestry of mythology around it.

奥维纳加洞穴( Oweynagat)是事关生死之处。它是爱尔兰西北部古老薄雾山丘中一个不起眼的裂缝。它被认为是地狱的入口,受神仙和恶魔引诱的人们交上厄运,然后来到这里。但它也是勇士梅芙女王神圣的诞生地。几千年以来,爱尔兰人一直认为奥维纳加是令人敬畏的神奇之地,围绕它有各种互相交织的华丽神话。

The story of the celebrated warrior Queen Medb is integral to said mythology. A beautiful, strong-willed woman known for her heroic role in the Cattle Raid of Cooley, Queen Medb was born in Oweynagat.

著名的勇士梅芙女王的故事是神话中不可或缺的一部分。 梅芙女王出生于奥维纳加,美丽且意志坚强,因其在《夺牛长征记》(Cattle Raid of Cooley)中的英雄角色而闻名。

In ancient Ireland, Celtic men and women had equal rights, and whoever brought more wealth and property to a marriage was seen as the ruler of the household, regardless of sex. As the Queen of Connacht, Medb had to power to make kings of the men who married her, a power that was later mythologised when she became known as the ‘sovereignty goddess’. Medb’s name is the old Celtic word for ‘mead’, a fermented honey beverage that was an integral part of a king’s coronation ceremony in ancient and medieval Ireland. Queen Medb came to embody the symbolic offering of the beverage to the rising monarch.

在古爱尔兰,凯尔特男女享有平等的权利,凡是为婚姻带来更多财产的人,无论性别如何,都被视为家庭的掌管者。作为康诺特省的女王,梅芙不得不使用权力让与她结婚的男人成为国王,这种权力在后来梅芙被称为“主权女神”时被神话化了。 梅芙的名字是凯尔特语中的“蜂蜜酒”,这是一种发酵的蜂蜜饮料,是古代和中世纪爱尔兰国王加冕仪式中不可或缺的一部分。梅芙女王为这位崛起的君主提供了具有象征意义的"蜂蜜酒" 。

But Medb’s name has another meaning – ‘she who intoxicates’ – and intoxicating, she certainly was. Celtic women, unlike their counterparts in other ancient European nations, were not bound by the rules of monogamy and were free to take lovers. Medb had many paramours, most of whom were high-ranking officials in her army. Their selection as the Queen’s lovers was based at once both in passion and in strategy. Having sexual relations with her soldiers ensured loyalty, and the promise of her love made them fight that much harder in battle.

梅芙的名字还有另一个意思——“令人陶醉的女人”—— 梅芙确实是令人陶醉的。与其他古代欧洲国家不同,凯尔特女性不受一夫一妻制规则的约束,可以自由地接受恋人。梅芙有许多情人,其中大多数是军队的高级官员。女王选择他们作为情人,一方面是出于感情,另一方面也是战略所需。与士兵发生性关系能够确保他们的忠诚,她的爱使士兵们在战斗中更加英勇。

For millennia, Queen Medb has remained the most intoxicating thing to come out of the cave. However, just this year that changed with the creation of a beer made from wild yeast cultivated from the walls of Oweynagat. Called Underworld Savage Ale for the mythic place that it was conceived, this beer is the first of its kind, with a backstory strange enough to fit within the cave’s fantastic mythology.

几千年以来,奥维纳加洞穴中最令人陶醉的要数勇士梅芙女王。然而,就在今年,该洞穴墙上培植出的一种野生酵母所酿造的啤酒改变了这一切。这种啤酒,因其神奇的培植地而被称为“地狱野蛮啤酒”(Underworld Savage Ale),他是第一种此类啤酒,背景故事足以配得上洞穴本身的奇妙神话。

Underworld Savage Ale by Black Donkey Brewery was born of the love for a good story. Last October, Black Donkey brewmaster Richard Siberry and a crew of microbiologists went on what they dubbed ‘a wild yeast chase’ in the cave, swabbing its walls and coming out with not one, but three distinct varieties of yeast.

