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申根:改变欧洲游的卢森堡小村庄

更新时间:2019/1/10 21:03:57 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Schengen: A tiny village that changed European travel
申根:改变欧洲游的卢森堡小村庄

Blink, and you could pass through Europe’s smaller nations without realising. Take Luxembourg, which can be crossed by car in just over an hour at its widest point. Before you know it, you’ve popped out into the surrounding countries of France, Germany or Belgium, with only the eagle-eyed spying the border sign and the striped flags of the Grand Duchy far behind.

眨眼之间,你可能还没有注意到,就已经穿越了欧洲的那些小国。以卢森堡为例,开车横跨这个国家最多只要一个多小时。等你发现时,已进入法国、德国或比利时等邻国,唯有目光锐利的人会突然发现有国界指示牌出现,而此时卢森堡大公国的三色条纹旗已被远远地甩在身后。

The ability to do this is partly down to its petite size, but also thanks to a Luxembourgian legacy: a treaty signed more than 30 years ago in the tiny village of Schengen in the country’s far south-east. The now-renowned Schengen Agreement dramatically changed the way we travel within Europe, and continues to evolve today.

之所以如此,一部分是因为卢森堡是内陆小国,但也要归功于卢森堡的突出贡献:30多年前,在卢森堡东南端的小村庄申根签署了一项公约。著名的《申根协定》从此大大地改变了人们在欧洲旅行的方式。所以你才可能不知不觉穿越了国界。

Not-so-little Luxembourg

卢森堡小中见大

On the surface of things, Luxembourg could be viewed as a starchy centre of commerce, where European bigwigs busy themselves and money is made. It also appears to take up very little space on the map and, as a result, is often unwittingly overlooked as a destination in favour of its more sizeable neighbours.

表面上看,卢森堡可被视为刻板的商贸中心,欧洲的豪商巨贾在此忙于赚钱。而且卢森堡的版图看起来也非常袖珍,因此,相比疆域大得多的邻国,卢森堡这个小国常常不知不觉地受到忽视。

A founding member of what is now the European Union, the diminutive country is home to one of the EU’s three capitals – Luxembourg City (along with Brussels and Strasbourg) – and remains a key player in the running of the union.

但卢森堡是欧盟的创始成员国之一,欧盟三个首都中的一个就位于这个区区小国的首都卢森堡市(另两个是比利时的布鲁塞尔和法国的斯特拉斯堡),卢森堡一直在欧盟事物中发挥关键的作用。

It stands out as a constitutional monarchy wedged between the two giant republics of France and Germany, and has paid the price for its location in not one, but two world wars, ensuring there’s plenty of history on offer. There’s a flourishing domestic wine industry, an impressive restaurant scene, countless museums and memorials (from the Unesco-listed fortress and old city centre to the grave of General George S Patton Jr), and a seemingly inherent love of seafood, cheese and all things pastry.

夹在法国和德国两大共和国之间,卢森堡实行的是君主立宪制。为了保住国家地位,卢森堡在两次世界大战中付出了惨重的代价,可说的历史典故很多。国内的葡萄酒行业发展兴旺,餐饮的规模令人赞叹,还有数不胜数的博物馆和纪念碑(包括被联合国教科文组织列为世界遗产的城堡和古城中心,以及二战传奇名将巴顿将军的墓碑),对海鲜、干酪和所有面食制品的热爱卢森堡似乎是与生俱来。

In 1985, Luxembourg was also instrumental in the creation of a landmark legislation: the signing of the Schengen Treaty, a unilateral agreement ensuring border-free travel within European member countries.

1985年,卢森堡在欧洲一项据有历史意义的条约签订上也起了关键作用,这就是《申根协定》。公约成员国相互开放边境,非公约国获任何一成员国签证,可在所有申根公约成员国内自由通行。

On the trail of this historic spot, I travelled down the Moselle Valley, a quiet, unassuming part of eastern Luxembourg. The Moselle River lazily acting as a natural border between Luxembourg and Germany. The valley is evidently central to the country’s wine production, with row upon row of vineyards draped over the low-lying hillsides interrupted only by a scattering of towns and villages.

