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啤酒与沉船:在塔斯马尼亚海底保存200年的佳酿

更新时间:2019/1/23 18:29:01 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

A beer brewed from an old Tasmanian shipwreck
啤酒与沉船:在塔斯马尼亚海底保存200年的佳酿

Australia is a nation built on beer. When Port Jackson, the site around which the city of Sydney sprang up, was settled in the late 1700s, the people there were hungry not just for food, but for a steady supply of ale and other types of liquor.

澳大利亚是个泡在啤酒里的国家。18世纪末杰克逊港(即悉尼前身)建成后,当地人所渴望的不仅仅是食物,还有稳定供应的啤酒以及各式佳酿。

In 1796, the colonial trading firm Campbell and Clark commissioned the ship Sydney Cove to sail from Calcutta in India to Port Jackson, with a cargo of provisions including ales, wines and spirits as well as essential supplies such as grain and timber. The ship never reached its destination.

1796年,殖民贸易公司坎贝尔和克拉克(Campbell and Clark)委托“悉尼湾”号从印度加尔各答向杰克逊港运送啤酒、葡萄酒和烈酒,以及谷物和木材等必需品。但商船却未能达到目的地。

Foundering off Tasmania’s treacherous north coast near the aptly named Preservation Island, the Sydney Cove ground to a halt on a sandbank and sank slowly while the crew salvaged what they could. Artefacts from excavations of the survivors’ camp indicate that this included some of the beer.

“悉尼湾”号在保留岛附近搁浅(岛名起得倒很合适),渐渐沉入塔斯马尼亚北部波涛汹涌的大海中。船员们曾全力抢救财物,从幸存者搭建的营地中发现其中就有啤酒。

Two hundred and twenty years later, I was standing below the ship’s towering rudder, the centrepiece of the Sydney Cove shipwreck exhibition at the Queen Victoria Museum & Art Gallery in Launceston, Tasmania. The ship may have failed to steer its course to Sydney, but the remaining beer survived for around 200 years on the icy seabed. In the 1990s it was recovered from the wreck during excavations led by Mike Nash, a marine archaeologist with the Australian Historic Shipwrecks Team, and sent to the museum in Launceston for preservation. And now the beer is back, renewed and re-brewed courtesy of a partnership between the museum and Australian brewing company James Squire.

220年后的今天,塔斯马尼亚州朗塞斯顿市的维多利亚女王博物馆和美术馆举办了“悉尼湾”号沉船展,我站在沉船高大的船舵下,这也是本次展览的重要展品。商船虽然没能抵达悉尼,但残存的啤酒却在冰冻的海床上保存了大约200年。20世纪90年代,海洋考古学家纳什(Mike Nash)率领澳大利亚历史沉船队在挖掘沉船时发现了这些啤酒,并送往朗塞斯顿的博物馆保存。如今,在博物馆和澳大利亚酿酒公司詹姆斯·斯夸尔(James Squire)的共同努力下,啤酒被再次发酵,重获新生。

Museum conservator David Thurrowgood came upon 26 bottles in the collection of artefacts from the wreck in a storage room in 2015. That’s where I met him, behind the scenes of the museum, where the historical collection, fragments of the ship and its cargo, is housed on shelves in a bright white, state-of-the-art facility.

2015年,博物馆的馆长瑟罗古德(David Thurrowgood)在堆放沉船物品的储藏室里发现了26瓶啤酒。储藏室位于博物馆后面,周身亮白,设施先进,架子上摆放了许多历史藏品、沉船的残骸和货物。我和瑟罗古德就约在那里见面。

Tenderly, Thurrowgood lifted a bottle from a small box. Its surface was opaque and muddied, the glass hand blown more than 200 years ago. The knobbly and degraded cork was still intact. And inside was the original brew.

瑟罗古德从小盒子里轻轻拿起一个瓶子,表面脏乎乎的毫不透光,这可是200多年前人工吹制的玻璃瓶。那种疙疙瘩瘩的软木塞现在已经不用了,但仍然完好无损,瓶子里装着当年的啤酒。

The scientist in Thurrowgood – who holds a double degree in journalism and chemistry – realised upon first inspecting the bottles that they represented a unique example from the diet of everyday people from a time before the industrial revolution. And if the yeast was still alive, it could still be brewed from.

