您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 商业 >> 正文

迷你屋与经济适用房“不为人知的秘密”

更新时间:2019/2/16 11:12:06 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The 'dirty secrets' of tiny houses
迷你屋与经济适用房“不为人知的秘密”

Tiny houses are everywhere. They’ve received heavy coverage in the media and there are millions of followers on dozens of pages on social media. While there is no census for these homes, they have seen a surge in popularity in the decade since the Great Recession – witness the prolific growth of tiny house manufacturers, for instance. Originating in the US, tiny homes have also been popping up across Canada, Australia and the UK.

迷你屋随处可见,在媒体得到大篇幅的报道,而且在社交媒体上有几十页的粉丝。虽然迷你屋并没有具体的普查数据,但这种住宅在大萧条之后的十年内迅速变得广受欢迎,见证了迷你屋制造商的蓬勃发展。迷你屋起源于美国,现在也出现在加拿大、澳大利亚和英国。

Tiny houses are promoted as an answer to the affordable housing crisis; a desirable alternative to traditional homes and mortgages. Yet there are many complexities and contradictions that surround these tiny spaces, as I discovered when I began investigating them.

推广迷你屋是为了解决经济适用房危机;这是除传统的房屋以及住房抵押贷款之外另一个令人满意的选择。然而,随着迷你屋调查的开展,我发现它们存在很多复杂问题以及矛盾之处。

I have toured homes, attended tiny house festivals, stayed in a tiny house community and interviewed several dozen people who live inside them. My research took me throughout the US, from a converted accessory unit squeezed between two average size homes on Staten Island to a community in Florida full of cute and brightly coloured tiny structures – appropriately located just down the road from Disney World. Here are three things I unexpectedly discovered along the way.

我参观了很多迷你屋,参与了很多迷你屋节庆,曾居住在一个迷你屋社区,还采访了几十位住在这些房子里的人。为了此项研究,我跑遍了美国各地。有的迷你屋挤在纽约斯塔顿岛(Staten Island)两栋正常的房子的中间,有的则位于佛罗里达州布满各种彩色可爱的迷你屋的社区里,沿路走上去就能到迪斯尼乐园。以下就是我一路走、一路意外发现的几个事实。

1. Tiny homes and the housing ladder

1. 迷你屋以及买房途径

Millennials have a complicated relationship with home ownership. They often still want to own a home but are simply not able to do it in the same way as their parents, and are known as ‘Generation Rent’ as a result.

千禧一代对于拥有自己住所这件事有着复杂的感受。他们通常还是想要拥有自己的住宅,但并没有能力像自己的父母一样购置房产,因此也被人们称为“租房的一代”(Generation Rent)。

All the tiny-houser millennials that I interviewed wanted to own bigger houses in future; they saw tiny living as a means of owning something now and being able to save at the same time. Several young couples planned to upgrade once they had children, selling their tiny homes or even keeping them as guesthouses.

我所采访的千禧一代迷你屋屋主都表示,希望未来可以拥有更大的房子;他们认为,拥有迷你屋意味着拥有资产的同时可以存下钱。有几对年轻夫妇则计划在有了小孩之后进行一次升级,把迷你屋卖掉,或者留着作为民宿。

But if they saw these homes as a temporary option they would abandon as their lives progressed, it’s not always so straightforward in practice. Apart from the obvious challenge of saving enough to afford a bigger place, it’s not easy to sell tiny homes since they usually depreciate in value. And because they are not attached to land, there is often a question mark about their long-term viability as well.

但如果他们把迷你屋做为一个暂时性的选择,并计划随着生活的改善而不再居住在内,就未必能如愿以偿。存足够的钱、购置更大的房屋本身明显就是一大挑战。除此之外,卖掉迷你屋也并不容易,因为它们通常会贬值。而且由于迷你屋并非建在土地上,它们是否能长期使用也常常要画上一个问号。

2. Groundlessness

2. 无根无基

Tiny homes tend to be on wheels as a way of getting around government regulations on minimum habitable dwelling size. This often makes their inhabitants feel unsettled. In my own experience staying in a tiny home, I recall feeling a general awareness of the wheels underneath and a slight swaying as I jumped from the ladder that accessed the lofted bed.

迷你屋通常都建在轮子上,为的是绕过政府有关最小住宅面积的规定。这常常让居住者感觉飘摇不定。从我自己居住迷你屋的体验来看,我记得从床边的梯子跳下来时,能感受到下面的轮子以及整间房子的轻微晃动。

As one interviewee who lives with his partner and small child on private land in rural Washington State told me:

有一位受访者和他的妻孩住在华盛顿州郊区的私人土地上,用他的话说:

It doesn’t feel that grounded; it feels like we are detached from the earth because there are wheels underneath us… It’s a constant reminder… you are in this fragile state of housing.