在前往这个有历史意义的小镇途中,我沿着摩泽尔河循路开车前行,一路上欣赏着卢森堡东部这片幽静的田园风光。摩泽尔河水流缓慢,蜿蜒向南,是卢森堡和德国之间天然的边境线。很显然,摩泽尔河谷是卢森堡国内葡萄酒生产的中心,阡陌纵横的葡萄园覆盖着地势低缓的山坡,只有零零星星的几座村庄和小镇点缀其间。

Just as I thought I was running out of country, I arrived at tiny Schengen, tucked in among the vines on the western bank of the Moselle. With fewer than 520 residents, it’s certainly not the big-name, bright-lights destination one might expect for an agreement that would change the way people travelled in Europe. Nevertheless, it was here, on a murky morning on 14 June 1985, that representatives of Belgium, France, Luxembourg, West Germany (as was) and the Netherlands gathered to officially seal the deal on this revolutionary new border-free zone.

就在我以为自己正要跨出国界时,我来到了位于繁茂的葡萄园间的申根。这个位于摩泽尔河西岸、人口不足520人的小村庄看起来确实不像那个改变历史的大名鼎鼎之地。不过,的确是在这个不起眼的小村庄,1985年6月14日那个灰蒙蒙的早上,来自比利时、法国、卢森堡、联邦德国(当时东西德还没有合并)和荷兰五国的代表正式签订了这个开放边境自由通行,具有革新意义的公约。

A bit of background

背景点滴

The number of European treaties, alliances, cross-alliances and counter-treaties that emerged during the second half of the 20th Century is near mind-boggling. The list screams bureaucracy, but understanding something of the various allegiances at this time goes a long way to setting the scene in Schengen, so stay with me.

20世纪下半叶,欧洲的条约、联盟、跨境联盟和反条约的数量多得惊人。长长的一串名单透着刺耳的官僚制度,但是了解这段历史对看懂申根条约很有帮助,因此请听我讲下去。

As World War Two drew to a close in 1944, Belgium, Luxembourg and The Netherlands joined together to establish the Benelux. This party of three recognised the benefits that would come over the following, inevitably difficult, decades from working together, and were hoping to encourage trade through a customs agreement.

1944年,随着二战接近尾声,比利时、卢森堡和荷兰三国流亡政府签署了比荷卢(Benelux)关税同盟协议。三国认识到,今后数十年三国合作能够克服财经与社会事务上不可避免的重重困难而获得发展红利,因此希望通过签署关税联盟协定来促进贸易流通。

Building on Benelux, the 1957 Treaty of Rome created the European Economic Community (EEC), an expanded customs union of six founding member states (Benelux plus West Germany, France and Italy).

1957年,在比荷卢三国关税同盟的基础上,联邦德国、法国、意大利以及比荷卢六个创始成员国在罗马签订了《罗马条约》,建立欧洲经济共同体(EEC),该组织是西欧共同市场的关税联盟。

By the early 1980s, there were 10 EEC members, and while only quick border checks were being enforced between the nations, the reality was that this still stopped the flow of traffic, required man-power and was increasingly seen as unnecessary red tape. The concept of unilateral internal border-free travel split the members, however, with half wanting free movement for EU nationals only and thus remaining committed to internal border checks to distinguish between EU and non-EU nationals.

到1980年代初期,欧洲经济共同体已有十个成员国。各成员国之间仅需要执行快速过境检查即可,但现实还是阻碍了自由流通,消耗了大量人力,被视为多余的官僚形式主义。然而,对于构建共同体内无国界自由流通,成员国之间存在分歧,半数国家希望仅对欧盟国家的公民开放自由流通,因此继续拥护共同体内过境核查,以此来区分欧盟与非欧盟国家的公民。

As Martina Kneip, manager of the European Museum Schengen, explained: "The idea of open borders in 1985 was something extraordinary – like a kind of utopia. Nobody really believed that it could become reality."

正如申根博物馆(European Museum Schengen)的经理克涅普(Martina Kneip)的解释:“1985年,边境自由化一说简直令人称奇,像是一个乌托邦,没有人真的相信这会成为事实。”

It was left to the remaining five members (Benelux, France and West Germany), keen to implement the free-flowing movement of all people and goods, to spearhead the creation of the area to which Schengen would give its name.

