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睡眠迷思:多睡一个小时真的很重要吗?

更新时间:2019/3/8 20:05:18 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Does an extra hour of sleep matter?
睡眠迷思:多睡一个小时真的很重要吗?

Almost all of us do it. We get up early to go to the gym. We stay up too late responding to work emails. Or we end up bingeing on Netflix in bed.

几乎我们每一个人都会这么做。一大早就起来运动健身,直到半夜还在回复工作邮件,或者是半夜不睡觉,一集接一集看着连续剧。

Whatever it is, we often cut corners when it comes to sleep.

现代人生活忙碌,各式各样的待办事项,和手机通知讯息争相抓住人们眼球,导致我们的睡眠时间越来越少。

Yet if you want to kick 2019 off on a stronger, healthier note, you need to make more time for sleep. Because if you can squeeze in even an extra hour, it will almost certainly make you look better, feel better and be better at your job.

然而,如果你希望用更强有力、更健康的方法渡过你的2019年,你就需要为睡眠留出更多时间。哪怕是多一小时的睡眠时间,也能够让自己气色更好,感觉更有精神,工作做得更出色。

But an extra hour should be just the beginning, experts caution. The real benefits of sleep come from setting a personal, optimal sleeping schedule – and sticking to it no matter what.

专家还提示说,多睡一个小时应该只是一个开始。睡眠的真正益处在于制定一个个人最佳的睡眠时间表,而且始终都能坚持下来。

Why skimping matters

为何不能少睡

It turns out that the benefits of more sleep – and consistent sleep – are diverse and plentiful.

事实证明,充足的睡眠以及持续的睡眠带来的好处实在太多。

“You’re going to feel better, you’ll have more energy, you’ll have better ideas, you’ll contribute to your team or organisation in a better way,” says Rachel Salas, an associate professor of neurology who specialises in sleep medicine and sleep disorders at Johns Hopkins University in the US.

美国约翰·霍普金斯大学神经学副教授萨拉斯(Rachel Salas)专注研究睡眠药物和睡眠障碍。她表示:“如睡眠充足,你会感觉良好,精力充沛,有更好的灵感,而且能更出色地为团队或公司做贡献。”

“Your mood’s going to be better, you’ll have better reason to engage and share ideas,” she says. It will also show on the outside – skimp on sleep and you may find yourself “gaining weight and looking tired with bags under your eyes”.

她说:“你的情绪会变得更好,而且有更好的理由去交流分享想法。”睡眠质量也会通过外形体现出来。如果睡眠不足,你可能会发现自己“体重增加,而且看起来非常疲惫,眼睛下有眼袋。”

In 2013, the BBC partnered with the University of Surrey’s Sleep Research Centre for an experiment that found an extra hour of sleep improved participants’ mental agility in computer tests.

2013年,英国广播公司与萨里大学睡眠研究中心合作进行一项实验,发现多睡一个小时可以提升参与者在计算机测试时的机敏程度。

But multiple studies make it clear that optimising sleep is about more than tacking on an extra hour. Sleep is crucial, not something to be squeezed in for convenience.

但多项研究也明确指出,要获得最佳睡眠不仅仅是多睡一个小时而已。每天夜晚有充足的睡眠很重要,不能为了方便而将睡眠拆开来睡。

An American study last month showed that students who slept for eight hours a night performed better in final exams. One from the University of Michigan in October found that a lack of sleep affected memory and job performance in fields as varied as baking and surgery.

2018年12月美国的一项研究显示,每晚睡八小时的学生在期末考试表现较优秀。密歇根大学去年10月的一项研究也发现,缺乏睡眠影响记忆力以及工作表现,涉及包括烘焙和外科手术在内的多种领域的工作。

Another study found that two nights in a row of less than six hours’ sleep could make you sluggish for the next six days. And a Swedish study published this year which looked at over 40,000 participants for 13 years found that those who slept for short periods had higher mortality rates than those who don’t, especially among over-65s.