因为对好故事的热爱,爱尔兰黑驴啤酒厂(Black Donkey Brewery)的“地狱野蛮啤酒”诞生了。去年十月,黑驴啤酒厂酿酒大师西贝瑞(Richard Siberry)和一群微生物学家在洞穴中继续他们的“探索野生酵母”行动,从墙壁上刮下三种不同的酵母品种。

Siberry and his wife Michaela Dillon founded the brewery in 2014. After years living in New York, the two Ireland natives grew homesick and decided to move to County Roscommon, not far from where Dillon grew up. “I didn’t know what I was going to do when I got back to Ireland, but one thing I knew for sure was I wasn’t going to be enjoying good beer,” said Siberry, explaining that in spite of its beer-heavy reputation, most pubs in the Emerald Isle often only carry three beers on tap: Guinness, Smithwick’s and Heineken.

西贝瑞和他的妻子狄龙(Michaela Dillon)于2014年创办了这家啤酒厂。在纽约居住多年后,两位爱尔兰人开始思念家乡并决定搬到距离狄龙故乡不远的罗斯康芒郡(County Roscommon)。西贝瑞说:“刚回到爱尔兰时,我不知道自己要做什么,但有一件事我很肯定,那就是我再也喝不到好喝的啤酒了。”尽管有啤酒,但翡翠岛(爱尔兰别名)的大多数酒吧通常只提供三种啤酒:吉尼斯啤酒(Guinness)、史密斯威克(Smithwick's)和喜力(Heineken)。

So Siberry took matters into his own hands, deciding to brew the beer he wanted to drink himself. Having been a hobbyist brewer during his stint in New York, he saw an opportunity in the relative dearth of microbreweries in Ireland, divining that the US craft beer craze would soon make its way across the Atlantic. Siberry did not want to mimic the style of American microbrews, however, deciding to break from popular IPAs and pale ales and focus on creating a singularly Irish beer.

所以西贝瑞决定亲自动手酿造自己想喝的啤酒。他在纽约期间一直是业余酿酒爱好者,他看到了爱尔兰啤酒厂相对不足,所以还有机会,也认为美国精酿啤酒热潮将很快跨越大西洋来到这里。但是, 西贝瑞不想模仿美国小酒厂的风格,决定突破流行的印度淡色艾尔啤酒(IPAs)和淡色艾尔啤酒(pale ales),专注于酿造一种独特的爱尔兰啤酒。

To do that, Siberry turned his sights to the Rathcroghan complex, a breath-taking archaeological site located just 30 minutes from the brewery. Containing 60 monuments spanning from the Neolithic Age (4000 to 2500BC) to the Iron Age (500BC to 400AD), the complex has been identified as Cruachan, the ancient capital of Connachta and seat of West Ireland royalty for two millennia. Here was where druidic priests walked in contemplation, and where Gaelic kings fought in bloody battles to protect their sovereignty.

为此,西贝瑞将目光投向了距离啤酒厂仅30分钟路程的拉斯克罗根(Rathcroghan)建筑群,这是一个令人叹为观止的考古遗址。该建筑群包含从新石器时代(公元前4000至2500年)到铁器时代(公元前500年至公元400年)的60座古迹,已被确定为康诺特省(Connachta)古都克鲁亨山(Crunhan)的旧址,也曾是西爱尔兰皇室长达两世纪的居住地。这是督伊德教牧师(druidic priests)默祷经过的地方,也是凯尔特国王们(Gaelic kings)浴血奋战保卫主权的地方。

But for all its illustrious history, Rathcroghan is best known for the Oweynagat cave, where the celebrated warrior Queen Medb was born and whose diminutive limestone mouth sits near the centre of the complex. A disproportionate amount of funerary and ceremonial monuments found at Oweynagat suggest that the cave was one of the most sacred sites within the complex.

但是,拉斯克罗根所有辉煌的历史中最著名要数奥维纳加洞穴,奥维纳加洞穴是勇士梅芙女王的出生地,其小巧的石灰岩入口位于建筑群的中心附近。在奥维纳加发现的不成比例的丧葬和仪式纪念碑表明该洞穴是该建筑群中最神圣的地点之一。

During a meeting with Rathcroghan tourism officials, Siberry asked if it would be possible to age several barrels of ale inside the cave to see how the microbes within it might influence the recipe. Unfortunately this was logistically impossible as the cave’s opening is simply too small for a beer barrel to pass through. So Siberry decided to bring the cave to the beer by attempting to collect a wild yeast sample from within it. Equipped with sterile sampling supplies borrowed from a nearby university and, in Siberry’s words, “the love of a good story”, he and his team went into Oweynagat on Halloween of last year.

