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毛茸茸的大块头邻居:与野熊共处是什么滋味?

更新时间:2019/4/28 20:53:55 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Big Hairy Neighbours
毛茸茸的大块头邻居:与野熊共处是什么滋味?

How do you fancy living with Paddington? Sounds endearing?

想和帕丁顿熊一起生活吗?听起来还不错?(帕丁顿熊是英国儿童文学的一个虚构角色,与人是好朋友,住在伦敦。)

The reality of having a bear at close quarters is rather more intimidating, as 95 year old Anna Stady from Vancouver Island discovered. As a former cook in logging camps she’d encountered bears before, so when she discovered a black bear rooting about in her home for food she simply shooed him off. He returned, still keen to finish his picnic, and BC Conservation Officers Service set up a trap for him. He hasn’t been back since, to Anna’s relief, as she doesn’t want him killed.

事实上,如果你家附近有一只熊可能会把你吓破胆。加拿大温哥华岛的95岁老人安娜(Anna Stady)就曾有过这样的体验。她在伐木营地当厨师时就曾经遇到过熊,所以当发现黑熊在家四处觅食时,就马上把熊赶走。可是后来,垂涎食物的黑熊又回来了,不列颠哥伦比亚省自然保护服务处不得不给熊设了个陷阱。从那以后,黑熊再也没有回来过,安娜终于松了一口气,因为她可不希望命丧熊口。

It’s not uncommon for black bears and grizzlies in the US and Canada to scavenge through bins and make their dens under houses. In response, educational programmes are run to make families “bear-smart”; disposing of rubbish in locked bins and not encouraging bears so bears and humans can live in happy harmony. Bears come off worse in their interactions with humans, although there have been rare human fatalities - one 10 year study showed that of some 150 urban bears in the US, all were killed by people.

在美国和加拿大,黑熊和灰熊经常会在人类的垃圾箱里觅食,在人类的房屋下筑窝。于是,一些教育项目开始教导人们如何与熊打交道,比如说垃圾桶要上锁,不要喂食野熊之类,这样熊和人类才能和谐共存。人类受熊袭击致死的事件比较罕见,但熊遭遇人类其实是占下风。一项历时10年的研究显示,150只生活在美国城市里的熊全部被人类捕杀掉。

Jack Clement and Dayna Feist-Clement of Asheville, North Carolina, had their bird feeder regularly raided by a young black bear, who Jack named Bruno, in 2009. Bruno was succeeded by Thistle, a female with cubs, who took over Bruno’s den under their fence. The cubs kept Jack and Dayna entertained by falling out of trees and playing in their walnut tree.

2009年,北卡罗来纳州阿什维尔市的杰克(Jack Clement)和黛娜(Dayna Feist-Clement)发现一只杰克称之为布鲁诺(Bruno)的小黑熊常到他们家的喂鸟器觅食。随后他们称之为西斯尔(Thistle)的一只母熊带着幼崽接管了他们家栅栏下的布鲁诺巢穴。小熊们会从树上掉下来,在他家的核桃树上玩耍,杰克和黛娜被逗得很开心。

William Withers and his family on their Ashville smallholding can feel as if they’re in a running battle with their hairy neighbours. 50 of the Withers’ chickens have been taken by bears in the last year, the bears open the family’s car doors looking for snacks, and William had to chase a large bear off his porch which had been attracted by the smell of dog food. The visitor was persistent and William finished up throwing a stick at him to frighten him away, and then fired up his chainsaw to keep him off. “We keep air horns and pepper spray handy at all times,” says William. “This is the type of bear that we worry about. He did not have much fear even when I jumped at him. Bears that have lost their instinctive fear can become aggressive.” While the relationship may sound contentious, William, among other residents of Ashville, loves his hairy neighbours, “You’d think they would be a matted, greasy animal, but they are fluffy and clean and wild.” Residents feel a huge sense of responsibility for the bears and maintaining distance between landowners and wild bears takes priority for the welfare of the bears.

但阿什维尔(Ashville)一家小农场的威廉‧威瑟斯(William Withers)及其家人则感觉自己就像在和毛茸茸的邻居进行一场持久战。去年,野熊叼走了威瑟斯家50只鸡,还打开了他们家的车门觅食,威廉不得不追着一只被狗粮气味吸引的大熊,直到把它赶出门廊。这只野熊十分难缠,威廉最后朝它扔了一根棍子吓唬它,随后开动电锯才把它赶走。威廉说:“我们一直把空气喇叭和胡椒喷雾放在手边。我们最怕这种熊,因为即使我朝它冲过去,它也不为所动。失去了对人的恐惧本能的熊很危险。”虽然这样的人熊关系听起来很矛盾,但威廉和阿什维尔的其他居民其实都很喜欢这些毛茸茸的邻居。“你可能会觉得这些野熊油腻邋遢,但实际上它们毛茸茸的、干净而野性十足。”居民们对熊有着强烈的责任感,保持土地所有者和野熊之间的距离是保护它们的关键。

Also feeling that sense of responsibility is Jack. He is convinced that humans need to respect the bears as the consequences could be dire. For example, in Asheville motorists will stop and watch the bears ambling alongside the road which means they lose their fear of cars and are frequently in collisions. “They are here to stay and we need to educate ourselves on proper behaviour”, he says. “If we don’t get this right, bad things can happen to us and the bears too will suffer as a result.”

杰克也有这种责任感。他坚信,人类要尊重熊,否则后果将不堪设想。例如,在阿什维尔,开车的人会停下来看熊在路边散步,这意味着它们不再害怕汽车,所以经常发生车撞到熊的事故。他表示:“这里是熊的栖息地,我们要学习与它们共处。否则,我们会自食恶果,熊也会因此遭殃。”

And his advice if a bear comes calling? Scare them away by yelling, banging pots together or using an air horn. And absolutely, definitely no marmalade sandwiches.

那么,如果野熊来访,他的建议是什么呢?你可以大喊大叫、敲打罐子或者用空气喇叭把它们吓跑,但绝对不要给熊喂食果酱三明治。

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