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日本东京也有地下宫殿 庇佑免受洪水侵袭

更新时间:2019/3/8 20:40:00 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The underground cathedral protecting Tokyo from floods
日本东京也有地下宫殿 庇佑免受洪水侵袭

Cecilia Tortajada recalls making her way down a long staircase and into of one of Japan’s engineering marvels, an enormous water tank that crowns Tokyo’s defences against flooding. When she finally reached the tank’s ground, she stood among the dozens of 500-tonne pillars supporting the ceiling. In the cavernous, shrine-like cistern, she felt humbled.

托尔塔哈达(Cecilia Tortajada)描述自己走下长长的楼梯进入日本工程奇迹之一的防洪设施,这个巨大的排水设施是东京用来抵御洪水侵袭的王牌。终于走到水池底部的时候,她看到59根重达500吨的柱子支撑着屋顶。身处地下洞穴却有如宫殿一般壮阔景观,她内心的谦卑之情油然而生。

“You find yourself being a tiny part of this humongous system,” recalls Tortajada, a water management expert at Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy’s Institute of Water Policy, in Singapore. “You realise how well prepared Tokyo is.”

托尔塔哈达是新加坡李光耀公共政策学院水务政策研究所的水资源管理专家,她回忆道:“你会发现自己在这个庞大系统面前多么渺小,也意识到东京在抵御洪灾上的准备多么充分。”

If Japan is a pilgrimage destination for disaster and risk-management experts like her, this is one of its main temples. The floodwater cathedral hidden 22 meters underground is part of the Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel (MAOUDC), a 6.3 km long system of tunnels and towering cylindrical chambers that protect North Tokyo from flooding.

如果日本是灾难和风险管理专家的朝圣地,那这个被称为“地下宫殿”的调压水槽就是重要的神殿。“首都圈外郭放水路”(Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel)由长达6.3公里的管道系统和5个巨大的竖井组成,保护东京免受洪水侵袭,隐藏在地下22米处的这座洪水宫殿就是其中一部分。

In the past several decades, the Japanese capital perfected the art of coping with typhonic rains and moody rivers, and its intricate flood defence system is a global wonder. But the future seems uncertain as the climate changes and rain patterns shift.

过去几十年里,东京应对台风降雨和河水泛滥的能力日臻完善,其错综复杂的防洪系统是一个世界奇迹。但随着气候变化和降水模式的改变,未来还很难说。

Tokyo’s battle with flooding stretches back through its history. The city sits on a plain crossed by five rowdy river systems and dozens of individual rivers that naturally swell each season. Intense urbanisation, rapid industrialisation and imprudent water extraction that caused some regions to sink have exacerbated the city’s vulnerability.

东京的防洪历史悠久。城市坐落在平原上,有5个湍急的河系流经此地,还有数十条单支河流一到雨季就会暴涨。高度城市化,快速工业化和不合理的水资源开采导致部分地区下沉,令城市更加脆弱。

“I don’t know who decided to set-up Tokyo there,” Tortajada, who’s worked in water management for over two decades, says only half-jokingly.

在水资源管理行业工作了20多年的托尔塔哈达半开玩笑地说:“谁知道东京为什么会建在那儿。”

Even if Japan has dealt with floods for centuries, Tokyo’s current system truly started to take shape in the post-war years. Typhoon Kathleen hit in 1947, destroying around 31,000 homes and killing 1,100 people; one decade later Typhoon Kanogawa (also known as Ida) devastated the city when around 400mm of rain in a week. Streets, homes and businesses were inundated.

日本早在几世纪前就开始防洪,但东京目前的防洪系统直到二战后才真正开始成形。1947年,台风凯瑟琳袭击东京,摧毁了约31,000座房屋,造成1,100人死亡。10年后,台风狩野川(又名台风艾黛)来袭,一周内的降水多达400毫米,街道、房屋和商铺都被淹没。

Amidst the chaotic aftermath, the Japanese government stepped up its monetary commitment.

灾后一片混乱,日本政府加大了对防灾的财政支持。

“Even in the 1950s and 1960s, when the Japanese were recovering from the war, the government was investing 6-7% of the national budget on disaster and risk reduction,” explains Miki Inaoka, a disaster expert at the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

日本国际协力机构的灾难专家稲岡(Miki Inaoka)说:“即使是1950、1960年代的战后恢复期,日本政府仍将6-7%的国家预算用于减灾抗险。”

Tokyo’s planners must be wary of serveral different kind of floods. If heavy rain falls upstream, maybe a river breaks it banks and inundates a centric neighbourhood downstream. Perhaps a downpour in the city overpowers that area’s drainage system or a high tide or tsunami could threaten the coastline. What if an earthquake destroys a dam or a levee?