在与拉斯克罗旅游官员会面时,西贝瑞询问是否允许他在洞穴内储存几桶麦芽酒,以便发现洞穴中的微生物将如何影响啤酒的配方。遗憾的是,这在逻辑上是行不通的,因为洞穴的开口太小啤酒桶根本无法通过。因此,西贝瑞决定通过尝试从其洞穴中收集野生酵母样品加入啤酒中,还专门配备了从附近大学借来的无菌取样仪器。用西贝瑞的话说,“对一个好故事的热爱”, 去年万圣节,他和他的团队专程赶去奥维纳加。

His choice of date was both brave and foolish if you believe the mythology behind Oweynagat, which in true Celtic tradition is dizzyingly complex – as frightening and unknowable as the underworld and celestial beings it describes.

如果你相信奥维纳加背后的神话故事,西贝瑞选择的日期是勇敢却又鲁莽的,真正的凯尔特人的传统复杂到令人眼花缭乱——正如它描述的地狱和神仙一样令人恐惧和深不可测。

These stories are the same as those told in the Rathcroghan complex thousands of years ago, before Christianity reached Ireland and when Halloween was still called by its original name: Samhain. According to Celtic mythology, Samhain is a time when the veil between our world and the spirit world is the thinnest, allowing preternatural beings to pass through certain portals and prey on mortals. In addition to being the birthplace of Queen Medb, Oweynagat was considered to be a passageway from which demonic pigs, fiery destroyer birds, a three-headed monster and even the Morrigan, the Celtic goddess of destruction, have been said to emerge.

这些故事与数千年前在拉斯克罗根建筑群中讲述的故事相同,在爱尔兰迎来基督教之前,那时候万圣节还在用最初的名字:萨温节(Samhain)。凯尔特人神话记载,萨温节是人类世界和灵魂世界阻隔最小的时候——允许超自然的生物通过某些通道和捕食凡人。奥维纳加除了是梅芙女王的出生地之外,还被认为是一条通道,据说在这条通道里出现过恶魔般的猪,火一样破坏性强的鸟,一个三头怪物,甚至凯尔特毁灭女神莫琳根(Morrigan)。

In the tale of Fled Bricrenn, a story from the Ulster cycle, a collection of heroic sagas and legends taking place around the 1st Century BC, three enormous cats appeared from the cave to attack the hero and his men. It was from this story that Oweynagat got its name, which is Irish Gaelic for ‘the cave of cats’.

阿尔斯特(北爱尔兰)故事集收录了公元前1世纪左右发生的英雄传奇和传说,其中一个“布里克里乌的宴会” (Fled Bricrenn)的故事描述一位英雄和他的手下受到来自洞穴中的三只巨大的猫的攻击。这个故事正是奥维纳加名字的由来,奥维纳加是爱尔兰凯尔特语(Irish Gaelic)中“猫的洞穴”的意思。

Though these myths are distinctive to Oweynagat, its label as an entrance to the underworld is not. There are three caves in Ireland, one of which being the famous St Patrick’s Purgatory in Donegal, that are said to be portals to the Celtic fairy realm or Christian hell. Tales surrounding these three mystical formations in Ireland spread across Europe during the medieval period, attracting pilgrims from the mainland, who, once arrived, would enter the ‘portals’ and spend several nights deprived of food, water and sunlight in hopes of proving their loyalty to God in the devil’s realm. Dante Alighieri, author of the 14th-Century literary masterpiece The Divine Comedy, was said to be inspired by these pilgrims’ accounts when writing Inferno, the most famous section of the epic poem.