其中的五个成员国(比荷卢、法国和联邦德国)力主实施所有人员和商品的自由流通,因此率先签署以申根命名的协定。

Why Schengen?

为何选在申根签署?

As Luxembourg was soon to take over the EEC presidency, the small nation was entitled to choose where the signing of this treaty would take place. It just so happens that Schengen is the only place where France and Germany both join with a Benelux member, securing it as the destination of choice.

由于卢森堡将要接任欧洲经济共同体的轮值主席国,因此有权选择这项协定的签署地点。真是很巧,在比荷卢三国中既要与法国相连,又要和德国接壤的地方,申根是唯一之地,使其最终获选。

As the meeting place of three countries, the choosing of Schengen was drenched in symbolism. To ensure it was a neutral affair, the signatories were assembled on a pleasure cruiser, the MS Princesse Marie-Astrid, to put pen to paper. The cruiser was moored as close as possible to the tri-point border, which runs down the middle of the Moselle River.

作为三国交界之处,申根的当选充满象征的意味。为了确保该项协定的中立,签字国代表被统一召集到玛丽·阿斯特里德公主号(MS Princesse Marie-Astrid)游轮上签署协定。游轮航行到摩泽尔河的中游段,尽可能靠近交界三角处停泊。

Regardless, the signing in Schengen failed to attract a great deal of support or attention at the time. As well as the five EEC member states who were against it, many officials from all sides simply didn't believe it would come into force or succeed. So much so, there wasn’t a single head of state from the five signing nations present on the day.

不论意义多大,在申根签署的协定当时并没有受到很多支持或关注。不仅欧洲经济共同体中另外五个成员国反对,而且支持和反对的双方很多官员也根本不相信协定会生效或成功。既然如此,五个协定国中竟然没有一个首脑出席当日的签署仪式。

From the outset, the agreement was underestimated, “considered an experiment and not something that would last,” according to Kneip. This was compounded by the inevitable red tape that ensured the complete abolition of internal borders within the five founding countries didn’t materialise until 1995.

一开始,协定遭到人们低估,据克涅普称,“人们认为这是试下水,不是长久之计。”这种看法叠加了无法规避的许多官僚程序,致使五个创始成员国间直到1995年才真正实现彼此开放边境,这已是公约正式签署的十年之后了。

The Schengen Area today

如今的申根区域

Today, the Schengen Area comprises 26 member states. Of these, 22 are members of the EU, while four (Iceland, Switzerland, Norway and Liechtenstein) are not.

今天,申根区域由26个成员国组成。其中,22个成员国属于欧盟,其余4个则不是(冰岛、瑞士、挪威和列支敦士登)。

Schengen has its critics now as it did then. The recent migrant crisis and the 2015 Paris attacks undermined Schengen, giving those against open borders plenty of ammunition to strike at the inclusive efforts made by the agreement.

申根协议一如既往地有其批评者。最近的难民危机和2015年巴黎的恐怖袭击对申根公约造成打击,炮轰申根一揽子协定中的条款。

Despite this, the Schengen Area continues to grow, even if the process of joining remains cumbersome. Politics still determine who can join, since new members must be unanimously voted in. Bulgaria and Romania, for example, have repeatedly been vetoed from joining Schengen largely due to concerns over domestic corruption and the security of their external borders. In fact, no country has joined the Schengen Area for several years; Liechtenstein was the last addition in 2011.

尽管如此,申根协议涵盖的领土还在不断扩张,虽然加入的流程一直很繁琐。政治因素依然决定着哪些国家可以加入,新成员国必须经投票一致通过,才可成为协定国。例如,保加利亚和罗马尼亚加入申根区屡遭否决,很大程度上是因为担心申请国的内政腐败以及对外边境的安全问题。事实上,已有好几年没有新国家加入申根协定,最近的是2011年加入的列支敦士登。

Nevertheless, the pros of Schengen far outweigh the cons for the majority of people. As Kneip observes: “The Schengen Agreement is something that affects the everyday lives of all the Schengen member states – some 400 million people.”

