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巴厘岛手语村:最适合聋人居住的地方

更新时间:2019/5/6 20:57:06 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

A town where most speak sign language
巴厘岛手语村:最适合聋人居住的地方

Kolok Getar flexed his biceps, puffed out his chest and jutted a pugnacious jaw. Although the old man was sitting cross-legged on the concrete floor, his wiry Balinese frame took on the characteristics of a belligerent bantam fighting cock.

克洛克·捷达(Kolok Getar)弓起二头肌,挺起胸膛,扬起好斗的下巴。尽管这位老人盘腿坐在水泥地板上,但他那巴厘岛人特有的结实体格却将其饶勇好斗的个性表现得淋漓尽致。

“He used to be known as a real tough guy,” his nephew Wisnu smiled. “He was famous as a martial arts expert and could break coconuts in half with his hand.”

“他以前是人们口里的‘真汉子’,”他的侄子维斯努(Wisnu)笑着说。“叔叔是远近闻名的武术大师,可以徒手把椰子掰成两半。”

Kolok Getar pointed at a row of palms that were swaying in the hilltop breeze. His gnarled fingers formed the shape of a large sphere and he delivered a vicious chop to the imaginary coconut. The circle of friends seated on the floor around him broke into applause. Apart from their bursts of laughter (and Wisnu’s translations into Indonesian for my benefit), the entire conversation had taken place without a word being uttered.

克洛克·捷达指着山顶一排在微风中摇曳的棕榈树,然后将粗糙的手指握成一个大球的形状,再狠狠地砍了脑海中假想的椰子一刀。盘坐在他周围的朋友们爆发出一阵掌声。但除了阵阵笑声以及维斯努替我翻译的话,整个对话过程都是悄无声息的。

Kata Kolok, literally meaning ‘deaf talk’ in Indonesian, is a unique sign language that is currently the primary means of communication for just 44 people on the entire planet. For about six generations, an unusually large proportion of Bengkala’s population has been born deaf – something that locals for many years attributed to a curse, but which scientists have more recently pinned down to a recessive gene (known as DFNB3) that over the decades has resulted in about one in 50 babies in this community being born deaf. But in many ways these people – all deaf from birth and referred to as ‘kolok’ (deaf) by their fellow villagers – are more fortunate than deaf people in other areas. That’s because more than half of the hearing people in the highland village of Bengkala have also learned Kata Kolok, solely for the benefit of communicating with deaf family members and friends.

卡塔克洛克(Kata Kolok)是一种独特的手语,在印尼语里意为“聋人间的谈话”。目前,全球仅44人仍将其用作主要的沟通手段。这个村庄本卡拉(Bengkala)的人口中有相当大的一部分人先天性失聪,这一现象持续了整整六代人。多年以来,当地人一直认为这是一种诅咒,但科学家们最近发现这是一种名为DFNB3的隐性基因引起的。在过去的几十年里,村落里每50个婴儿就约有一个是先天性耳聋。当地村民将这些先天性耳聋的人称为“克洛克”(聋人)。比起其他地区,本卡拉村的聋人幸运多了。这是因为在本卡拉这个高地村庄,为了与丧失听力的家人和朋友交流,超过一半听力正常的人也学会使用“卡塔克洛克”。

Very few tourists make the two-hour drive from the tourist centre of Ubud over the volcanoes to the coastal hinterlands of north Bali, which remain one of the poorest parts of the island. Most of the kolok in Bengkala carve a subsistence living from farming or labouring, but traditionally have also been hired by their fellow villagers as security guards and gravediggers. Today, as Kolok Getar relives his martial arts glory days, he and his friends are waiting for a funeral that is scheduled to happen at the Pura Dalem (Death Temple) on the outskirts of Bengkala.