另一研究显示,连续两晚睡眠不足六个小时可以让人在接下来的六天萎靡不振。另外,瑞典今年出版了一篇研究,追踪了4万名参与者13年来的情况,发现那些睡眠时间短的人比其他人有较高的死亡率。这在65岁以上的患者身上尤为明显。

Most reasonable people already know that more sleep is good for them. The problem is that life – work, children, friends, fitness – often gets in the way. And since they’re able to function on a day-to-day basis, people end up underestimating the power of an extra hour.

大多数理性的人已经知道充足睡觉对自己有好处,问题在于生活中的工作、小孩、朋友、健身通常会妨碍睡眠。而且这些事情每天都能发生,最终人们就会低估多睡一个小时的影响力。

So you might get six hours a night – a little less than the UK average – and assume that’s all the sleep you need. But experts say that’s a big mistake. Sometimes, Salas says, people’s bad habits drag on so long they end up with accumulated health issues that eventually bring them to her sleep clinic.

所以你可能每晚睡六个小时,这比英国人的平均睡眠时间要短一些,而且你还假设这就是你所需要的睡眠时间。但专家说,这已铸成大错。萨拉斯说,有时人们保持了太久的不良习惯,积久弊生,健康出问题,最终不得不到睡眠诊所寻求治疗。

Problems that appear over the long haul could be weight gain, migraines or constant fatigue. It could be sleep apnoea or even what she calls “microsleeps” – when your brain briefly shuts down during the day for just a few seconds, sometimes with your eyes open (an obvious danger to drivers, for example).

长期睡眠不足可能导致的健康问题包括体重增加、偏头痛或者长期的疲惫感。这可能是睡眠窒息症,或者是她所说的“微睡眠”。所谓微睡眠,是指你的大脑可能在白天会短暂停止运行几秒钟,有时你的眼睛甚至是睁开的(这对司机就是一个明显的危险因素)。

Consistency counts

规律作息

But what’s better: an extra hour of sleep or a consistent sleep schedule? Salas says ideally you should do both.

但哪一个更好呢:多睡一个小时还是保持不变的睡眠作息?萨拉斯表示,理想情况下,你应该两者兼顾。

Reut Gruber, an associate professor of psychiatry at Sleep Lab at McGill University in Montreal, says while there is no magic number people should hit, there is a way people can work out how much sleep is right for them.

蒙特利尔麦吉尔大学睡眠实验室的精神科副教授格鲁伯(Reut Gruber)表示,虽然并没有什么具体的让人达标的神奇数字,但人们可以通过一种方法确定自己需要多少睡眠时间。

When you’re on holiday or have no commitments the next day, go to bed at a reasonable time and let yourself wake up naturally. Note how many hours you sleep: that number is your new nightly goal. Also note when you fall asleep and when you wake up. Those times are important.

当你在度假或者第二天没有安排事情的时候,在一个合理的时间上床入睡,然后让自己第二天睡到自然醒。记下来你睡了多久:这个数字就应该是你最新的每晚应该睡足的时间。还要注意自己是什么时候睡着,以及什么时候醒来的。这些时刻也很重要。

“Once this [number] has been determined, stick to it no matter what,” says Gruber. “Schedule everything else so that it allows you to go to bed on time” and keep on the schedule at which your body naturally woke up.

格鲁伯说:“一旦这个(睡眠量)确定了下来,无论发生什么都要遵守。安排好其他的事情,让自己准时睡觉,并按照身体自然醒来的时间起床。”

That may very well be an extra hour, but for many it could be longer. Experts say many people are sleep deprived and don’t even know it ­– if you’re sleeping for four hours a night, you’ll probably need the power of many more hours to function normally.

这很可能是多睡一个小时,也可能是更长的时间。专家说,很多人都没有意识到自己缺乏睡眠。如果你每个晚上只睡四个小时,或许你需要补上更多时间的瞌睡才能恢复正常。

There are caveats, of course: choices during the day inform how well you’ll be able to sleep as you try this out for yourself. That means avoiding excessive coffee or alcohol, which could affect your body’s circadian rhythm – your internal clock that determines when you naturally fall asleep and wake up.

