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环境灾难:时装业不为人知的黑暗面

更新时间:2019/3/16 10:11:23 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

5 fashion materials you didn't realise were bad for wildlife
环境灾难:时装业不为人知的黑暗面

It is one of the worst polluters and wreaks havoc on our environment in countries across the world, affecting human health and wildlife with dire consequences. Many fibres that are sold in well-known shops on the high street cause harm to species - and we’re not talking about the direct impact of the fur trade. Here’s five common fashion materials you might not have realised damage wildlife and ecosystems.

时装面料是最可恶的污染物,严重破坏了世界各地的环境,对人类健康和野生动物造成了破坏性影响。商业街上的名店里,很多衣服的面料都对物种有害——说的还不是皮毛贸易的直接影响。你也许没想到,下列5种常见的时装面料会破坏野生动物和生态系统。

How a cheap cashmere jumper affects the Mongolian steppe

羊绒衫需求破坏蒙古大草原

The grasslands of Mongolia and the herders and wildlife that live in them - species include the snow leopard, corsac fox and bobak marmot - are currently under serious threat. The steppes were already degraded due to climate change, resultant soil erosion and the drying up of lakes and rivers. Now overgrazing by a three-fold increase of animals since the 1990s is causing significant decline. Studies suggest that 80 percent of the 70 per cent degradation of the grasslands is due to overgrazing. The major factor driving this activity? Global market demand for cheaper cashmere. Goats, whose soft, downy undercoat is used to make cashmere jumpers, are more destructive than other livestock, such as sheep, and Mongolia is the second-largest cashmere producer in the world.

蒙古的草原正受到严重威胁,同时面临危险的还有草原上的牧民以及野生动物们,包括雪豹、沙狐和土拨鼠等等。气候变化导致水土流失河湖干涸,大草原已经开始退化。自上世纪90年代起,牧群总量增加了三倍,如今,过度放牧使草场严重退化。研究显示,草场的退化面积达70%,其中八成由过度放牧引起,背后的主要动因是全球市场羊绒(cashmere wool)衫的需求。山羊绒质软轻柔,是羊绒衫的生产原料,对山羊绒的需求所造成的破坏,比起绵羊等其他牲畜更大,而蒙古是世界上第二大羊绒生产国。

How washing your fleece can stunt the growth of crabs

洗涤聚酯纤维布料会阻碍蟹类生长

We know that the volume of plastic, from microbeads to plastic bottles, that enters oceans and waterways is already at catastrophic levels for the wildlife that live in them. But less known is that one of the routes is through our washing machines. When clothes made from synthetic fibres (polyester, nylon, acrylic) are washed in a machine, millions of tiny microfibres are released via water treatment plants into the sea, rivers and lakes. The fibres contain toxic chemicals, which are innate to the material or through soaking up detergent and other toxins, which adversely affect aquatic ecosystems, transferring pollutants to animal tissue. Studies show microfibre ingestion in a wide variety of species, including crabs, lobsters, fish, turtles, penguins, seals, manatees and sea otters. Microfibres have even been found in the food we eat. This situation is bad news for wildlife: the fibres can block the digestion tract and damage stomach lining leading to reduced feeding and starvation.

我们知道,从塑料微粒到塑料瓶,各种流入海洋和水道的塑料垃圾数量庞大,已经对水中的野生动物造成了灾难性影响。但许多人并不知道的是,洗衣机也是塑料进入水体的一个途径。如果衣物的面料是合成聚酯纤维(涤纶、尼龙、腈纶),洗衣机所产生的废水中会包含上百万个极小的超细纤维,在经过污水处理厂后流入江河湖海。这些纤维包含有毒的化学物质,部分来自合成纤维本身,部分是洗涤剂和其他有毒制剂的残留,会对水中的生态系统造成不利影响,将污染物转移给海洋生物。研究发现,很多生物体内都有超细纤维,如螃蟹、龙虾、鱼类、海龟、企鹅、海豹、海牛和水獭,甚至连我们吃的水产海鲜中都有。纤维颗粒会阻碍消化道,破坏胃粘膜,导致进食减少进而挨饿,这对野生动物来说是个噩耗。

Viscose, Rayon and Deforestation

人造纤维、人造丝与滥砍滥伐

Dissolving pulp, or bleached wood pulp, is the base material for viscose and rayon, fibres which are used in many garments by the fashion industry. What you might not know is that the pulp is often taken from trees in endangered or ancient forests. This means that the clothes we buy and wear are contributing directly to deforestation and habitat destruction. Currently, more than 150 million trees are logged to be made into clothes. Despite a few big-name brands gathering viscose from sustainably certified forests, the number of trees logged for viscose is rising in forests in Indonesia, Canada and the Amazon.

