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全球教育的六类排序:香港家庭投入高居首位

更新时间:2019/2/22 17:35:19 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Which country has the most expensive education?
全球教育的六类排序:香港家庭投入高居首位

In many countries around the world, autumn means the start of a new school year. But that means something very different if you’re in the US or Chile, Russia or Iceland.

对全球大部分国家而言,秋季意味着新学年的开始。不过在美国、智利、俄罗斯和冰岛,不同国家的情况又很不一样。

Where do students go to school for the fewest number of hours? Which families spend the most money on school supplies? And which country sees its students attend school for a whopping 23-year average?

哪个国家的学生在校时间最短?哪个国家的家庭在学习用品上开销最多?又是哪个国家的学生平均受教育时间竟长达23年?

Here are some of our favourite facts from education systems around the globe.

以下是我们从全球教育体系中精选出的相关资讯。

How much paper and glue can $27.5bn (£21.5bn) buy?

275亿美元能买多少纸和胶水?

In the US, the average family now spends about $685 (£537) on their child’s back-to-school necessities from kindergarten to secondary school, an increase of nearly $250 (£196) since 2005 – and that works out to $27.5 billion (£21.5bn) total for the 2018 schoolyear.

在美国,有孩子在上幼儿园到中学的家庭平均要花685美元(合537英镑)购买上学的必需品,从2005年至今增加了近250美元(合196英镑)——2018学年的总开支高达275亿美元(合215亿英镑)。

Combined with university spending, the number climbs to $83bn (£65bn). The most expensive items are computers at an average spend of $299 (£234) per household. Clothing is close behind at $286 (£224), followed by electronics like tablets and calculators at $271 (£212). Last are the basics: binders, folders, books, highlighters and the rest, which cost $112 (£88). The amount spent on school supplies is on track to continue rising through 2018 and beyond.

算上有大学生的家庭,2018学年的总开支将攀升至830亿美元(合650亿英镑)。其中开销最大的是电脑,每家平均299美元(合234英镑);其次是服装,平均286美元(合224英镑);接着是平板电脑和计算器等电子产品,平均271美元(合212英镑);最后是一些基本学习用品:活页夹、文件袋、教辅书、荧光笔等,平均112美元(合88英镑)。2018年以及之后在学习用品上的支出还将继续增长。

Danes spend 200 hours a year more in school than the average student.

丹麦学生每年在校时间比其他国家的学生平均多200小时。

Of 33 developed nations, primary students in Russia have the fewest required instructional hours per year – just over 500 (the international average is 800 hours). This translates to about five hours a day, with breaks between each class, during an eight-month-long schoolyear. But that doesn’t seem to be holding the country back too much: Russia’s universal literacy rate is almost 100%.

在33个发达国家中,俄罗斯小学生每年在学校的时间最短——500多个小时(全球平均800小时)。相当于在为期8个月的学年里,加上课间休息,学生每天在校大约只有5小时。但俄罗斯的文化普及程度却并没有被拉低,反而趋近100%。

Then there is Denmark. The country requires primary school students to spend about 1,000 hours a year in class. That’s nearly two more months than Russia, and Denmark has longer schooldays. As a country consistently ranked in the top five for education, however, perhaps Denmark proves there are some benefits to having such a long school year.

而丹麦小学生每年大约需要上1000小时的课,比俄罗斯几乎多出两个月,每天在校时间也更长。但是丹麦教育始终位居世界前五,似乎说明学年时间长也是有好处的。

Looking for a cheap education? Skip Hong Kong.

想要便宜点的教育?可别去香港。

Depending on where their children go to school, a family could be looking at a difference of more than $100,000 (£78,000) in total costs. After combining class fees, books, transport and accommodation from primary up to undergraduate school, Hong Kong was found to be the most expensive place to go to school in the world — and by quite a margin. Parents in Hong Kong contribute an average of $131,161 (£102,750) out of their own pockets to a child’s schooling, after any scholarships, loans or state support.

根据孩子上学地点的不同,香港家庭在教育上的总支出相差超过10万美元(合7.8万英镑)。算上从小学到大学本科的学费、书本费、交通和住宿费,香港是全球生活成本最高的地方——而且远远高出其他地方。即使算上奖学金、助学贷款和政府资助,香港的父母们在教育上的平均投入也高达13.1万美元。

The United Arab Emirates comes in second at about $99,000 (£78,000), followed by $71,000 (£56,000) in Singapore and $58,000 (£46,000) in the US. Despite the soaring cost of US universities, parents pay for just 23% of the yearly cost themselves on average. Compare these numbers with France, where parents only contribute about $16,000 (£12,500) to the entirety of their children’s education.

阿联酋是全球第二贵的,约9.9万美元,排名第三第四的是新加坡和美国,分别为7.1万美元和5.8万美元。尽管美国上大学的成本飙升,但是每个家庭只用承担年均教育总支出的23%。再对比法国,孩子们的教育支出大约只需要1.6万美元。

Parents aren’t the only ones who pay the price for school. Just think of the trees.

为教育付出代价的不只有家长,想想那些被砍掉的树。

Even in the age of virtual reality, 3D printing and drones, the simple pencil continues to make a mark in institutions across the world. Today, more than 400 years after their invention, an estimated 15 to 20 billion pencils are produced each year.

即使在如今这个有着虚拟现实、3D打印和无人机技术的时代,铅笔仍然在世界各地的机构中占据一席之位。在发明铅笔400多年后的今天,全球每年大约生产150到200亿支铅笔。

Cedar trees found in the Pacific Northwest are the most common source of pencil wood in the US, while most of the graphite is mined in China and Sri Lanka. Approximately 60,000 to 80,000 trees are cut each year to maintain the world's pencil supply.

太平洋西北地区的雪松是美国最常见的铅笔木材,石墨大部分在中国和斯里兰卡开采。每年大约需要砍伐6万到8万棵树用来满足全球的铅笔需求。

Students in Australia attend class for a quarter of their lifetime.

澳大利亚人四分之一的时间都在上学。

At some point, school is meant to end. But in countries like New Zealand and Iceland, that isn’t for almost two decades. A student’s ‘school life expectancy’ is calculated by the average enrolment rates for different ages from primary school to the undergraduate university level. Australia currently holds the longest expectancy at 22.9 years from primary school to university, or from six years old to about 28. At the bottom of the list is Niger, where students generally begin primary school at the age of seven. Here, the average time a student spends in school is as few as 5.3 years – a 17-year difference.

上学总会有个头,但在新西兰和冰岛这些国家,却要二十年。"学生生涯"是根据从小学到大学本科不同年龄的平均入学率计算的。澳大利亚从小学到大学的在校时间是目前全球最长的,长达22.9年,从6岁到28岁一直在上学。排名最后的是尼日尔,孩子们一般7岁开始上小学,学生生涯平均只有5.3年,比澳大利亚少17年。

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