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孤立、隐形和麻木:是枝裕和电影中的日本阴暗面

更新时间:2019/2/15 20:49:58 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

‘Shoplifters’ Director Pierces Japan’s Darker Side
孤立、隐形和麻木:是枝裕和电影中的日本阴暗面

TOKYO — As befits a director whose movies chart the untidiness of Japanese family life, the office of Hirokazu Kore-eda is cluttered with piles of papers, books, photographs, videocassettes and CDs. But it’s the dozens of Frankenstein dolls perched around the room that really capture his emotional point of view.

东京——是枝裕和的办公室堆满各种纸张、书籍、照片、录影带和CD,这对于一个描绘日本家庭生活凌乱一面的电影导演而言再适合不过了。但真正能捕捉他情感观点的,却是房间四处摆放的弗兰肯斯坦玩偶。

“I love Frankenstein,” Mr. Kore-eda said, reverently. “He is just so melancholy.”

“我爱弗兰肯斯坦,”是枝裕和恭敬地说,“他实在太忧郁了。”

Mr. Kore-eda, 56, whose latest work, “Shoplifters,” has received an Oscar nomination for best foreign language film and has been a box office hit in Japan, specializes in stories about people who endure almost unbearable sadness.

56岁的是枝裕擅长讲述那些承受着最难以承受之悲的人物的故事,他的近作《小偷家族》(Shoplifters)获得了奥斯卡最佳外语片提名,在日本也票房大卖。

In “Shoplifters,” which won the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival last May, a group of outcasts who live together as a family rescue a little girl from abusive parents and induct her into their clan of petty thievery. For a while, their ragtag clan seems more authentically connected than some families that share DNA. But — spoiler alert — ethical doubts late in the movie lead to a devastating rupture.

去年五月赢得了戛纳电影节金棕榈奖的《小偷家族》是关于一群像家人一样生活在一起的被抛弃的人。他们把一个小女孩从虐待她的父母手中救出来,将其带到了他们的小偷小摸团伙里。在一段时间里,他们衣衫褴褛的家族似乎比一些血亲家庭还要真正心意相通。但——当心剧透——在影片结尾,伦理上的疑虑导致了毁灭性的决裂。

Mr. Kore-eda says his films represent an implicit criticism of modern Japan. They tackle themes of isolation and social invisibility, as well as the numbing of souls that can come with professional success.

是枝裕和称,他的电影是对当代日本隐晦的批评。它们指向孤立和社会隐形性问题,以及可能会伴随事业成功而来的灵魂麻木。

“Nobody Knows,” one of Mr. Kore-eda’s best-known films internationally before “Shoplifters,” is the story of four young children abandoned by their mother in their small Tokyo apartment. In “Like Father, Like Son,” which won the Jury Prize in Cannes in 2013, two sets of parents learn that their 6-year-old sons were switched at birth in the hospital, leading to agonizing decisions that expose class divisions between the families and leave them psychologically battered.

在《小偷家族》之前,是枝裕和最具国际知名度的电影《无人知晓》(Nobody Knows)是关于东京一个小公寓房间里,四名被母亲遗弃的孩子的故事。在获得2013年戛纳评委会大奖的《如父如子》(Like Father, Like Son)中,两对父母得知,他们6岁的儿子出生时在医院被调换了,从而引发暴露两个家庭的阶级区分、给他们带来心理创伤的艰难决定。

“I don’t portray people or make movies where viewers can easily find hope,” said Mr. Kore-eda, during an interview in his studio in the Shibuya neighborhood of Tokyo. “Some people want to see characters who grow and become stronger over the course of a film. But I don’t want to make such a movie.”

“我不去描绘那些观众能轻易从中找到希望的人物或制作这样的电影,”是枝裕和在他位于东京涩谷的工作室接受采访时说。“有些人想要看到角色在电影推进过程中成长并变得强大。但我不想拍这样的电影。”

“It’s such a lie,” he added. “And I don’t want to tell a lie.”

“这简直就是谎言,”他补充说。“我不想说谎。”

Mr. Kore-eda’s vision is starkly at odds with that of Japan’s leaders. With the economy enjoying modest expansion after decades of stagnation, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, in a speech at the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting in Davos last month, pronounced a “long-awaited positive feedback cycle” and trumpeted Japan as having a “hope-driven economy.”