溶解性纤维素又称漂白木质纤维,是人造纤维和人造丝的基本原料,时装业很多衣服都是用这两种人造材料做的。但你可能不知道,所用的纤维素大多是取自濒危树种或是原始森林。也就是说,我们买衣服穿衣服都直接导致了滥砍滥伐和栖息地的破坏。目前已经有超过1.5亿株树木被砍掉做了衣服,尽管有几家大品牌的人造纤维是来自经过认证的可持续林场,但在印度尼西亚、加拿大和亚马逊河流域,为生产人造纤维而被砍伐的树木还是有增无减。

Deforestation also has an impact on climate change, as carbon is stored in trees. These fashion habits are extremely damaging: forest habitats are home to biodiverse populations of thousands of species, with many already rare and endangered.

树木能够储存碳,因此滥砍滥伐也会对气候变化造成影响。时装行业使用人造纤维的做法极具破坏力,因为森林中有数以千计的不同物种,很多已被列为珍稀濒危物种。

How much water?

棉花生产耗水量大

Just because cotton isn’t a man-made fibre, doesn’t mean it’s sustainable. In fact, cotton has become one of the most unsustainable crops on the planet. For a start, it uses so much water to produce which contributes to the freshwater shortage across the globe. It can take 2,700 litres of water to make just one cotton t-shirt. In Kazakhstan, this has led to the destruction of the Aral Sea and its inhabitant species. Additionally, manufacturing cotton requires high levels of pesticides and other hazardous chemicals, which leach into waterways and soil. Cotton production is responsible for 22.5 percent of insecticide use globally. In light of recent predictions about insect decline, this makes a more sustainable process even more urgent.

棉花不是人造纤维,但只凭这一点并不代表它就可持续。事实上,棉花已成为全球最不可持续的农作物之一。首先,种植棉花耗水量太大,加剧了全球淡水资源不足的问题,生产一件纯棉T恤的耗水量可达2700升。棉花生产已经令哈萨克斯坦的咸海遭到毁灭性的破坏,并殃及水中的动植物。此外,在种植过程中,杀虫剂和其他有害化学品的用量很大,会渗入水道和土壤层,棉花种植所使用的杀虫剂占全球总量的22.5%。近期有预测称昆虫的数量将会下降,鉴于此,更加可持续性的生产变得愈发急迫。

Fast Fashion

快时尚

In recent years, retailers have increased the number of fashion collections they release each season. Some high-street shops rotate new garments multiple times a week. It is part of the cheap, throwaway culture known as ‘fast fashion’. Every year, 100 billion new garments made from new fibres are produced many of which soon end up in landfill. This results in an enormous carbon footprint. Polyester and nylon, for example, are made using fossil fuels. Cotton production, too, requires a significant amount of carbon dioxide. Fast fashion also leads to pollution with a dangerously high level of chemicals leaching into our environment. A dress might cost a few pounds for the consumer, but there is a hidden cost to the wider environment, both for the low-paid workers in poor conditions, and for ecosystems and other species.

近些年,零售品牌每一季的新款数量都有所增加,有些时尚品牌每周上新好几次。这是一种“快时尚”,东西便宜,穿完就扔。每年用新布料生产的新服装有1000亿件,很多不久就被丢到了垃圾填埋场,造成了巨大的碳排放。例如,生产涤纶和尼龙需要使用化石燃料,种植棉花也需要大量的二氧化碳。“快时尚”还会导致大量化学物质渗入自然环境,引发严重的污染问题。一件衣服的售价只要几英镑,但背后的环境代价远大于此,无论是在恶劣工作环境下低收入的工人,还是生态系统和其他物种,都会受到影响。

So, what can you do?

我们能做什么?

There are a few materials available which are better for nature such as sustainable viscose a material made from trees, and sustainable wool. But to really have an impact, we can simply buy less and love what we buy.

有些面料更加环保,比如用树木制造的可持续的人造纤维,以及可持续的羊毛。但要想真正有所成效,只需要少买一些,买了就要爱惜。

Swap clothes with friends and family when you no longer want them

不用的衣服可以拿去和亲戚朋友交换

Repair worn out clothing and shoes rather than throwing them away

坏了破了的衣服鞋子不要丢,修补之后可以继续穿用

Search for sustainable brands and look into the journey products have been on

挑选绿色环保的品牌,了解商品的生产流程

Buy quality items that will last longer

购买质量上乘经久耐用的产品

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