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斯威士兰与斯瓦蒂尼:一个国家如何恢复原国名

更新时间:2019/2/12 16:15:17 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How a country reclaimed its rightful name
斯威士兰与斯瓦蒂尼:一个国家如何恢复原国名

For Swaziland’s 50th anniversary of independence from British rule last April, the country’s King Mswati III made a surprise announcement: the African country would no longer be called by its colonial name. Instead, the land would again be known by its indigenous name, eSwatini, meaning ‘the land of the Swazis’.

去年四月,在斯威士兰摆脱英国统治、获得独立的五十周年纪念日上,该国的国王姆斯瓦蒂三世宣布了一则惊人的消息:该国将不再使用其殖民期间的国名,而是使用其传统的国名斯瓦蒂尼(eSwatini),意思是“斯威士兰的土地”。这个宣告一开始并未引起轰动。

The announcement didn’t come without some initial confusion. “In siSwati, translated literally, the king said ‘the kingdom of eSwatini will now be known as the kingdom of eSwatini’.” said Jessica Elliott, an American who writes the travel blog How Dare She, who was present for the Golden Jubilee event. “It wasn't until the English translation was spoken over the speakers that people understood and reacted. It got a surprised, but enthusiastic applause.”

美国旅游博客How Dare She的博主艾略特(Jessica Elliott)也出席了这次五十周年纪念活动,她说:“按照西斯瓦提语(siSwati),字面翻译一下,国王说的就是:‘斯瓦蒂尼王国现改称斯瓦蒂尼王国。’直到扬声器中传来英文翻译,人们才反应过来,先是惊讶,然后热烈地鼓起掌来。”

Jiggs Thorne, who was born in eSwatini and founded the country’s annual Bushfire Music Festival, was also surprised, but pleased the country reclaimed its rightful name. “Country name changes are not a common occurrence of course,” he said. “The change hasn’t impacted our festival but is probably most apparent when we attend music expos as a festival from eSwatini and most of the delegates have no idea of who we are and where we are from.”

索恩(Jiggs Thorne)出生于斯瓦蒂尼并创立了该国的年度林火(Bushfire)音乐节,他对祖国重用传统国名感到即惊讶又高兴。他说:“国家改变国名并不常见,虽然这种变化对我们会演没什么影响,但对我们参加音乐博览会,影响就很大:大多数代表可能都不知道我们是谁、来自哪个国家。”

Though marketing the new name has been challenging as the rest of the world learns it, residents are overwhelmingly pleased with the change. We talked to some of them to understand the pride in a country with the world’s newest name.

虽然让其他国家接受这个新名字是个挑战,但斯瓦蒂尼人民对这次改名非常满意。对于这个拥有全世界最新国名的国家,我们与其中一些居民交谈,以期了解国民自豪感。

Why do people love it?

为什么人们喜欢它?

The landlocked country in south-eastern Africa may be small in size, but its scenery is diverse with both a cool mountainous region and a hot and dry lowland region. Progressive environmental laws have protected the landscapes, which remain a primary draw for new residents and visitors.

这个位于非洲东南部的内陆国家,虽然规模很小,但风景多样:既有凉爽的山区,又有炎热干燥的低地。先进的环境法保护了这里的景观,源源不断地吸引着人们前来旅游和定居。

“You can't help but admire the natural beauty of the country with its beautiful mountains and landscape. How green it is and its wildlife,” said Lindokuhle Mthupha who lives in the capital of Mbabane. “Our game reserves are always the first stop for most tourists.”

居住在首都姆巴巴纳(Mbabane)的穆苏法(Lindokuhle Mthupha)说:“你会情不自禁地欣赏这个国家的自然风光,包括美丽的山脉、翠绿的平原以及野生动物。我们的野生动物保护区始终是大多数游客游玩的第一站。”

“I came to Swaziland for two weeks for a temporary job and never left,” said Ruth Buck who owns the Foresters Arms Hotel, 30km south-west of Mbabane, and is originally from South Africa. “I love driving along the country roads and enjoying the ever-c­hanging scenery, and the lively Swazi markets. It is such a beautiful country with a warm atmosphere, it was easy to stay.” Buck also felt welcomed by the people, whom she found to be friendly, humorous and generous.

距姆巴巴纳西南方30公里有一家Foresters Arms酒店,老板是来自南非的巴克(Ruth Buck)。她说:“我来斯威士兰做了两个星期的临时工作,之后就没离开过。我喜欢沿着乡间小路行驶,享受不断变化的风景,感受斯威士兰市场的热闹。这是一个很美丽并且气氛温暖的国家,很容易让人想留下。”巴克也受到了友好、幽默又慷慨的当地人的欢迎。

Robert Jupp, managing director of the Mantenga Lodge, who is originally from eSwatini, returned to the country after studying in South Africa. “I love the peace, the natural beauty, freedom, friendly people and climate,” he said, adding the small size makes it easy to navigate, and people are friendly and willing to help newcomers find their way.

Mantenga旅店的总经理贾普(Robert Jupp)是斯瓦蒂尼人,他在南非留学后回到了祖国。他说:“我喜欢祖国的自然美景、友好的人民和温润的气候,以及它的和平、自由。”

What is it like living here?

The country’s two major urban centres, Mbabane (the capital) and Manzini (the largest city), are still small by other countries’ standards (just 76,000 and 110,000 residents respectively), and the pace remains laid-back with people rarely in a rush. “We are always taking our time with everything... and I mean everything,” Mthupha said. “We are very leisurely and relaxed.”

