您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文

关于埃航航坠机事件,我们知道些什么?

更新时间:2019/3/12 19:41:22 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

What We Know About the Ethiopian Plane Crash, and What We Don’t
关于埃航航坠机事件,我们知道些什么?

Any airline disaster demands explanation, but the Ethiopian Airlines crash on Sunday — the second in less than five months by the same new model of plane — raises more than the usual questions and fears.

任何空难都需要解释,但周日埃塞俄比亚航空公司的坠机事故——同一机型不到5个月以来的第二次——所带来的却不只是常见的问题与担忧。

Shortly after the Boeing 737 Max 8 took off from Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, bound for Nairobi, Kenya, the pilot sent a distress call and received permission to return to the airport. Six minutes after takeoff, the jet plunged to earth, killing all 157 people aboard.

这架前往肯尼亚内罗毕的波音737 Max 8客机从埃塞俄比亚首都亚的斯亚贝巴起飞后不久,飞行员便发出了求救信号并获准返回机场。起飞后6分钟,飞机栽向地面,机上157人全部遇难。

Here is a look at what we know about the disaster — and what we still don’t.

以下是我们已知的空难信息——以及我们仍未知的。

What caused the crash?

事故原因是什么?

It is much too soon to say why the plane went down, or to rule out possibilities like pilot error, mechanical breakdown, maintenance problems or terrorism.

目前,就坠机原因下结论,或排除飞行员失误、机械故障、维修问题或恐怖主义等可能性为时尚早。

The “black box” flight data and voice recorders were recovered, the airline said on Monday, but the information in them can take weeks or months to analyze. Investigators still have not said what was learned from the recorders recovered after a previous 737 Max 8 crash, in Indonesia in October.

埃航周一称,俗称“黑匣子”的飞行数据记录和驾驶舱通话记录仪已寻获,但分析其中的信息可能需要花费数周或数月的时间。在前一架737 Max 8客机10月于印度尼西亚坠毁后,调查人员至今仍未说明从已找到的记录仪中了解到了什么内容。

In aviation disasters, early speculation often turns out to be misguided. The causes may end up being problems that were unexpected, perhaps because they had rarely been encountered.

对于空难,较早的猜测结果往往发现是被误导的。事故原因可能是意想不到的问题,或许是因为这样的情况很少遇到过。

Investigations sometimes take years.

调查有时会耗时数年。

The investigation into the Lion Air crash has focused on the possibility that aircraft software put the plane into a dive, overriding the flight crew’s manual controls, based on incorrect data about the jet’s speed.

根据飞机速度数据有误的情况,对狮航空难的调查着眼于机上软件致使飞机俯冲入海、无视机组人员的手动控制这一可能性。

That has raised questions about whether the computer system — which differs from earlier models of 737 — was flawed, or whether pilots have been adequately told about changes to it and trained. There are also questions about whether the plane’s instruments were properly maintained.

这引发了人们的疑问:计算机系统是否——不同于早前的737机型——存在缺陷,或者飞行员对于机型变动的了解或所受培训是否充分。也有对于飞机仪器维护是否得当的疑问。

But as yet, there is no evidence that the same issues recurred in the Ethiopian flight.

但截至目前,还没有证据表明埃航班机遇到的是同样的问题。

How is this like the Lion Air crash? How does it differ?

这起空难与狮航空难有哪些相似之处?又有哪些差异?

There are some obvious similarities between the disasters in Ethiopia and Indonesia, but significant differences, as well.

埃塞俄比亚与印度尼西亚的两起空难存在一些明显的相似之处,但也有显著的差异。

The crews on both flights issued distress calls minutes after take off, before their aircraft plunged to the ground.

两架客机机组均在起飞几分钟后发出了求救信号,随后飞机坠向地面。

But the civil war next door to Ethiopia, in Somalia, raises the possibility that terrorism, not mechanical failure, was to blame. The Shabab, the militant Islamist group affiliated with Al Qaeda, has mounted attacks on both Ethiopia and Kenya, and the United States has stepped up its airstrikes on the group.

但埃塞俄比亚邻邦索马里的内战,让人们想到会不会有可能是恐怖主义而非机械故障导致此次事故。隶属于基地组织的索马里伊斯兰派武装组织青年党(Shabab)已对埃塞俄比亚和肯尼亚发起过袭击,美国已加强了对该组织的空袭。

A witness has said that smoke was streaming from the jet while it was still aloft, though that could indicate any number of things.