东京的城市规划者必须警惕几种不同类型的洪水。如果暴雨出现在上游地区,很可能会冲毁河堤并淹没下游的中心居民区。一场倾盆大雨也许会超出该地区排水系统的泄洪能力,高浪或海啸也可能威胁沿岸地区。如果地震摧毁了大坝或防洪堤那又该怎么办?

After decades of planning for these scenarios and non-stop construction, the Japanese capital now boasts dozens of dams, reservoirs and levees. Cut into the city’s ground, as you would with a birthday cake, and you will find an underground maze of tunnels alongside the subway lines and gas pipelines that criss-cross the city.

东京为这些情况规划了几十年,并在不断建设,现在拥有数十座水坝、水库和防洪堤。如果你像切蛋糕一样把东京的地下切开,你会看到迷宫一般的排水管道,与地铁线和天然气管道在城市地下纵横交错。

The $2 billion Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel (MAOUDC) and its ‘floodwater cathedral’ is one of the capital’s most impressive engineering feats. Completed in 2006 after 13 years of works, it is the world’s largest diversion floodwater facility and the result of Tokyo’s continuous improvement efforts.

耗资20亿美元的“首都圈外郭放水路”以及那座“地下宫殿”是东京最了不起的工程壮举之一,历时13年于2006年完工,是世界上最大的分洪设施,也是东京不断加强防洪能力的结果。

“Japan is a country that believes in learning,”, says Tortajada, who visited the MAOUDC in 2017. “That makes it a very interesting case for study.”

托尔塔哈达2017年参观过排水系统,她表示:“日本这个国家信奉学习,是一个非常有趣的研究案例。”

The Channel sucks in water from small- and mid-size rivers in Northern Tokyo and moves it to the bigger Edo River, which can handle the volume with more ease.

排水系统将东京北部中小河流的水输送到流量更大的江户河,以减轻泄洪压力。

When one of these rivers overflows, the water falls to one of five enormous 70-meter tall cylindrical tanks spread across the Channel’s length. Each of these tanks is big enough to accommodate a space shuttle or the Statue of Liberty and they are interconnected through a 6.3km long network of underground tunnels. As the water approaches the Edo River, the ‘floodwater cathedral’ Tortajada visited reduces its flow, so the pumps can push it to the river.

当有河流发生洪涝时,水就会流入一个高达70米的巨型排水竖井,整个排水系统中一共有5个这样的竖井,竖井之巨大足以容纳一架航天飞机或自由女神像,竖井之间通过6.3公里长的地下排水管道网络相互连接。当水快要到达江户河时,调压水槽会减少流量,然后用泵把水注入江户河。

A mental exercise can explain the potency of the Discharge Channel. Imagine a standard 25m pool, filled to the brim, connected to the 13,000 horse power pumps that release water from the Channel. If the pumps went on, if would only take them two to three seconds to empty the pool, as they can push 200 tons of water per second.

做个脑力练习就能知道排水系统的威力了。想象一个注满水的标准型25米游泳池,把它连接到拥有13,000马力水泵的排水系统。水泵一开每秒可以推动200吨的水,两三秒就能把泳池抽空。

“It’s like a science-fiction kind of facility,” says JICA’s Inaoka, whose job involves collaborating with experts from developing countries to share Japan’s expertise.

日本国际协力机构的稲岡说:“就像科幻小说里的设备似的。”稲岡的工作主要是与发展中国家的专家合作,分享日本的专业防洪技术。

Yet Inaoka also acknowledges that changing patterns in rainfall will challenge Tokyo’s infrastructure. Climate change makes it very hard to plan ahead, she says.

不过稲岡也承认,降水模式的转变是对东京基础设施的挑战,气候变化导致很难提前规划。

Based on historical rainfall records, the city planning authorities designed Tokyo’s defences to withstand up to 50 millimetres of rain per hour, particularly in areas were people and property are concentrated. But what was considered normal fifty years ago is not anymore.

城市规划部门根据历史降水记录设计了东京的防洪能力,每小时可承受最多50毫米的降水,在人口和建筑稠密区尤其如此。但50年前的正常降水量到如今已经不再适用了。

As in other parts of the world, the number of days with heavy precipitation have increased in the past 30 years says the Japanese Meteorological Agency, a sign that patterns are changing. Some estimates suggest that over the 21st Century, rainfall in Japan could increase by 10%. In the summer, that number could go up to 19%.

