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斯里兰卡的暴力伤痕:宗派分歧和长期内战

更新时间:2019/4/23 16:24:16 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

For Sri Lanka, a Long History of Violence
斯里兰卡的暴力伤痕:宗派分歧和长期内战

After a civil war that dragged on for nearly three decades, Sri Lanka had been enjoying a decade of relative calm. That was shattered on Sunday when a coordinated bombing attack killed more than 200 people.

在深陷内战的泥潭近三十年之后,斯里兰卡度过了相对平静的十年。而在周日,导致超过200人死亡的爆炸袭击协同行动将这一平静击碎。

Here is some context to help you understand the latest events in the small island nation.

以下是一些背景信息,以帮助您理解在这个小岛国发生的最新事件。

Sri Lanka is known for its tremendous natural beauty, which attracted more than two million tourists in 2018 alone. But its people have long borne a burden of violence. How the latest attack fits into history of conflict, if it does at all, was not immediately clear.

斯里兰卡以绝美的自然风光著称,2018年一年便吸引了超过200万名游客。但它的人民却长期深受暴力困扰。目前尚不清楚这起袭击与其冲突史的关系——或是否有关系。

The country gained independence from British rule in 1948 as the dominion of Ceylon, and became the Republic of Sri Lanka in 1972.

斯里兰卡于1948年成立锡兰自治领,摆脱英国统治获得独立,1972年更名为斯里兰卡共和国。

But much of its history has been marred by sectarian tensions. And more recently, it has been caught up in much larger regional rivalries between China and India.

但其历史进程大部分时间饱受宗派紧张关系的摧残。近来,该国又被卷入中印地区敌对关系这个更大的困局。

Population and ethnic groups

人口与民族构成

About 22 million people live in Sri Lanka, in communities that are often diverse and mixed. More than 70 percent of the population is Buddhist.

约有2200万人居住在斯里兰卡往往多元混杂的各个社区。70%以上人口为佛教徒。

Smaller ethnic and religious groups include Hindus, at over 12 percent, Muslims at under 10 percent, and Catholics at about 6 percent. At least three churches were targeted by Sunday’s bombings.

包括印度教徒在内的少数民族及宗教团体占12%以上,穆斯林占不到10%,天主教徒约6%。周日爆炸案中至少有三座教堂遭到袭击。

Despite their clear majority, Sinhalese Buddhist nationalists have recently been stoking fears that the minority groups, particularly the Muslims, are increasing in numbers and influence.

尽管占绝对多数,但近年来,僧伽罗佛教民族主义者一直在煽动一种恐惧心理,即少数群体——尤其是穆斯林——的数量和影响力在不断增加。

The Tamil Tigers

泰米尔猛虎组织

A long history of disenfranchisement among minority Tamil groups, who are largely Hindu, at the hands of the Sinhalese Buddhists led to a civil war in the 1980s.

在僧伽罗佛教徒掌控下,以印度教徒为主的少数族群泰米尔人长期被剥夺选举权,进而导致了1980年代的内战。

The Tamil Tigers, an armed insurgent group that identified itself as secular, launched deadly attacks, including some of the earliest use of suicide bombings as a tactic of insurgency. In response, the Sri Lankan Army carried out brutal campaigns, largely focused on the Tamil stronghold in the northeast.

泰米尔猛虎这个武装叛乱组织自称为世俗性质,此前它发起过致命袭击,其中一些属于最早使用自杀式爆炸作为叛乱手段的案例。斯里兰卡军方发起残酷的战役应对,主要集中打击泰米尔人在东北部的据点。

The civil war ended in 2009 after a large-scale operation by the army that defeated the Tamil Tigers and killed its leader.

在军方发起的大规模行动挫败了泰米尔猛虎组织、除掉其头目之后,内战于2009年结束。

There is no exact casualty toll, but the United Nations has suggested that as many as 40,000 civilians were killed in the last stage of the war alone.

尚无确切伤亡数字,但联合国已表示,仅在战争最后阶段,便有多达4万平民丧生。

After the war, lingering scars

战争过后,伤痕犹在

Many of the grievances around systematic prejudice that led to the civil war remain unaddressed.

这些围绕体制性偏见产生、进而导致内战的宿怨,有许多至今未能得到解决。

Tamil families are still looking for thousands of people who disappeared during the war, and trying to reclaim land still held by the military. Health services are trying to address the overwhelming trauma left by those decades of violence.

泰米尔人仍在寻找战争中失踪的成千上万亲人,并在竭力夺回仍为军方占据的土地。卫生服务机构则在努力应对数十年暴力冲突留下的巨大创伤。

With the rise of Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism, sectarian divides have continued to grow — and the country has experienced new waves of violence. A rise in intolerance has been attributed in part to the postwar triumphalism of some Sinhalese majority politicians.

随着僧伽罗佛教民族主义的兴起,宗派分歧持续加剧——该国已经历了新一轮的动荡。狭隘的加深,一定程度上被认为是源于战后僧伽罗多数派政治人物的趾高气昂。

Last year, officials declared a state of emergency in the central district of Kandy after Buddhist mobs attacked businesses and homes belonging to minority Muslims.

去年,在佛教暴徒袭击了穆斯林少数群体的商家和民居之后,官员宣布中部城市康提进入紧急状态。

Fighting at the very top

高层的争斗

The country has also faced political tensions at the top.

斯里兰卡还面临高层的政治紧张局势。

An attempt to topple the prime minister last year resulted in a protracted constitutional crisis that threatened to break into violence. For a brief period, the country had two declared prime ministers at the same time.

去年推翻总理的企图导致了一场旷日持久的宪法危机,险些引发暴力。该国曾一度有两名宣称是总理的人。

President Maithripala Sirisena fired the prime minister, Ranil Wickremesinghe, last October. In his stead, he appointed the former president and strongman Mahinda Rajapaksa.

去年10月,总统迈特里帕拉·西里塞纳(Maithripala Sirisena)罢免了总理拉尼尔·维克拉马辛哈(Ranil Wickremesinghe)。而后他任命了继任者、前强人总统马欣达·拉贾帕克萨(Mahinda Rajapakse)。

When it became clear that Mr. Rajapaksa did not have enough votes in Parliament to make him prime minister, Mr. Sirisena dissolved the body.

在确定拉贾帕克萨无法得到足够多的票以成为总理后,西里塞纳解散了议会。

The two-month crisis brought the country to a standstill. Clashes alternated between the streets, where thousands of supporters from each side marched, and the Parliament, where lawmakers broke into fistfights and even hurled chile powder at one another.

两个月的危机使斯里兰卡陷入停滞。大街小巷轮番上演各类冲突,各方均有数千名支持者示威游行;而在议会,立法者之间爆发拳脚之争,甚至互相泼洒辣椒粉。

Mr. Rajapaksa finally backed down and Mr. Wickremesinghe remained prime minister.

拉贾帕克萨最终作出让步,维克拉马辛哈继续担任总理。

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