从乌布的游客中心出发,驱车两小时,越过火山,便可到达巴厘岛北部这个沿海腹地。这里至今是巴厘岛最贫穷的地区之一,鲜有游客造访。本卡拉的克洛克大多以务农或做苦力为生,但也会有村民雇他们当保安和掘墓工。如今,当克洛克·捷达重温他武术生涯的青年光辉岁月时,他和朋友们正在等待参加一场葬礼,葬礼将在本卡拉村庄外的死亡寺庙举行。

“When my uncle was younger, he toured the island making a small living by giving martial arts demonstrations,” Wisnu translated as Kolok Getar continued his story in a whirl of karate-chop hand signs. “He met many deaf people but could hardly communicate with them, because, if they knew sign language at all, it was a different version [from the one used in Bengkala]. Those deaf people were often lonely because they could only talk with one or two members of their close family.”

“我叔叔年轻的时候,在岛上以表演武术为生。”威斯努一边演示空手道手势,一边继续讲述他的故事。“在外面他遇到了很多聋人,但很难沟通。因为他们虽然会手语,但和本卡拉的手语完全不一样。外面失聪的人很孤独,只能和一两个亲近的家人说说话。”

By comparison, the kolok of Bengkala are relatively fortunate. They’re able to communicate with a large proportion of people in this 3,000-strong, close-knit village.

相比之下,本卡拉的聋人就幸运多了。他们能够与这个3000人的村庄中的大部分人进行交流。

“If it’s your destiny to be born deaf,” said I Ketut Kanta, spokesman for Bengkala’s Deaf Alliance, “then this would very likely be the best place in the world to grow up!”

本卡拉聋人联盟发言人坎塔(Ketut Kanta)说:“如果你先天失聪,那么这里很可能是世界上最适合你生活成长的地方!”

Hearing people are known as ‘enget’, and no matter where you are in the village you will often come across mixed groups of kolok and enget all chatting in what they call ‘deaf talk’. Whether you’re visiting the primary school, at the central temple or sipping sweet black kopi (coffee) at Pak Suparda’s little warung (stall), you’re likely to see deaf and hearing people in animated but silent conversation, or jostling each other with boisterous laughter.

听力正常的人被称为“恩格特”。村庄里随处可见用手语聊天的失聪者和健全人。无论你是在小学、寺庙,还是在称为帕克苏帕达(Pak Suparda)的小摊喝香甜的黑咖啡,你都能看到他们在进行热烈但沉默的交谈,时不时发出欢快的笑声。

The signs in Kata Kolok are often so surprisingly obvious that even a new arrival will understand: the sign for ‘male’, for example, is a rigidly pointing index finger, while the sign for ‘father’ is the same finger curved across the top lip like a moustache. ‘Woman’ is denoted with two fingers forming a narrow opening, while ‘mother’ is a cupped breast. ‘Thirsty’ is shown by the stroking of an apparently parched throat, and ‘coffee’ is a finger twisting against the forehead in the same manner that is used to denote a crazy person in the West.

卡塔克洛克的手势很简单,初来乍到的人都能看懂。比如说,伸直的食指代表“男性”,将食指弯曲扫过上唇则表示“父亲”。环起两只手指组成狭小通道表示“女性”,要表示“母亲”则可以摆出一个乳房状的手势。用手指轻抚明显干渴的喉咙表示“口渴了”,“咖啡”则是用手指轻拨前额,和西方人表示“疯子”的手势一样。

Kata Kolok has evolved naturally and is constantly being added to by the most imaginative and garrulous among the village’s signers. A side-effect of this is that this village seems to have more than its share of talented and highly energetic actors. The most effervescent of the Kata Kolok communicators bring a joyful mood of laughter and slapstick that seems to be a powerful bonding tool between the deaf and the hearing.

在卡塔克洛克自然的演变过程中,村里最具想象力和多言的手语使用者不断向其中添加新的内容。这样做的一个副作用就是,这个村庄似乎有太多才华横溢、精力充沛的演员。其中最活跃的一些克洛克为大家带来了欢声笑语和趣闻轶事,使之成为了聋人和健全人之间紧密联系的工具。

“Kolok and enget are paid equal rates for work in the village,” I Ketut Kanta told me. “Nevertheless, it isn’t easy for deaf people to find a job outside the village, and it is sometimes hard to get by here on local labour wages of about US$5 a day.”

