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从时差作弊到花钱代考:美国大学招生丑闻简史

更新时间:2019/3/20 21:36:22 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

A History of College Admissions Schemes, From Encoded Pencils to Paid Stand-Ins
从时差作弊到花钱代考:美国大学招生丑闻简史

Fifty people were charged this week with taking part in a nationwide scheme to game the process of admission to highly competitive schools. While federal authorities say that this is the largest prosecution of its kind in history, it is far from the first.

本周,50人被控为了进入竞争激烈的高校,而参与了一起全国性的招生舞弊案。虽然联邦当局称,这是同类案件史上规模最大的一次起诉,但绝非第一次。

Here’s a look back at five other times manipulation of the admissions process caused a scandal:

下面,就来看看另外五次的招生丑闻:

The Time-Zone Quirk

时差作弊怪招

It was an ingenious and audacious idea: pay expert test takers to memorize answers in New York and then phone them to Los Angeles and Chicago, where the tests had not been taken yet. The answers were then carved in code on the sides of pencils being used to take the same tests, the Graduate Management Admission Test, the Graduate Record Exam, and the Test of English as a Foreign Language.

这是个绝妙又大胆的想法:付钱让纽约的专业“枪手”背下答案,然后打电话给尚未开考的洛杉矶和芝加哥。答案随后用代码刻在铅笔的侧面,涉及的考试包括管理学科研究生入学考试(GMAT)、研究生入学考试(GRE)和托福考试(TOEFL,英语作为外语的教学考试)。

Between 1992 and 1996, several hundred people took advantage of the time differences, paying between $2,000 and $9,000, depending on how high the desired score was. The students were flown or driven to test centers, where they were given pencils with the coded answers. Hundreds of students received high scores and were admitted to graduate schools around the country, prosecutors said.

1992年至1996年,有数百人曾利用时差作弊,根据期望分数的高低,花费在2000美元至9000美元不等。考生被飞机或汽车送至考场,在那里领取带编码答案的铅笔。检察官称,数百名学生由此获得高分,而进入全国各地的研究生院。

The mastermind of the scheme, Po Chieng Ma, was sentenced in 1998 to four years in prison.

这起舞弊案的主谋马白景(Po Chieng Ma,音)于1998年被判四年监禁。

Columbia University, New York University, Fordham University and Hunter College, all in New York, were among the schools receiving fraudulent scores, the indictment said.

起诉书称,哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)、纽约大学(New York University)、福坦莫大学(Fordham University)、亨特学院(Hunter College)均收到过不真实的成绩(这些学校都位于纽约)。

“This obsession with test scores, as indicated by this case, underscores the importance of getting a fuller picture of candidates than can be gleaned from just looking at standardized tests,” said George E. Rupp, the president of Columbia at the time.

“对考试分数的倚重,正如在该案所表明的,突显了全面考察申请人的重要性,而不能仅仅凭标准化考试成绩招生,”时任哥伦比亚大学校长的乔治·E·鲁普(George E. Rupp)说。

Paying Someone Else to Take the Test

花钱请人代考

Twenty students were arrested on Long Island in 2011 for accepting payment or paying others to take the SAT and ACT between 2008-11.

2011年,长岛有20名学生因为在2008年至2011年间收受贿款或花钱请他人代考SAT和ACT而被捕。

Administrators at Great Neck North High School began an inquiry after a student confided to a college counselor that someone was accepting money to take the SAT for other students. They decided to focus on students who had registered to take the tests outside the district and also compared SAT scores with student grade-point averages.

在一名学生向升学顾问透露有人在收钱代考SAT后,长岛大颈北高中(Great Neck North High School)展开了一项调查。校方决定把重点放在报名在区外参加考试的考生,并将SAT分数与学生的平均绩点进行了比对。

Some of the widest discrepancies were with students who chose to take the test off-site, where they would not be recognized. The test takers used fake identification cards.

差异最大的是一些选择在其他考区参加考试的学生,他们在那里不会被认出。这些考生用的是假身份证。

The group of 20 were from five schools: Five of them were suspected of taking tests for others and the other 15 were accused of paying them $500 to $3,600 to take the tests. Students who signed up could pay in installments. One of the test takers was Samuel Eshaghoff, a graduate of Great Neck North, who even took tests for girls.

这20名学生来自5所学校:其中5人涉嫌替他人考试,另外15人被控付给他们500美元至3600美元的代考费。报名参加的人还可以分期付款。其中一名代考者是大颈北毕业的塞缪尔·伊沙格豪夫(Samuel Eshaghoff),他甚至替女生参加考试。

“I thought that there was an easy way to make money,” he said later on “60 Minutes.” “And just like any other easy way to make money, it’s always too good to be true.”

“我觉得那样赚钱很轻松,”他后来在《60分钟》(60 Minutes)节目上说。“就跟其他天上掉馅饼的事情一样,它好到让人难以置信。”

The scheme prompted a requirement that students provide a photograph when they sign up for college entrance exams, and that officials check those images against the test takers’ ID.

该案催生了一项要求,即考生在报名参加大学入学考试时,必须提供照片,官员也必须将所提交的照片与考生的身份证进行比对。

Fairy-Tale Applications

童话般的申请

T.M. Landry, a small school in small-town Louisiana, had gained national attention for sending its underprivileged black students to elite colleges, including Yale, Brown, Princeton, Stanford, Columbia, Dartmouth, Cornell and Wesleyan. It produced its first graduating class in 2013.