是枝裕和的看法与日本领导人明显不一致。随着日本经济在几十年停滞之后略有增长,首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)在上月达沃斯世界经济论坛年度会议上发表演讲,宣布了“期待已久的正回馈周期”,并大力宣扬日本是一个“由希望驱动的经济体”。

Such rosy rhetoric belies the demographic challenges that Japan faces, with a declining and rapidly aging population and mounting labor shortages. It also overlooks the insecurity that many Japanese feel working in contract or part-time jobs with scant chance of advancement. A little over one in six people live in poverty. And those who hold full-time jobs are often forced to toil for such long hours that some of them are dying from overwork.

如此乐观的言论掩盖了日本所面临的人口挑战,包括人口下降、迅速老龄化和不断加剧的劳动力缺乏问题。它还忽视了很多日本人干着合同工或兼职工作、几乎没有晋升空间,导致缺乏安全感的问题。略多于六分之一的人生活在贫困之中。而那些有全职工作的人则常常被迫长时间辛苦工作,以致于其中一些人过劳死。

Against this backdrop, Mr. Kore-eda has diagnosed a society where local ties have weakened and nationalism is on the rise, particularly under Mr. Abe’s right-leaning government.

在此背景下,是枝裕和诊断出这个社会的地方联系遭到削弱、民族主义正在抬头,尤其是在安倍右倾政府的领导下。

So when, after he won the Palme d’Or, the country’s education minister invited Mr. Kore-eda for a congratulatory meeting, the director demurred.

因此,在获得金棕榈奖之后,日本教育大臣邀请他参加一个庆功会时,遭到这位导演的拒绝。

“I didn’t get the point of why they were trying to congratulate me,” Mr. Kore-eda said. “I don’t think it’s right for the government and moviemakers to get too close. So I wanted to keep a distance from the government.”

“我不明白为什么他们要祝贺我,”是枝裕和说。“我认为政府和电影人走得太近是不对的。所以我想与政府保持距离。”

“Shoplifters” was made in part with government funding, and some critics on social media have bashed the director as anti-Japan or hypocritical. “You took the money and then say that you want to keep a distance” from the government, wrote one blogger. “What a convenient excuse you make.” On Twitter, Tsuneyasu Takeda, a conservative commentator, accused Mr. Kore-eda of being a “shoplifting director.”

《小偷家族》拿了一部分的政府资助,一些人在社交媒体上抨击这位导演反日或虚伪。“你拿了钱,然后说要与政府保持距离,”一位博主写道。“这是个多么方便的借口。”在推特上,保守派评论员竹田恒泰(Tsuneyasu Takeda)指责是枝裕和是一名“小偷导演”。

Mr. Kore-eda told an interviewer from Mainichi Shimbun, a Japanese daily, that he was grateful for the public money but viewed it as a subsidy from taxpayers rather than a grant from any particular administration.

是枝裕和告诉日本日报《每日新闻》(Mainichi Shimbun)的记者,他对公共资金表示感谢,但认为这是来自纳税人的补贴,而非任何特定政府的拨款。

“If you think of culture as something that transcends the state,” he said, “then you understand that cultural grants don’t always coincide with the interests of the state.”

”如果你认为文化是超越国家的东西,”他说,“那么你就会明白,文化拨款并不总与国家的利益相吻合。”

The son of a soldier who served in the Japanese Kwantung Army during World War II in the puppet state of Manchukuo in China, Mr. Kore-eda grew up attuned to the vagaries of class within his own family. His father, who was a Soviet prisoner of war in Siberia, hopped from job to job, an anomaly in the postwar era of lifetime employment.

作为“二战”期间在中国傀儡政府伪满洲国日本关东军服役的士兵的儿子,是枝裕和从小就适应了自己家庭中变幻莫测的阶级。他的父亲曾在西伯利亚当过苏联战俘,后来从一份工作跳到另一份工作,这在战后终身雇佣时代是一个反常的现象。

Mr. Kore-eda remembered visiting his father at work at a chemical factory on the outskirts of Tokyo, anticipating that he would observe him dressed in a lab coat mixing compounds in test tubes. Instead, Mr. Kore-eda found his father on the factory floor, wearing a jumpsuit covered in oil stains.

是枝裕和记得曾去看望过在东京郊区一家化工厂工作的父亲。他本以为会看到他身穿白大褂,把试管里的各类化合物混合在一起。相反,他发现父亲躺在工厂地板上,穿着布满油渍的连衣裤。

“I could tell he was not well treated or respected in the company,” said Mr. Kore-eda, who is now married with an elementary school-age daughter. “It was really shocking, and after coming home I could not really tell him how I felt about him. I felt pity for him.”