你不会有脚踏实地的感觉;因为底下有轮子,感觉就像脱离了地球表面……这不断地提醒你……你的居住状况是非常脆弱的。

The majority of dwellers that I talked to were eager to live on a solid foundation in future. I met one millennial who used her college fund to build a beautifully crafted and customised tiny home, but felt so groundless after only a year of living on wheels that she was trying to sell.

在交谈中,大部分的迷你屋居民都非常渴望未来住在真正的房屋里。其中一位千禧一代用自己上大学的资金精心打造了一栋定制的迷你屋,但在里面居住了一年之后就感觉太没有根基了,想要把它卖掉。

This suggests that building codes will need to be relaxed to allow more tiny-housers to live on foundations. Some places have taken the lead on this already – one example is Spur, Texas, which has changed its relevant housing laws with the express intention of attracting tiny-housers in response to a declining population. Spur is pitching itself as the first tiny house friendly town in America.

这表明我们需要放宽建筑规范,允许更多的迷你屋建在土地上。有的地方已经带头进行了改变,例如德克萨斯州的斯珀(Spur)就为了应对人口减少问题,改变了相关的住房法案,明确表示希望吸引迷你屋屋主。斯珀自称是美国第一个包容迷你屋的城镇。

More broadly, however, the legalities around tiny homes remain complicated. They continue to restrict the potential for this lifestyle both in the US and elsewhere. In the UK, for instance, there can be issues with planning laws that require all new dwellings to have more than one bed space. In southwest England, Bristol City Council recently overruled such rules to allow several tiny homes to be built in the back garden of a terraced house in the suburbs, reckoning that it was necessary to help alleviate a local housing crisis.

然而,从更广泛的角度来看,迷你屋的合法性仍然非常复杂。美国和世界其他地区仍然限制了这类生活方式的可能性。例如在英国,关于区域规划的法律就规定,所有新的住宅必须有一个以上的床位。这就可能产生问题。而在英格兰地区西南部,布里斯托尔(Bristol)市议会最近推翻了一项规定;这项规定原本旨在帮助解决当地的住房危机,允许在郊区联排屋(terraced house)的后花园内建造数个迷你屋。

3. Tiny homes ≠ tiny consumption

3. 迷你屋≠低消耗

Tiny houses are often put forward as a more sustainable housing option. They are certainly a potential check on the continued pursuit of bigger houses and greater consumption of energy, building materials and so forth. Yet reducing your environmental impact by going tiny is not as simple as some have claimed.

人们通常认为,迷你屋是更具可持续性的住房选择。它们确实可能让我们不再继续追求面积更大的住所、不再消耗更多的能源和建筑材力等等。但是,通过居住“迷你屋”来减少对环境的影响,并不像有些人所说的那么简单。

I came across several tiny households that were using external storage spaces for items that wouldn’t fit in the home, for example. Referred to as a ‘dirty secret’ by one interviewee, another explained her desire to keep items from her previous home in case she changed her mind about tiny living.

比如,我就遇到了几户迷你屋住户,他们要把家里塞不下的东西存放在另外的存储空间。一位受访者称之为“肮脏的秘密”;另一位迷你屋住户则表示希望有另外的空间,可以存储之前住宅里的东西,否则自己会改变想法,不想再住在迷你屋里。

Over half of my interviewees had a ‘one in, one out’ mentality, where they would throw away or donate one item to make space for something new. As one dweller in her late 30s, who lives in a state-of-the-art home in a caravan park in rural New Hampshire, said, “I have a TK Maxx addiction. I still go out every couple months and buy a bunch of stuff then come home and decide which things to get rid of.”

我采访的人中,过半数都有这种“买一件,扔一件”的心态,会扔掉或者捐出一件物品,为新购置的东西腾位置。有一位30多快40岁的居民住在新罕布什尔州一个房车公园里的装修一流的家中,她表示:“我对TK Maxx商场上瘾。我还是会每几个月出去一次,买一堆东西回来,然后决定哪些东西要扔掉。”

Regardless of how tiny living is marketed by the enthusiasts, sustainability was not a major driver for most of the participants in my study. Instead it was almost an afterthought. It seemingly takes more than changing the size of a home to change the mentality of the people who live inside.

无论热衷迷你屋的人士是如何进行宣传的,对于我研究中的受访者而言,可持续性并不是主要的驱动因素。相反,这几乎是住进去之后才产生的想法。要改变迷你屋居民的心态,决定性的因素可能并不是房屋面积的大小。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表