坎塔告诉我:“在村里,不管是失聪者还是健全人,工作酬劳都是一样的。但是,聋人想在村庄外找到工作却不容易。在这里,靠每天5美元左右的劳动工资有时很难维持生计。”

However, today Kolok Getar and his four kolok friends are fortunate: they’ve been hired to dig a grave. Balinese Hindus typically cremate their dead, but it is an expensive ceremony. So, as is common here, I Nyoman Widiarsa’s sons must bury their father while they save for the costs of a cremation.

克洛克·捷达和他的四个聋人朋友很幸运,因为有人雇他们去掘墓。巴厘岛上的印度教徒会火葬死者,整个葬礼耗资巨大,但在巴厘岛,这很普遍。纽曼(Nyoman Widiarsa)的儿子们为了火葬父亲不得不省吃俭用。

A Balinese funeral is often unnerving to Western sensibilities since (outwardly at least) it appears often to be an almost joyous affair. The Balinese believe that if the spirit of the dead person senses grief among his family members, he may have second thoughts about moving on to the next life. That’s why the ceremony takes place with the same sort of light-hearted chatter with which the Balinese seem to do everything.

西方人很难理解巴厘岛人的葬礼,因为(至少从表面上看)似乎是一件喜事。这是因为巴厘岛居民相信,如果死者的灵魂感受到了家庭成员的悲伤,则可能不会投胎。这就是为什么举行火葬礼时,巴厘岛人表现得如此轻松愉悦。

That means that the clowning and prancing of Kolok Getar and his grave-digging colleague Kolok Sudarma at the graveside was not considered inappropriate. Even the close family laughed along. They lowered the body carefully into the hole and Kolok Sudarma climbed down into the grave to place the mirrors in position back on the corpse’s eyes. These mirrors are said to guarantee that the deceased will be reborn with clear vision in the next life. (Interestingly, there is no similar ritual for the ears).

所以人们并不会觉得克洛克‧捷达和他的同事克洛克‧苏达玛(Kolok Sudarma)在墓地边滑稽欢腾的表现是不合时宜的,甚至连最亲近的家人也会跟着大笑。他们会将尸体小心翼翼地放进洞里,苏达玛会爬下墓穴,把镜子反过来放在尸体的眼睛上。据说这些镜子能保证死者来世拥有清晰的视野。(有趣的是,并没有类似的仪式来恢复听力。)

“Hearing people used to say that the koloks could communicate with the evil spirits that haunt graveyards,” Wisnu told me, “but the truth is that they simply have a reputation for being tough and fearless.”

维斯努告诉我:“在过去,健全人认为聋人可以与墓地中出没的恶灵进行交流,但事实上,聋人之所以备受尊敬是因为其自身的坚忍不拔和勇敢无畏。”

Some Bengkala villagers claim their deaf friends are immune to the spooky noises – whispers from the grave and evil spirits – that ‘haunt’ hearing people. Others point out that manual labour and a need to fend for themselves when they leave the village has given rise to the kolok toughness. Whatever the reason, there is a noticeable level of respect in the village for the kolok community, and several villagers have set out to champion their cause.

一些本卡拉村的村民声称,他们的聋人朋友听不到从墓地里传来的恶灵的声音,但这种声音会一直萦绕在健全人的耳边。另一些人则认为,克洛克所付出的体力劳动以及离开村庄后必须自力更生养成了他们坚忍不拔的精神。不管基于何种理由,村民对克洛克的尊重是显而易见的,一些村民还支持他们的事业。

I Ketut Kanta gives free Kata Kolok lessons to children. Connie de Vos, a Dutch researcher from the Centre for Language Studies at Radboud University in the Netherlands, has visited many times over the course of the last decade and helped I Ketut Kanta lobby for the inclusion of kolok children in the local school and for Kata Kolok lessons for hearing children. The village also has a craft centre, called KEM, where several kolok women are employed to produce woven textiles on traditional handlooms. The centre also attracts occasional tourist groups who come to watch kolok martial arts as well as a specially choreographed dance known as Janger Kolok, which has become locally famous and is even performed at hotels and government conferences throughout the region.