“我能看出他在公司没有得到良好对待或尊重,”是枝裕和说。他已婚,有一个在读小学的女儿。“那真让人震惊,回家后,我没法实话告诉他我对他的感受。我替他感到难过。”

His mother, who had grown up in a wealthy family, ended up supporting her children when her husband could not find or keep a job. She worked at a recycling factory and a cake-making plant. Mr. Kore-eda said his two older sisters had warned him not to talk about their mother’s work history, out of embarrassment.

他的母亲出身富裕家庭,结果却因丈夫找不到或保不住工作而出去挣钱养孩子。她曾在回收工厂和蛋糕厂工作。是枝裕和说,他的两位姐姐因感到难堪,曾告诫,不要谈论母亲的工作经历。

She nourished a love of movies in her son, watching Western films starring her favorites, Vivien Leigh and Joan Fontaine, on television with him after school.

她培养了儿子对电影的热爱,放学后会跟他一起看电视上由她的最爱——费雯丽(Vivien Leigh)和琼·芳登(Joan Fontaine)——主演的西方电影。

But it was Mr. Kore-eda’s father who ultimately supported his decision to pursue a career as an artist. His mother urged him to find more stable employment.

但最终支持是枝裕和追求艺术生涯的,却是他的父亲。母亲当时敦促他找一份更稳定的工作。

At Waseda University in Tokyo, Mr. Kore-eda started out intending to become a novelist. But he watched a lot of Japanese television dramas and considered switching to screenwriting. He often cut class to go to the cinema to watch movies by Italian greats like Rossellini, Fellini and Visconti.

在东京早稻田大学(Waseda University),是枝裕和起初想要成为小说家。但他看了很多日本电视剧,考虑转去做电影编剧。他常翘课去电影院,看罗西里尼(Rossellini)、费里尼(Fellini)、维斯康蒂(Visconti)这样的意大利大师的电影。

“It’s a bit cringy to say,” he said, a trace of a smile emerging from his salt-and-pepper stubble.

“说起来有点难为情,”他说道,花白的胡茬上浮现出一丝微笑。

After graduation, he started out making documentaries, but switched to fictional, feature-length films in 1995 with “Maborosi,” the story of a woman recovering from the suicide of her husband. Stephen Holden, writing in The New York Times, described it as “a pictorial tone poem of astonishing visual intensity and emotional depth.”

毕业后,他一开始是拍纪录片;1995年,他以电影《幻之光》(Maborosi)转向虚构类长片。该片讲述一名女性从丈夫的自杀中恢复的故事。史蒂芬·霍尔登(Stephen Holden)在《纽约时报》撰文,称其为“有着惊人视觉冲击力和情感深度的生动诗篇”。

The seed of “Shoplifters,” Mr. Kore-eda said, came from a news article about an entire family put on trial for shoplifting in Osaka, Japan’s third-largest city. And after making “Like Father, Like Son,” he wanted to further explore the theme of family beyond blood bonds.

是枝裕和说,《小偷家族》的种子源自一篇关于日本第三大城市大阪的一家人因偷窃被审判的新闻报道。在拍完《如父如子》之后,他想要进一步探索非血亲家庭这个主题。

In Japan, he said, “people still put a big emphasis on blood ties and family bonds,” a fixation that he sees as sometimes unhealthy.

他说,在日本,“人们仍然相当强调血缘和家庭纽带”,这种固恋在他看来有些病态。

Masahiro Yamada, a sociologist at Chuo University who has written about Mr. Kore-eda’s films, said that “Shoplifters” was a rebuke of the traditional view of the Japanese family, where only blood relations can be trusted.

曾写过是枝裕和电影评论的东京中央大学(Chuo University)社会学家山田昌弘(Masahiro Yamada)称,《小偷家族》是对日本家庭认为只有血缘关系才可信赖这一传统观念的谴责。

“There are many families whose members don’t communicate or interact well,” Mr. Yamada said. “But the mock family members in the movie care for each other more than some real families.”

“有很多家庭的成员之间没有很好地沟通或互动,”山田昌弘说。“但影片中假装一家人的家庭成员却互相关照,胜过一些真实的家庭。”

In their own way, Mr. Kore-eda’s movies offer slivers of optimism as well as moments of impish humor. But does he still have hope for his country?

是枝裕和的电影用它们自己的方式,呈现出些许乐观,还有顽皮的幽默。但他对自己的国家还抱希望吗?

He paused for several beats.

他停顿了几秒。

“I have not thrown away hope,” he said.

“我没有放弃希望,”他说。

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