瑟罗古德拥有新闻学和化学的双学位,第一次查看这些瓶子时,他科学家的一面就意识到,这些啤酒独特地展现了工业革命以前人们的日常饮食。如果酵母还活着,仍旧可以用来酿酒。

Thurrowgood also knew that concocting beer from a 220-year-old yeast was likely to grab headlines across the world. With museum funding on a steady decline for the past decade, drawing the public eye and reimagining collections is vital, he said.

瑟罗古德也知道,用220年前的酵母酿造啤酒可能会成为全世界的头条新闻。他说,10年来博物馆的资金不断减少,吸引公众目光和设立新的馆藏至关重要。

As we sat in his office, Thurrowgood reached for a more modern-day, clear glass bottle from the bottom shelf of a bookcase. The liquid inside was a familiar golden colour. Suddenly he gave it a shake, and the contents swirled with sediment. It was the original sample he took from the wreck’s beer, which he cultured in test batches in the museum’s conservation department, proving the yeast was still viable.

我们坐在瑟罗古德的办公室里,他从书架底层拿出一只更现代、更透明的玻璃瓶,里面的液体是一种熟悉的金黄色。他突然摇了摇瓶子,里面的沉淀物开始打转。这是他从沉船啤酒中采集的原始样本,并在博物馆的保育部门分批次培养实验,结果证明酵母还有活性。

From yeast comes bread, too, of course. Guiding me through the warren of workshops in the museum’s conservation department, he stopped before a chest freezer, lifted its lid and retrieved three loaves made using the yeast from the wreck. He handed me a loaf. It was heavy and crusty with a faint, floury fragrance.

当然,酵母还可以用来做面包。他带我参观了博物馆保育部门数量众多的工作间,在一个冷冻柜前停下,打开盖子拿出了三个用沉船上的酵母做的面包,递给我一个。面包很重,外皮很硬,散发着一股淡淡的面粉香。

With the museum team having proven the historical yeast still lived, a partnership with the Australian Wine Research Institute ensued. Their national laboratory in Adelaide helped to isolate the yeast for brewing in commercial quantity.

博物馆团队证明了这种古老的酵母仍有活性,并与澳大利亚葡萄酒研究所建立了合作关系。研究所在位于阿德莱德的国家实验室里将酵母分离,用于啤酒的商业酿造。

The project scaled up further when James Squire came on board to brew beer from the yeast in commercial quantities, with the ultimate aim of releasing it for sale. Head brewer Haydon Morgan was set the task of brewing from the centuries-old yeast, and found it to have properties quite different from its modern-day commercial counterparts. During the brewing process, the shipwreck yeast rapidly consumed all the available sugar in the ferment and produced a dry beer. Even after 200 years on the seabed and months in laboratory bottles, it revived quickly and could still be brewed, whereas a contemporary commercial yeast would be dead within weeks. It was, as Morgan said, “thirsty for life”.

詹姆斯·斯夸尔公司加入后开始用这种酵母大量酿造啤酒,项目规模进一步扩大,最终目标是将啤酒投放市场。首席酿酒师摩根(Haydon Morgan)受命用这种百年历史的酵母酿造啤酒,发现它的特性与现代商用酵母大不相同。在酿造过程中,沉船上的酵母迅速消耗了发酵过程中所有的糖分,产出了一种干啤。即使在海底存活了200年,又在实验室的瓶子里呆了几个月,酵母还是很快就复活了,仍然可以用于酿造啤酒,而现在的商用酵母几周内就会死亡。摩根说它们"渴望生命"。

Morgan’s team trialled recipes based on the types of beer brewed in 1797, the year the Sydney Cove foundered. According to letters and historical documents from the time, these were darker ales such as Porter, IPAs and so-called ‘small ales’, which were lower in alcohol by volume.

摩根的团队尝试用1797年的配方酿造啤酒,也就是“悉尼湾”号搁浅的那年。从当时的信件和史料来看,当时的啤酒颜色都比较深,比如说波特啤酒、IPA啤酒和“淡艾尔啤酒”,酒精含量都比较低。

It was important to respect the yeast’s history and keep its integrity, while producing a beer that modern consumers would enjoy, Morgan said. They decided that the Porter style would work best, and created a beer with a rich, smooth taste and hints of blackcurrant and spices.