当然,也有一些东西要事先说明:在尝试以上方法时,白天的选择决定了你的睡眠质量。这意味着要避免摄入过量咖啡和酒精,因为这些东西可能影响你身体的昼夜节律,即你体内决定何时自然入睡、何时自然醒来的生物时钟。

Gruber also says adults should aim for 150 minutes of good old-fashioned aerobic exercise a week to be able to get more rest. “It is a balancing act,” says Gruber. “In order to be healthy, one needs to be active.”

格鲁伯还表示,成年人应该遵照建议,每周进行150分钟的有氧运动,这样可以让自己能多休息。他说:“这是一个平衡的行为。一个人想要健康,就要运动。”

You may be surprised by how long you end up sleeping but, says Sigrid Veasey, a professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania’s Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, “if you can sleep, you need the sleep”. People should “push out the Instagram time” and stick to the schedule, she says.

宾夕法尼亚大学睡眠及昼夜神经生物学的医学教授维熙(Sigrid Veasey)指出,你可能会惊讶于自己竟然可以睡那么长时间,但“如果你能睡着,说明你需要这些睡眠”。她表示,人们应该“省下刷Instagram的时间”,严格遵循睡眠作息。

Salas tried it herself. “I just went to bed at eleven and woke up at seven, even on the weekends,” she says. “No naps. I was going to do it for two weeks. I remember after five days, it was so profound, I remember specifically thinking: ‘Wow, I hadn’t slept this well since middle school’.”

萨拉斯自己也尝试过。她说:“我11点钟上床睡觉,7点起床,即使周末也是如此,白天也不会打瞌睡。我当时计划坚持两个星期。我记得五天后,改变已很明显,我记得当时自己在想:‘哇,上一次睡得这么好还是上中学的时候呢。’”

Respect your rhythm

尊重你的作息节律

Once you determine your natural sleep schedule, staying on track with that internal clock makes all the difference.

一旦你确定了你的自然睡眠作息,维持这个生物时钟节律会让你的身心健康完全改观。

“Even if you get 10 hours of sleep, if it’s not in line with your circadian rhythm, you can actually function like a sleep-deprived person,” says Salas. You can add an extra hour or more, but unless you’re scheduling it to sync with your natural sleep-and-rise times, you might not actually be getting a proper night’s rest.

萨拉斯说:“如果你的作息不符合自己的生理昼夜节律,即便你睡10个小时,也会感觉像一个缺乏睡眠的人。”你可以多睡一个小时或更久,但除非你的作息与你的自然入睡、自然醒来的生理节奏同步,否则你可能无法获得一晚有质量的睡眠。

“People have a very poor sense of judgment on how much sleep they need,” Veasey says. “Until you give yourself extra sleep and you think: ‘I’m flying through the day, getting things done, I’m more interested in people, I’m less moody, I can focus better.’”

维熙说:“人们对自己到底需要多少睡眠通常搞不清楚,直到有一天你睡够之后,不禁想到:‘我这一天精神饱满犹如飞人,做完所有的事情,对人兴致勃勃,情绪没那么波动起伏,注意力也很集中。’”这时才知这就是你需要的睡眠时间。

If you still feel lethargic after you’ve started getting more sleep, experts say that could be the sign of a more pressing health issue. But improving your sleep is one of those huge health decisions that can give you the biggest “bang for your buck”, Salas says. “It’s one of those things that crosses all medical aspects and domains.”

专家表示,如果你在获得足够多的睡眠之后仍然嗜睡,这可能预示着你有更紧迫的健康问题。但萨拉斯说,改善你的睡眠是所有的巨大健康决定中最能让你“有投入就有回报”的一件事。“这是每一个医学领域都认同的一个共识。”

Setting aside time to work out how much sleep your body needs – and sticking to it – could be one of the best investments you make. Being sharper on the job is great, but being alive is even better.

花一点时间来发现自己的身体到底需要多少睡眠,然后严格遵守,这可能就是你最好的健康投资之一。工作时头脑清醒是一件很棒的事,但感觉自己充满活力甚至比这还好。

“People who are sleep deprived are getting into car wrecks. Could you imagine [having a] brain surgeon who’s sleep deprived?” Salas says. “That’s the difference between life and death.”

萨拉斯说:“缺乏睡眠的人总是出车祸。你能想象一个缺乏睡眠的脑外科医生吗?这就是生与死之间的区别。”

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