一名目击者表示,飞机在空中时曾冒出烟雾,不过这种情况有多种可能。

There are also big differences between the airlines involved in the two crashes. Ethiopian Airlines has a generally good safety record, while Lion Air’s is poor.

两起空难所涉及的航空公司之间也存在巨大差异。埃航总体安全记录良好,狮航则很糟糕。

The Lion Air flight had an experienced pilot and co-pilot, each with more than 5,000 hours of flying time. The pilot of the Ethiopian flight was highly experienced, too — but the co-pilot was remarkably inexperienced, with just 200 hours.

狮航班机的驾驶和副驾驶都富有经验,飞行时间均在5000小时以上。埃航飞行员也相当有经验——但副驾驶经验明显欠缺,只有200小时。

It is not clear who was at the controls when the jet went down.

尚不清楚飞机坠落时是谁在控制。

Which airlines fly this plane? Which have grounded it?

哪些航空公司在使用这一机型?哪些已停飞这一机型?

On Monday, China and Indonesia ordered their airlines to ground their 737 Max 8’s, at least temporarily. A handful of other airlines, including Ethiopian, have also suspended its use.

周一,中国和印度尼西亚下令其航空公司停飞737 Max 8客机,至少是暂时停飞。另有包括埃航在内的少数几家航空公司也暂停了该机型的运营。

But as of Monday, of the four dozen carriers that have the model in their fleets, about half continued to fly it. Those include the three largest users — Southwest Airlines, Air Canada and American Airlines — and other Western companies like WestJet, a Canadian carrier; TUI Group, a European line; and Norwegian Air.

截止到周一,在梯队中有该机型的48家运营商中,约半数仍在继续使用该机型。这些公司包括三家最大的用户——西南航空(Southwest Airlines)、加拿大航空(Air Canada)和美国航空(American Airlines);其他西方的航空公司还有加拿大运营商西捷航空(WestJet),欧洲航线的途易集团(TUI Group)以及挪威航空(Norwegian Air)。

Two of the largest carriers based in the United States, Delta Air Lines and United Airlines, do not have the Boeing model.

总部位于美国的两家最大的运营商达美航空(Delta Air Lines)和美联航(United Airlines)没有该波音机型。

More than 350 Max 8’s have been delivered around the world.

全世界已交付Max 8超过350架。

Boeing introduced the 737 more than 50 years ago, and more than 10,000 have been built, making it the most widely used airliner in the world. But it has undergone so many changes over the years that earlier models have little in common with newer ones.

波音于50多年前推出了737客机,已建造了1万余架,使其成为世界上使用最广的机型。但它也在多年中经历了很多变动,以致于早期机型与较新的机型几乎没有多少共同之处。

The Max 8 entered commercial service in 2017, the first model of a fourth generation of the 737 that is more technologically advanced and fuel-efficient than predecessors. The model’s newness makes it difficult to make meaningful comparisons with more established planes that have flown millions of times.

Max 8作为第四代737的第一款于2017年投入商用,比先前的机型技术更先进,燃油效率也更高。由于机型太新,很难与已飞行过数百万次的传统机型进行有意义的比较。

Models from the 737’s second generation, introduced in the 1980s, and the third generation, first produced in the 1990s, are among the world’s most popular and safest airliners.

于1980年代推出的737第二代,以及1990年代最先引进的第三代机型属于世界上最受欢迎、也最安全的客机之列。

Who are the victims?

遇难者都有谁?

The people killed in the Ethiopia crash came from more than 30 countries. They included at least 22 United Nations employees, some of them headed to a U.N. Environment Assembly meeting in Nairobi.

埃航空难罹难者来自30多个国家。他们包括至少22名联合国职员,其中一些准备前往参加联合国环境大会在内罗毕的会议。

Other victims included aid workers, professors, diplomats, entrepreneurs and consultants.

其他遇难者包括救援工作者、教授、外交官、企业家和顾问。

As of Monday, 32 were identified as Kenyan and 18 as Canadian. Ethiopia and France each lost nine citizens; the United States, China and Italy each lost eight, and Britain lost seven.

截止到周一,已确认有32名肯尼亚人,18名加拿大人。埃塞俄比亚和法国各有9名公民丧生;美国、中国和意大利各8名,英国7名。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表