摩根说,既要尊重酵母的历史、保留原始风味,又要保证所生产的啤酒符合现代消费者的口味。他们认为波特风格的啤酒最适合,因此酿造了一款口感丰富顺滑、带有黑醋栗和香料味道的啤酒。

After trialling small 120-litre ferments, they scaled up to 5,000-litre brews, whereupon the yeast threw a slightly different result, a beer with a different flavour profile from the trial brew, earning itself the tag of ‘temperamental’ from the brewing team.

起初只尝试着酿了120升,之后增加到5000升,结果成品的风味略有不同,团队称这种酵母“喜怒无常”。

The yeast and the beer it produced was felt to be a good fit within the James Squire stable. The eponymous James Squire was a bit of a rogue; an early convict settler who got his ticket of leave and was set free, going on to build a beer empire that is the antecedent of the modern-day company.

这种酵母和它生产的啤酒非常适合詹姆斯·斯夸尔这个品牌。詹姆斯·斯夸尔本人就有点儿无赖,是个流放犯,重获自由后建立了一个啤酒帝国,就是现今詹姆斯·斯夸尔公司的前身。

Now named ‘The Wreck Preservation Ale’, the beer is bottled under the James Squire label, with a dramatic black and gold depiction of the ship listing to one side. It tastes, said Thurrowgood, quite nice. Morgan is more effusive and marketing-savvy in his description, which features ‘spicy clove aromas and a touch of chocolate’.

这款啤酒现在被命名为“沉船啤酒”,已经贴上了詹姆斯· 斯夸尔的商标,黑色的酒瓶上金色的船体夸张地倒向一边。瑟罗古德说味道很不错。摩根则更懂营销,对酒的描述更富激情,说这款酒“带有辛辣的丁香味和淡淡的巧克力味”。

The hero of the story is the yeast, and it’s hard not to anthropomorphise its journey, which indicates a hardy tenacity. Back in the late 1700s, said Thurrowgood, two rescue ships reached Preservation Island to recover the crew and remaining cargo. On the return journey to Port Jackson, one sank. The other completed its journey, and the cargo was sold as originally intended to settlers, on behalf of its owners the trading firm Campbell and Clark.

酵母是故事的主角,它在旅程中就像人一样,展现了顽强的生命力。瑟罗古德说,18世纪末,两艘救援船抵达保留岛打捞船员和剩余货物,但在返回杰克逊港的途中,一艘船沉没了,另一艘完成了任务,货物按计划以坎贝尔和克拉克贸易公司的名义卖给了塔斯马尼亚的居民。

The beer recovered from the wreck and preserved at the museum, with its temperamental yeasty ingredient, has gone on to have a strange, dual existence. Some, after all that time in the southern oceans, now lives again to quench the thirst of modern Australia. The rest continues a third century of quiet hibernation, still swirling quietly in those muddied and opaque bottles in museum storage in Launceston.

沉船上的啤酒被保存在了博物馆中,酒中的酵母喜怒无常,而酒也很特别,将会以两种方式继续存在。在南大洋待了两百多年后,一部分又活了过来,满足现代澳大利亚人的啤酒需求。其余的则开始了第三个世纪的休眠,静静地在朗塞斯顿博物馆储藏室那些污浊不透明的瓶子里打转。

Limited editions of ‘The Wreck Preservation Ale’ were released in James Squires brew houses in late 2018 and a small supply made its way to the Queen Victoria Museum & Art Gallery in Launceston. Keen to sample its chocolatey, spicy flavours for myself, I purchased a six-pack, and drove to the head of the Tamar estuary on the north coast of Tasmania. From here, you can look out over the waters of the Bass Strait towards Preservation Island where the remains of the wreck still lie. It seemed the best place to raise a toast to those 18th-Century sailors and enjoy their newly revived ale.

2018年底,詹姆斯·斯夸尔酿酒厂推出了限量版的“沉船啤酒”,有少量供应给了朗塞斯顿的维多利亚女王博物馆和艺术馆。我很想品尝一下它的巧克力味和辛辣味,于是买了半打,开车来到塔斯马尼亚北岸的塔马河口。这里可以俯瞰巴斯海峡,直望保留岛,沉船的残骸还躺在那里。向18世纪的水手敬杯酒,享用重获新生的啤酒,这里似乎是最佳场所。

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