坎塔会免费教孩子们手语。荷兰内梅亨大学语言研究中心的研究员康妮(Connie de Vos)在过去的十年中多次来参观他的课堂,还帮助坎塔游说当地学校接纳失聪儿童并为健全儿童提供手语课程。村里还有一个叫做KEM的工艺中心,雇佣了几名失聪妇女用传统手摇纺织机织布,并吸引了一些旅游团前来观看聋人武术表演和一种特别编排的舞蹈聋人之舞(Janger Kolok)。这种舞蹈在当地很有名,甚至会在巴厘岛的酒店里和政府会议上表演。

Linguists have established that the Kata Kolok language, like their unique dance, has little in common with other sign languages.

语言学家发现,卡塔克洛克这种手语跟当地舞蹈一样独特,与其他手语几无相似之处。

“Kata Kolok has very little influence from either Indonesian or Balinese spoken language or from sign languages outside the village,” said Hannah Lutzenberger, a PhD candidate at Radboud University who is fluent in Kata Kolok after four long stints in the village. “An insight into the richness of Kata Kolok can be derived from the name signs for deaf individuals,” she continued. “All kolok are known by name signs. Because this is a vibrant signing community, these names are usually given by deaf peers relatively early in life but they can change throughout a lifetime. They usually relate either to appearance or to a personal habit.”

奈梅亨拉德堡德大学大学(Radboud University)的博士生汉娜(Hannah Lutzenberger)说:“卡塔克洛克几乎没有受到印尼语、巴厘语以及其他手语的影响。卡塔克洛克所表现的丰富内涵可以从聋人的名字手势中看出。所有的聋人都有自己的名字手势。在这个充满活力的手语社区中,聋人的名字通常在很年幼的时候是同龄的失聪人给取的,但是他们一生都可以随意更换名字。这些名字通常与外表或个人习惯有关。”

Kolok Getar, for example, is known by a forward-pointing hand held in front of the mouth. It might look like a beak, but, by the time I’ve crossed paths with him several times in Bengkala’s narrow streets, I’ve noticed him adopt that same posture frequently as he acts out the martial arts glories of his younger years. I realise that this action will for all time remind me of this cheerful man.

例如,克洛克‧捷达的名字是用一只向前伸出的手放在嘴巴前面来表示的。这个手势看起来像鸟喙。我在本卡拉村狭窄的街道上多次与他相遇,我注意到,他在表演自己青年时代习得的的武术时也经常摆出同样的姿势。我知道这个动作将会一直让我想起开朗的捷达。

While he’s forgotten many of his martial arts skills, Kolok Getar is still respected in the area, even at 78 years old. He’s been given the responsibility for the maintenance of the water pipes, which in this arid northern part of the island is quite literally the lifeblood of his community. When there’s a broken pipe, it’s his job to travel up into the hills to find the break. Often the cause turns out to be people from a neighbouring village who ‘poached’ the water for their own use.

现年78岁的捷达已忘记了许多武术技巧,但仍受到当地人民的尊敬。他现在的职责是维护水管。在这个干旱的岛屿北部,水管是当地社区的命脉。如果水管破了,他的工作就是上山寻找破裂处。通常,造成水管断裂的原因是邻近村庄的人“偷水”。

“I try never to use violence when I catch them,” the old man signed, with such a tough and determined look that I nod my head in energetic agreement, “but I don’t need to, because people around here know that you don’t tangle with a kolok… It’s an unspoken rule.”

“抓到偷水的人,我从未使用过暴力,”老人用一种强硬而坚定的表情比划着手势,让我也得用力点头表示同意。“但其实我不需要这么做,因为这里的人都知道不要和克洛克争吵……这是我们这里不言而喻的规则。”

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