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醋与健康:喝醋可以减肥、降三高?听医生怎么说

更新时间:2019/2/5 11:24:06 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Can vinegar cure illness? Here are the facts
醋与健康:喝醋可以减肥、降三高?听医生怎么说

When my brother and I were kids back in the 80s, we loved going to Long John Silver’s.

上世纪80年代,我和哥哥还都是孩子。我们那时很喜欢去海鲜快餐连锁店海滋客吃饭。

But it wasn’t just for the fish.

不过,吸引我们的不只是这家店的炸鱼。

It was for the vinegar – malt vinegar. We would uncap a bottle at the table and swig that tangy, delicious nectar of the gods straight.

还有醋,麦芽醋。我们会打开桌上的一瓶醋,一饮而尽,仿佛是在享用浓郁味美的玉液琼浆。

Are most of you repulsed? Probably. Were we way ahead of our time? Apparently.

是不是很多人都接受不了?很可能。我们是不是太超前了?显然是的。

Some social media and online searches would have us believe that drinking vinegar is a cure-all. Our friends and colleagues will regale us with stories of the healing power of apple cider vinegar for whatever problem we may have just mentioned. “Oh, that backache from mowing? Vinegar.” “That last 10 pounds? Vinegar will melt that right off.” “Syphilis, again? You know it – vinegar.”

如今,一些社交媒体和网上搜索结果让我们觉得,醋真是一剂万灵药。我们一说有什么问题,朋友和同事们就会提到苹果醋治病的故事。“割草割得腰酸背痛?喝醋啊。”、“还有10磅减不下去?喝醋啊,醋能帮你甩掉脂肪。”、“梅毒复发了?你不是知道么,喝醋啊。”

As a practicing physician and professor of medicine, people ask me about the benefits of drinking apple cider vinegar all the time. I enjoy those moments, because we can talk about the (extensive) history of vinegar, and then distil the conversations to how it could, maybe, benefit them.

作为一名执业医生和医学教授,人们总是问我喝苹果醋有什么好处。我很喜欢向人们解答,因为可以尽情谈论醋的历史(相当广博),然后再谈到醋是如何让人获益(是可能获益)的。

Historically, vinegar has been used for many ailments. A few examples are that of the famous Greek physician Hippocrates, who recommended vinegar for the treatment of cough and colds, and that of the Italian physician Tommaso Del Garbo, who, during an outbreak of plague in 1348, washed his hands, face and mouth with vinegar in the hopes of preventing infection.

历史上醋一直被用来治疗多种疾病,譬如希腊著名医生希波克拉底(Hippocrates)推荐用醋治疗咳嗽和感冒,1348年瘟疫流行时意大利医生加尔博(Tommaso Del Garbo)敦促人们用醋洗手、洗脸和嘴,认为能防止感染。

Vinegar and water has been a refreshing drink from the time of Roman soldiers to modern athletes who drink it to slake their thirst. Ancient and modern cultures the world over have found good uses for ‘sour wine’.

从罗马时代的士兵到现代的运动员,都把加醋的水当成一种清凉提神饮料,不少人会喝这种水来解渴。从古至今,许多文化都认为这种“酸味葡萄酒”对身体有益。

While there is plenty of historical and anecdotal testimony to the virtues of vinegar, what does medical research have to say on the subject of vinegar and health?

虽然有很多正史野史都记载了醋的好处,但医药科学对醋与健康的联系究竟怎么看?

The most reliable evidence for the health benefits of vinegar come from a few human studies involving apple cider vinegar. One study demonstrated that apple cider vinegar can improve after-meal blood glucose levels in insulin-resistant subjects. In 11 people who were “pre-diabetic,” drinking 20 millilitres, a little more than one tablespoon, of apple cider vinegar lowered their blood sugar levels 30-60 minutes after eating more than a placebo did. That’s good – but we must remember that it was only demonstrated in 11 pre-diabetic people.

用苹果醋在人身上做实验,可以算作醋有益健康的最可靠的证据来源。一项研究表明,苹果醋可以改善胰岛素抵抗受试者的餐后血糖水平(胰岛素抵抗表现为机体对胰岛素反应不足,过多分泌胰岛素导致血糖升高,易引发糖尿病)。11名有糖尿病前兆的受试者中,一部分人饮用了20毫升(一汤匙多一点)苹果醋,另一部分则服用“药物”(实则没有任何药效),饭后30至60分钟间,喝苹果醋的血糖更低。这个结果不错,但别忘了,研究对象仅仅是11名有糖尿病前兆的人。

Another study on obese adults demonstrated a significant reduction in weight, fat mass and triglycerides. Researchers selected 155 obese Japanese adults to ingest either 15 millilitres, about one tablespoon, or 30 millilitres, a little more than two tablespoons, of vinegar daily, or a placebo drink, and followed their weight, fat mass and triglycerides. In both the 15 and 30 millilitre group, researchers saw a reduction in all three markers. While these studies need confirmation by larger studies, they are encouraging.

另一项研究针对成年肥胖症患者。实验表明醋能够显著降低体重、减少脂肪和甘油三酯。研究人员请155名患肥胖症的日本成年人,每日摄取15毫升醋(大约一汤匙),30毫升醋(两汤匙多一点)或是没有药效的“口服液”,并记录他们的体重、脂肪量和甘油三酯。结果发现,喝15毫升和30毫升醋的人3项指标都有所降低。虽然这些研究结果需要更大规模的实验来验证,但确实令人感到鼓舞。

Studies in animals, mostly rats, show that vinegar can potentially reduce blood pressure and abdominal fat cells. These results help build the case for follow-up studies in humans, but any benefit claims based only on animal studies is premature.

对动物(主要是老鼠)的研究表明,醋或许可以降低血压,并减少腹部的脂肪细胞。这些结果为将来在人身上做实验打下了基础,但仅根据动物实验的结果就下结论,未免仓促草率。

In all, the suspected health benefits of vinegar need to be confirmed by larger human studies, and this will certainly happen as researchers build on what has been studied in humans and animals to date.

总之,醋对健康是否有益仍然需要更大规模的人体研究才能证实,研究人员会以迄今为止对人类和动物研究为基础,一定能够解开醋与健康之谜。

Is there any evidence that vinegar is bad for you? Not really. Unless you are drinking excessive amounts of it (duh), or drinking a high acetic acid concentration vinegar such as distilled white vinegar used for cleaning (consumable vinegar’s acetic acid content is only 4 to 8%), or rubbing it in your eyes (ouch!), or heating it in a lead vat as the Romans did to make it sweet. Then, yeah, that’s unhealthy.

有没有证据表明醋对人体有害呢?那倒也没有。但如果你喝了太多醋(最好别这样做),或是喝了醋酸浓度极高的醋,譬如清洁用的蒸馏白醋(食用醋的醋酸含量仅为4%至8%),或是把醋揉进了眼睛(哎呦!),又或是像罗马人那样为了让醋变甜把它放到铅桶里加热,那肯定就有损健康了。

Also, don’t heat any kind of food in lead vats. That’s always bad.

当然,任何食物都不要用铅桶加热,都有害。

So have your fish and chips and vinegar. It’s not hurting you. It may not be doing you all the good that you’re hoping that it will; and it certainly is not a cure-all. But it is something that people all over the world will be enjoying with you. Now raise high that bottle of malt vinegar with me, and let’s drink to our health.

所以,放心享用你的炸鱼薯条和醋吧,那不会有害,但可能也没有你所期望的那么多益处——醋肯定不是包治百病,但世界各地的人们都在与你共享这种东西。现在,请跟我一起高举那瓶麦芽醋,为大家的健康干杯。

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