虽然奥维纳加因这些神话而与众不同,但它作为“地狱”入口的标签却并非如此。爱尔兰有三个洞穴,其中一个洞穴是多尼戈尔著名的圣帕特里克炼狱(St Patrick's Purgatory),据说是凯尔特仙境或基督教地狱的入口。关于爱尔兰这三个神秘地下层的故事在中世纪时期被传播到整个欧洲,吸引了来自欧洲大陆的朝圣者。这些朝圣者们一到达就会进入“通道”, 希望用几个没有食物、水和阳光的夜晚来证明他们身处魔鬼领域时对上帝的忠诚。据说十四世纪文学名著《神曲》的作者但丁(Dante Alighieri)在写这部史诗最著名的《地狱篇》时就是受到这些朝圣者的启发。

Undeterred, Siberry and crew followed in the footsteps of so many County Roscommon children who enter Oweynagat each Halloween on dares, crawling on their bellies through its narrow limestone mouth. Once inside they swabbed the walls and even took clippings of the flora within. When the cultures came back with the three yeast strains, Siberry sent them off to MiCRA Biodiagnostics, a research and development facility located at the Institute of Technology Tallaght, for testing. The microbiologists there verified that all three were safe for human consumption, but one person added after observation that they’d “never seen anything that grows quite like this before – it’s very exciting, and a little scary, too.”

西贝瑞和工作人员不受干扰,沿着许多在万圣节敢于进入奥维纳加的罗斯康芒郡孩子们的脚步,趴在地上通过狭窄的石灰岩入口爬进洞口。进入洞穴口,他们刮下墙壁上的菌类,还剪下了一些植物。利用培养菌培植出三种酵母菌株后,西贝瑞将它们送到位于塔拉特技术研究所(Institute of Technology Tallaght)的研发设施“微米生物诊断”(MiCRA Biodiagnostics)进行测试。那里的微生物学家证实这三种菌株都可以安全地供人食用,但其中一位微生物学家指出他们“以前从未见过任何长成这样的东西——这令人非常兴奋,但也有点可怕”。

After a trial period, the Black Donkey crew settled on one of the three strains, naming it ‘Morrigan no. 1’ after one of the cave’s most famous residents. The wild yeast, which, according to Siberry, is not used in any other beer on the planet, is central to Underworld Savage Ale’s unique taste.

试验期结束后,黑驴啤酒厂的工作人员确定了使用三个菌株中的一个,借用洞穴最著名的人物之一的名字将其命名为“莫琳根1号”。西贝瑞称,世界上其他任何啤酒都未曾使用这种野生酵母,这种野生酵母是"地狱野蛮啤酒"独特口味的核心。

“It’s a traditional kind of farmhouse recipe,” Siberry explained. “But what really stands out in it is the yeast and the flavours it creates.” The heart of Underworld’s palate, according to Siberry, is composed of fruits of the forest with a distinct streak of citrus cutting through earthy notes of blackberry, currant and rosehip.

西贝瑞解释说:“这是一种传统的农家食谱,但真正突出的是酵母及其产生的味道。”据西贝瑞说,地狱啤酒口味的核心混合了几种森林果实的味道,带有明显的柑橘味,同时掺杂着黑莓、醋栗和玫瑰果的泥土气息。

Underworld Savage Ale’s initial release was met with great success, but Siberry is not finished in his quest to create a wholly Irish beer. “We don’t produce any commercial hops in Ireland, but [Black Donkey Brewing] will probably research what Irish people used as a bittering agent in ancient times,” he said with enthusiasm.

“地狱野蛮啤酒”的首次发布获得了巨大的成功,但西贝瑞并没有实现创造一种爱尔兰独有的啤酒的梦想。他激动地说:“爱尔兰不生产任何商业啤酒花,但黑驴酿造可能会研究古代爱尔兰人用什么来制作苦味剂。”

Siberry reiterated that part of his quest for the wild yeast was “for the love of a good story”. It is also this aspect of Underworld Savage Ale that makes it so distinctly Irish. Conceived on the night when the veil between the spirit world and ours is thinnest, it is now a part of the rich history of Oweynagat cave.

西贝瑞重申,他对野生酵母的追求一定程度上是“为了一个好故事的热爱”。“地狱野蛮啤酒”正因如此而独具爱尔兰特点。在灵魂世界和人类世界阻隔最小的夜晚孕育,“地狱野蛮啤酒”如今也成为了奥维纳加洞穴丰富历史的一部分。

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