祖国虽小却易于治理,人们友好并愿意帮助新居民安顿下来。按照其他国家的标准来看,该国的两个主要城市仍然很小。首都姆巴巴纳和最大的城市曼齐尼(Manzini )分别只有7.6万和11万居民,而且人们的生活节奏很慢,很少有人匆匆忙忙。

Most residents speak both English and siSwati, but residents appreciate the use of siSwati in greetings and goodbyes – and those friendly salutations remain an important part of the culture. “We still believe in greeting total strangers,” Mthupha said. “We are such a peace-loving, kind, humble and optimistic country. Anyone coming into the country can always attest to the fact that we are very humble and loving.”

穆苏法说:“我们做什么都很从容,非常悠闲、放松。”大多数居民都会说英语和西斯瓦提语,但他们在问候和告别时更喜欢说西斯瓦提语,因为那些友好的致意用语是他们文化的重要组成部分。“我们会问候陌生人。”穆苏法说,“我们爱好和平、善良、谦逊并乐观。凡来到我们国家的人,都可以证明我们非常谦虚并且充满爱心。”

Celebrating the country’s cultural heritage is also an important part of living here. “We have so many cultural ceremonies that have always attracted throngs of people, and that is where we truly celebrate being LiSwati [the name for the Swazi people]!” Mthupha said.

庆祝国家的文化遗产也是本地生活的重要组成部分。穆苏法说:“我们有很多文化仪式,这些文化仪式总是吸引大批人,我们也在这些仪式上庆祝自己是斯瓦蒂尼人!”

The Reed Dance, held every September, begins with young women cutting large reeds to present to the Queen Mother of eSwatini, and then dressing in traditional attire for a large singing and dancing performance. The Incwala Festival, which takes place between December and January, marks the celebration of kingship and involves a days-long purification ritual, a large pageant with the king and military dressed in full regalia, and a huge fire where certain objects are burned to represent the passing of the old year.

每年九月举行的芦苇舞(Reed Dance),是以年轻女性切割大型芦苇献给斯瓦蒂尼的太后作为序幕,然后年轻女性们穿着传统服装进行大型歌舞表演。12月至1月间还有祝颂王权的丰年祭(Incwala),包括为期数天的净化仪式和一场盛会。盛会上有盛装出席的国王和军队,还有一场大型篝火,燃旧物、迎新年。

What else should you know?

你还应该知道什么?

As one of the last absolute monarchies left in the world, eSwatini has struggled in recent years with significant wealth disparity between government officials (including King Mswati III) and citizens. The Golden Jubilee itself was very expensive, and showcased some of the dualities between celebrating the culture and frustration with the government.

斯瓦蒂尼是世界上仅存的绝对君主制国家之一,近年来一直在努力消除政府官员(包括姆斯瓦蒂三世)和普通民众之间的巨大贫富差距。五十周年庆典本身就很烧钱,所以具有双重性,一方面它展示了本国的庆祝文化,另一方面也表达了民众对政府的失望。

“There is an immense pride in Swazi culture and people seemed eager to share it [at the Golden Jubilee],” Elliott said. “But they were also eager to share their fury with a government that prioritises spending and personal wealth over the prosperity of the country.” The country forbids political opposition parties, and citizens can be punished for criticising the government or the king.

“居民们对斯威士兰文化感到无比自豪,似乎都渴望通过五十年庆典向世人展示。”艾略特说,“但他们也希望向政府渲泄其愤怒:政府优先考虑的是花钱和个人财富,而不是国家的繁荣。”该国禁止政治反对党,公民可能因批评政府或国王而受到惩罚。

The country also struggles with the highest HIV/AIDS rate in the world, but has made great strides in the past decade at increasing access to antiretroviral treatment. Still, access to adequate healthcare can be limited in general, so many expats choose to venture to neighbouring South Africa for healthcare needs.

该国也正在努力与世界最高的艾滋病感染率作斗争。好在过去十年中,在抗逆转录病毒治疗方面取得了巨大进展。尽管如此,大部分人很难得到充分治疗,因此许多人冒险前往邻近的南非寻求医疗服务。 

Despite the country’s economic struggles, the immense pride and dedication to social change is reflected in international events like the Bushfire Festival, where 26,000 people from around the world descend on Ezulwini, eSwatini’s ‘Valley of Heaven’, located between Mbabane and Manzini. Held annually in May, the festival hosts music acts as well as creative workshops and guest speakers. Many of the profits go to local charities like Young Heroes, which works directly with AIDS orphans.

尽管这个国家经济不景气,但社会变革带来的巨大自豪感和奉献精神体现在像林火音乐节这样的国际活动中。该音乐节每年五月举行,在音乐节期间,来自世界各地的26,000人,聚集在姆巴巴纳和曼齐尼之间被称作“天堂谷”的恩组维尼(Ezulwini)里,节日时有音乐表演,有创意工作坊,有嘉宾演讲。很大一部分盈利捐赠给了当地的慈善机构,如直接救助艾滋病孤儿的组织“小英雄”(Young Heroes)。

Before and after the new name, the country is one where caring for others comes naturally. “We still have what we call ‘ubuntu’,” Mthupha said. The word translates to a feeling of common humanity toward others, and a recognition of living as part of a wider community. “It resonates with everyone. The energy and positive attitude is something for the books and you can't miss it when you are in the country,” she said.

不论是改名前还是改名后,这个国家一直是关爱他人的国度。“我们仍然有‘ubuntu’,”穆苏法说。这个词翻译过来就是对他人的共同人性的感知,和作为生活在更广阔社区一分子的认可。她还说:“这引起了所有人的共鸣。我们积极向上、乐观而有活力,来到这个国家你就能感受到。”

Her advice for new residents? “Get ready to fall totally in love with new people, a new culture and a new country. But most importantly, get ready to feel extremely and generously welcomed by strangers.”

她对新居民的建议是:“请准备好彻底爱上这个新的国家、新的文化和这里的人。最重要的是,准备好感受这儿陌生人慷慨至极的欢迎。”

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