然而,对大多数人而言,申根公约的好处远远大于不足之处。正如克涅普评论道:“《申根协定》可以说影响着所有公约定成员国大约4亿人的日常生活。”

For locals, this can mean anything from visiting friends and going to work to nipping into Luxembourg to take advantage of the country's relatively low tax on fuel when compared with its neighbours, diesel in particular.

对于申根区的人们来说,这将意味着可以随时跨国访友打工,或抽空去到卢森堡给汽车加油,因为这个大公国的燃油税比邻国低,特别是柴油。

As for travellers, the Schengen Agreement grants immediate access to all member countries, making travel – be it by road, rail or air – quicker and easier. Add to this the Schengen visa, which allows non-EU travellers to apply for a single visa valid for 90 days with entry to all participating countries, and its appeal is blindingly clear, saving travellers both time and money.

至于旅游,《申根协定》所有成员国的国民可在各国自由通行,不论是陆路、铁路还是航空,都更加省时,更加便捷。此外还有申根签证,非欧盟国家的游客一旦获得某申根国90天的单次签证,就获准进入所有公约签字国,这为旅客节省了时间和费用。申根签证的吸引力不言而喻。

What of Schengen itself?

小村庄申根是什么样?

Since Schengen is removed from any major artery, you’re only likely to find yourself there if you make a conscious effort to go. Around a 35km drive from Luxembourg City, the route takes you through forests, over farmland and down into the Moselle Valley. The landscape changes quite noticeably as you descend the rural hills to the town of Remich. From here, it's a pleasant riverside drive, winding between vine-clad slopes and the Moselle River to the epicentre of Schengen, the European Museum. Here, the story of how the Schengen Area came to exist is expertly told through interactive displays inside and a variety of monuments outside.

因为申根不在任何一个主干道上,你要花一些心思,才有可能找到那里。从卢森堡市出发大约开车35公里,穿过森林,越过田野,然后下到摩泽尔河谷。地貌的变化较为明显,从农村的山丘到小镇雷米西,一路向下。从这开始,沿河驱车令人心旷神怡,在摩泽尔河和一个又一个的葡萄园的山坡间蜿蜒向前,终於来到位于申根镇中心的欧洲博物馆。这里,通过馆内的交互展示和场外的各个纪念碑,申根地区来龙去脉的讲解很有专业水平。

Don’t miss the cabinet of official border control caps from the member states at the time they joined the area, each a piece of national identity that was surrendered in order to make Schengen work. Poignant sections of the Berlin Wall sit perfectly placed in front of the museum, set there to remind us all that walls – in this case, world-famous reinforced concrete from one of its founding members, no less – don’t have to remain in place forever. Further along the jetty in front of the museum, you’ll find three steles, or steel slabs, each with their own star commemorating the founding members. Finally, there are the striking Pillars of Nations that beautifully detail iconic sights from each member of the Schengen Area.

当初各成员国加入申根区时,其边检人员的正式官帽都存放在一个展柜中,不要错过。每一顶帽子都是国家身份的标志,博物馆收集起来显示《申根协定》开始运作。柏林墙的一段遗迹正好矗立在欧洲博物馆前,2.8米高、1.2米宽的墙体令人心酸,在此提醒着我们,所有的边界墙都已不复存在。而这段墙体为加固混凝土,闻名于世,来源是其中一个创始成员国德国,更是如此。继续沿着博物馆前的登岸码头,会看到三个石柱,或者说钢板,上面各有一颗星,纪念创始成员三方五国(德国、法国及荷比卢)。最后,是引人注目的国柱群,具体展示了申根领土各成员国的标志性景观,美轮美奂。

Of course, there’s more to this laidback border village than international legislation. Visitors can extend their stay to enjoy a river cruise on the Moselle, go hiking or cycling in the surrounding hills, or set about sampling some crémant (the region’s revered sparkling white wine) to get a true taste of life in Schengen, the tiny rural village now committed to the annals of history.

当然,这座悠闲的边境村落不仅有国际立法协定签署之地可以参观,游客还可以多加停留,或上船饱览摩泽尔河风光,或在怀抱的群山中攀山或骑车,或到访某酒庄品尝一点起泡酒(当地所尊崇的白葡萄起泡酒),以亲身领略申根,这座注定会写入人类编年史的小村镇的生活。

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