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埃航失事客机最后通讯内容曝光:起飞后异常提速

更新时间:2019/3/15 20:49:31 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Boeing 737 Max Hit Trouble Right Away, Pilot’s Tense Radio Messages Show
埃航失事客机最后通讯内容曝光:起飞后异常提速

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia — The captain of a doomed Ethiopian Airlines jetliner faced an emergency almost immediately after takeoff from Addis Ababa, requesting permission in a panicky voice to return after three minutes as the aircraft accelerated to abnormal speed, a person who reviewed air traffic communications said Thursday.

埃塞俄比亚亚的斯亚贝巴——周二,据一名查看过空中交通通话记录的人士表示,埃塞俄比亚航空(Ethiopian Airlines)失事客机在几乎刚从亚的斯亚贝巴起飞后就遇到了紧急状况,起飞三分钟后飞机提速至超常速度,机长用惊慌的声音请求准许返回。

“Break break, request back to home,” the captain told air traffic controllers as they scrambled to divert two other flights approaching the airport. “Request vector for landing.”

“断开、断开,请求返回,”机长一边告诉空中交通管制人员,后者则紧急让另两架朝机场飞来的班机转变航向。“请求着陆航向。”

Controllers also observed that the aircraft, a new Boeing 737 Max 8, was oscillating up and down by hundreds of feet — a sign that something was extraordinarily wrong.

空管人员也观察到这架新的波音737 Max 8在数百英尺的高空上下震荡——表明飞机出现严重问题。

All contact between air controllers and the aircraft, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 to Nairobi, was lost five minutes after it took off on Sunday, the person said.

此人表示,周日飞机起飞五分钟后,空管人员与飞往内罗毕的埃航302航班之间的所有联络便已中断。

The person who shared the information, speaking on the condition of anonymity because the communications have not been publicly released, said the controllers had concluded even before the captain’s message that he had an emergency.

因通话内容尚未公开发布,分享信息的这名人士要求匿名。他表示空管人员在机长表示遇到紧急状况之前就已经作出判断。

The account of the cockpit communications shed chilling new detail about the final minutes before the plane crashed, killing all 157 people aboard. The crash, which has led to a worldwide grounding of Max 8s, was the second for the best-selling Boeing aircraft in less than five months.

对驾驶舱通话记录的描述给出了令人毛骨悚然的新细节,有助于进一步了解这起导致机上157人全部遇难的飞机失事前最后几分钟的情况。不到五个月的时间,波音的最畅销机型第二次失事,这起空难已使全世界禁飞Max 8客机。

Regulatory authorities in the United States and Canada say similar patterns in the trajectories of both planes may point to a common cause for the two crashes. But they cautioned that no explanation had been ruled out yet, and said the planes might have crashed for different reasons.

美国和加拿大的监管当局称,从两架飞机运行轨迹上的相似规律也许可以说明两起空难有共同原因。但他们谨慎表示,尚未排除各种解释,并称两架飞机也可能是由于不同的原因坠毁。

The new disclosures about the last moments of Flight 302 came as pilots were discussing what they described as the dangerously high speed of the aircraft after it took off from Addis Ababa’s Bole International Airport.

在关于302航班最后时刻的新信息曝出的同时,飞行员们也在探讨这架从亚的斯亚贝巴波利国际机场起飞的飞机,称其起飞后的速度高到了危险的程度。

Pilots were abuzz over publicly available radar data that showed the aircraft had accelerated far beyond what is considered standard practice, for reasons that remain unclear.

飞行员们对可公开获得的雷达数据议论纷纷。数据表明,出于尚不明确的原因,这架飞机的速度提升远远超出了一般认定的标准惯例。

“The thing that is most abnormal is the speed,” said John Cox, an aviation safety consultant and former 737 pilot.

“最不正常的就是速度,”航空安全顾问、前737飞行员约翰·考克斯(John Cox)称。

“The speed is very high,” said Mr. Cox, a former executive air safety chairman of the Air Line Pilots Association in the United States. “The question is why. The plane accelerates far faster than it should.”

“速度非常快,”考克斯说,他此前曾任美国航空公司飞行员协会(Air Line Pilots Association)执行航空安全主席。“问题在于为什么。飞机持续加速,远远超过了正常速度。”

Ethiopian Airlines officials have said the crew of Flight 302 reported “flight control” problems to air traffic controllers a few minutes before contact was lost. The new account of communications between air traffic controllers and the pilot, Yared Getachew, who had 8,000 hours of flying experience, provides much more information about what was happening in the cockpit.