T·M·兰德里(T.M. Landry)是路易斯安那州一座小镇上一间规模不大的学校,因为把贫困的黑人学生送到耶鲁、布朗、普林斯顿、斯坦福、哥伦比亚、达特茅斯、康奈尔和卫斯理等名校而受到全国关注。2013年,该校培养了第一批毕业班学生。

But The New York Times reported last year that the school falsified transcripts, made up student accomplishments and trafficked in the worst stereotypes of black America to manufacture Cinderella stories.

但《纽约时报》去年报道,该校伪造成绩单,编造学生成就,贩卖对美国黑人最恶劣的刻板印象,大量炮制灰姑娘的故事。

The Landrys, the husband-and-wife team that led the school, were also accused of physical and emotional abuse by students and teachers. One student interviewed said that he did not know that the school had lied on his behalf, while others were told to lie on their applications.

领导这所学校的兰德里夫妇也被师生指控存在身体和精神虐待行为。一名接受采访的学生表示,他不知道学校代表他撒了谎,也有人称,他们被告知在申请书上撒谎。

While some Landry graduates were successful, others had to withdraw from college, or transfer to less rigorous programs because of a lack of preparation.

虽然兰德里的一些毕业生取得了成功,但也有一些人因为缺乏准备而不得不退学,或者转到不那么严格的专业。

The Landrys denied fabricating student stories, and the school is still operating.

兰德里夫妇否认编造学生故事,该校目前仍在运营。

Special Consideration for the Politically Connected

对有政治关系的人给予特殊考虑

While it is no surprise that admissions offices have ways for top administrators and prominent alumni to signal their interest in applicants, a Chicago Tribune investigation in 2009 revealed a “clout list” of those who got special consideration because of political connections.

尽管招生办公室有很多办法让高层管理者和知名校友表明他们感兴趣的申请者(这并不令人意外),但《芝加哥论坛报》(Chicago Tribune)2009年一项调查披露的“影响力名单”还是让人大跌眼镜,名单上是因为政治关系而获得特殊考虑的人。

The scheme was known internally as Category I, and The Tribune said that 800 applicants won spots at the flagship Urbana-Champaign campus after intervention from state lawmakers and university trustees. The newspaper said the students were admitted even though some did not meet the university’s admission standards.

该计划在内部被称为“第一类”,《论坛报》称,在州议员和大学董事会成员的干预下,800名申请者赢得了旗舰校厄巴纳-香槟分校的入学名额。该报称,有些学生没有达到录取标准,但还是被录取了。

A state commission’s inquiry concluded that Category I was a sophisticated shadow admissions process for applicants who were supported by politicians, donors and other prominent sponsors.

一个州委员会通过调查得出结论,“第一类”是一个复杂的影子招生过程,专门为那些得到政客、捐赠者和其他知名赞助商支持的申请者设立。

According to internal documents and email messages released to the panel, university officials fretted about the university’s decline in national rankings as a result of admitting unqualified students, even as they encouraged the special treatment.

根据提交给该委员会的内部文件和电子邮件信息,校方虽然鼓励这种特殊待遇,但也对该校因招收不合格学生而导致的全国排名下降感到担忧。

The university’s president and the chancellor of the flagship campus, as well as a majority of the members of the university’s board, resigned after the commission’s report.

在委员会的报告发布后,该校校长、旗舰校区校长以及该校董事会的大多数成员辞职。

A Front-Page Answer Key

首页上的答案

On the day in 1989 that 80,000 high school students in New York were to take a state-administered chemistry exam, The New York Post published the answers to the stolen test on its front page.

1989年,纽约州有8万名高中生要参加一场全州化学考试。当天,《纽约邮报》(New York Post)在头版刊登了失窃的试题答案。

The Post said that it published the answer key to the multiple-choice test after learning that thousands of photocopies of the answers had been illegally sold to students in New York City.

《邮报》表示,在得知数以千计的答案复印件非法出售给纽约市的学生后,他们公布了多选题的答案。

The test is one of the many state-sponsored Regents examinations, whose results are a factor in course grades and college admissions.

该考试是众多由州资助的会考之一,其结果会影响课程成绩和大学录取。

State education officials said that the answer sheet on the front page appeared to have been sent by fax in the morning to students in upstate New York.

州教育官员表示,刊登在头版的答案似乎是在早上通过传真发给纽约州北部学生的。

In addition to chemistry, other stolen tests included those for United States history, global studies and 10th-grade mathematics. It was only the second time in the 111-year history of the Regents that an exam had been canceled, The Times reported.

除了化学,其他答案被盗的考试还包括美国历史、全球研究和10年级数学。据《时报》报道,这是该会考111年历史上第二次取消考试。

The Post’s editor at the time, Jerry Nachman, said that the front page showed the pervasive corruption surrounding the test. “These weren’t the Pentagon papers,” he said of the 56-question answer key. “What made the story was not the uniqueness of the documents, but their omnipresence.”

《邮报》时任主编杰里·纳克曼(Jerry Nachman)说,头版刊登答案是为了表明这项考试存在普遍的腐败。“这些不是五角大楼文件,”他在谈到这56个问题的答案时表示。“我们发这个不是因为这些文件有多独特,而是因为它们太普遍了。”

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