日本气象厅(Japanese Meteorological Agency)称,与世界其他地区一样,日本过去30年来降水量多的天数有所增加,降水模式正在改变。有些人预测日本21世纪的降水量会增加10%,夏季甚至增加19%。

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau of Construction claims to be aware of these shifts and has raised the rainfall criteria in response. In at least three areas, projects are now built to withstand between 65 and 75mm of rain per hour. But experts like Nobukuyi Tsuchiya, former chief civil engineer of Tokyo’s Edogawa ward, say the authorities are lingering too long on discussing what to do.

东京都建设局注意到了这些变化,并提高了防雨标准。至少在3个城区要求新建工程需要承受每小时65至75毫米的降水量。但东京都江户川区前首席土木工程师土屋(Nobukuyi Tsuchiya)等专家表示,日本当局已经耗费了太多时间讨论该做什么。

“Unfortunately, the flood control action in vision of climate change has not yet been established in Japan,” says Tsuchiya, director of the Japan Riverfront Research Centre.

土屋现任日本河滨研究中心(Japan Riverfront Research Centre)的主任,他说:“很遗憾,日本尚未建立响应气候变化的防洪机制。”

In his 2014 book “Shuto Suibotsu” (‘Capital Submerged’), Tsuchiya warns that Tokyo is not prepared to deal with the downpours that could arrive with with global warming. On the low-lying areas of Tokyo, around 2.5 million people could be affected by flooding in the event of record-high tides and their fate should be a major planning priority, says the Japanese expert.

土屋在2014年《淹没的首都》(Shuto Suibotsu)一书中警告说,东京尚未准备好应对全球变暖所可能引发的暴雨。他表示,在东京的低洼地区,如果出现创纪录的高浪,大约有250万人可能会受到洪水侵袭,他们的命运应该是规划中需要着重优先考虑的。

Earlier in 2018, heavy rains in Western Japan killed hundreds of people and caused millions in economic damages as rivers burst their banks and overflowed. Were that to happen in Tokyo, Tsuchiya says, the city would be devastated.

2018年早些时候,日本西部的暴雨导致河堤崩塌河水泛滥,造成数百人死亡及数百万美元的经济损失。土屋说,如果发生在东京,整座城市将被摧毁。

That risk is not unique to Tokyo. Major cities like New York, Shanghai and Bangkok will become increasingly vulnerable to floods and storms as a result of climate change and, like Japan’s capital, most showcase a mix of assessing options and slowly working to set up new defences.

不只有东京面临风险。受气候变化影响,纽约、上海和曼谷等主要城市将越来越容易受到洪水和风暴的影响,正如东京一样,大多数城市都做了各种评估方案,并在一点点建立新的防御体系。

London’s climate change adaptation plan, for instance puts flooding as its number one threat, as one fifth of the city lies on the Thames river floodplain. The area is well-defended by embankments and the robust Thames Barrier east of the city, but planners believe there may come a time when those safeguards fail. Across the Atlantic, Miami is already battling rising sea level rise one street at a time.

例如,伦敦应对气候变化的计划把洪水列为头号威胁,城市有五分之一位于泰晤士河的泛滥平原上。伦敦已经有很安全的防洪堤,而且东部还有稳固的泰晤士河防洪闸作保障,但规划人员认为这些保障措施将来可能不够用。在大西洋彼岸,迈阿密已经在将街道一条条加高,与海平面上升做斗争。

In Singapore, Cecilia Tortajada and other experts are working on how to protect the city-state from rising waters in the years to come. The local Building and Construction Authority (BCA) recently commissioned a study to inform the national framework for coastal protection and new measures are introduced yearly.

在新加坡,托尔塔哈达和其他专家正在研究如何在未来几年保护新加坡不受海平面上涨的影响。新加坡建设局日前委托开展了一项研究,为国家沿海保护框架提供信息,并且每年都会推出新的防御措施。

But everyone is keeping an eye on Tokyo, trying to gauge how well it weathers the typhoons and summer downpours testing its shields.

每个人都在密切关注东京,想知道它的防洪系统在台风和夏季暴雨时表现如何。

“If a country as prepared as Japan is suffering, and a city like Tokyo suffers, we should all be paying attention,” sighs Tortajada.

托尔塔哈达叹息道:“如果像日本这么预防完备的国家都经受不住,如果连东京都不行,我们全都得小心了。”

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