埃航官员已表示,在失去联络前几分钟,302航班机组曾向空管人员报告过“飞行控制”问题。关于空管人员和有着8000小时经验的飞行员亚里德·格塔丘(Yared Getachew)通话内容的新报道,为驾驶舱内当时发生的情况提供了大量新信息。

Within one minute of Flight 302’s departure, the person who reviewed communications said, Captain Getachew reported a “flight control” problem in a calm voice. At that point, radar showed the aircraft’s altitude as being well below what is known as the minimum safe height from the ground during a climb.

查看通讯记录的人士说,302航班起飞后不到一分钟,格塔丘用平静的口吻报告了一个“飞行控制”问题。当时雷达显示,飞机的高度远低于爬升过程中离地面的最低安全高度。

Within two minutes, the person said, the plane had climbed to a safer altitude, and the pilot said he wanted to stay on a straight course to 14,000 feet.

这位知情人士说,飞机在两分钟内爬升到了更安全的高度,飞行员说他想要保持直线爬升至14000英尺。

Then the controllers observed the plane going up and down by hundreds of feet, and it appeared to be moving unusually fast, the person said. The controllers, the person said, “started wondering out loud what the flight was doing.”

知情人士说,随后控制人员观察到飞机在数百英尺的高空上下移动,而且速度似乎异常之快。知情人士说,管制员“开始自言自语地表示不明白飞机在做什么”。

Two other Ethiopian flights, 613 and 629, were approaching from the east, and the controllers, sensing an emergency on Flight 302, ordered them to remain at higher altitudes. It was during that exchange with the other planes, the person said, that Captain Getachew, with panic in his voice, interrupted with his request to turn back.

另外两架埃塞俄比亚航班613和629正从东侧进近,控制人员感觉到302航班出现紧急情况,命令它们保持在更高的高度。知情人士说,在与其他飞机的通话过程中,格塔丘恐慌的声音插入进来,请求返回。

Flight 302 was just three minutes into its flight, the person said, and appeared to have accelerated to even higher speeds, well beyond its safety limits.

这位人士说,此时302航班起飞已三分钟,它似乎加速到更高的速度,远远超出了安全上限。

Cleared by the controllers to turn back, Flight 302 turned right as it climbed further. A minute later, it disappeared from the radar over a restricted military zone.

空管员允许302航班返回,飞机在继续爬升的同时开始右转。一分钟后,它在一个军事禁区上空从雷达上消失。

The disaster drew immediate comparisons to the October crash of another Boeing 737 Max 8, operated by Lion Air, in Indonesia. Both took place soon after takeoff, and the crews of both planes had sought to return to the airport.

这场灾难让人马上联想起去年10月狮航运营的另一架波音737 Max 8飞机在印尼坠毁的事件。两起事件都发生在飞机起飞后不久,两架飞机的机组人员都试图返回机场。

The possibility that the two crashes had a similar cause was central to regulators’ decision to ground all 737 Maxes, a family of planes that entered passenger service less than two years ago.

两起坠机事件可能有相似原因,这是监管机构决定停飞所有737 Max飞机的最重要理由。737 Max系列飞机开始提供客运服务才不到两年。

After the Indonesia crash, a new flight-control system meant to keep the jet from stalling was suspected as a cause. In both cases, pilots struggled to control their aircraft.

印尼坠机事件后,一种旨在防止飞机失速的新型飞行控制系统被怀疑是导致失事的原因之一。在这两起事件中,飞行员都难以控制飞机。

[Why investigators fear the two Boeing 737s crashed for the same reason.]

(调查人员为何担心两架波音737飞机是因为同样的原因坠毁。)

The investigation of the Ethiopian crash is still in its early stages, and safety regulators have noted that it is too soon to draw conclusions about the cause. The so-called black boxes, voice and flight data recorders that contain more detailed information about the Ethiopian flight’s final moments, arrived in France on Thursday for analysis.

对埃塞俄比亚坠机事件的调查仍处于早期阶段,安全监管机构指出,现在就得出事故原因的结论还为时过早。包含有关这架埃航班机最后时刻更详细信息的语音信息和飞行数据记录器,即所谓的黑匣子,周四已抵达法国进行分析。

Since the Indonesia crash, Boeing has been working on a software update for the 737 Max jets, expected by April. But the company and the Federal Aviation Administration face new questions over whether there should have been more pilot training as airlines added the new models to their fleets.

自印尼坠机事件以来,波音一直在为737 Max客机进行软件升级,预计于今年4月推出。但该公司和美国联邦航空管理局(Federal Aviation Administration)面临的新问题是,随着航空公司添置更多这种新机型,是否本应进行更多的飞行员培训。

On Wednesday, the chairman of the transportation committee in the House of Representatives said he would investigate the F.A.A.’s certification of the 737 Max, including why the regulator did not require more extensive training.

周三,众议院交通委员会主席表示,他将调查美国联邦航空管理局对737 Max的认证,包括为什么监管机构没有要求更充分的培训。

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