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CBD、THC和其它大麻制品的流行背后是什么

更新时间:2018/12/8 9:41:27 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

What's behind the rise in cannabis-infused products?
CBD、THC和其它大麻制品的流行背后是什么

There’s vape oil, pain-relief cream, patches, sweets (gummy bears, sour snakes, rainbow bites – take your pick), capsules and compounds.

含有大麻的产品有烟油、镇痛霜、膏药、糖果(小熊软糖、酸酸蛇糖、彩虹软糖——挑你喜欢的)、胶囊和化合物。

Cannabidiol, or CBD as it’s better known – a naturally occurring extract of the cannabis sativa plant – is now so ubiquitous in the US, you’d be forgiven for thinking there are few places it's not available and few ailments it cannot treat.

大麻二酚,更为人熟知的名字是CBD——一种大麻植物的天然提取物——如今在美国无处不在,难怪你会觉得它没有什么地方买不到,没有什么病不能治。

Users say they take it for everything from muscle aches and anxiety to arthritis, epilepsy and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

使用者称,可以用它缓解肌肉疼痛、焦虑、关节炎、癫痫症和创伤后应激障碍。

And let’s not forget Fido. There’s CBD oil for him too – with added bacon flavour.

别忘了宠物狗,也有为它们准备的CBD油——添加了熏肉的味道。

It's an industry that CBD market research firm the Brightfield Group projects will be worth $5.7bn by next year and $22bn by 2022. The group's research director Bethany Gomez says Charlotte's Web Holdings, the industry's largest player, grew by 172% in 2016-17 and is on track to make $89m in 2018.

CBD市场研究公司布莱特菲尔德集团(Brightfield Group) 预计,这个产业的价值在明年将达到57亿美元,到2022年将达到220亿美元。该集团研究总监戈麦斯(Bethany Gomez)说,该行业的龙头企业,夏洛特网络控股公司(Charlotte's Web Holdings)的收入,在2016至2017年增长了172%,2018年有望达到8900万美元。

This is a controversial sector that is inevitably turning heads in the investment world, not to mention attracting interest from some unlikely corners. Drinks manufacturer Coca Cola has said it’s “closely watching the growth of non-psychoactive CBD as an ingredient in functional wellness beverages around the world”. A request for further comment on this from BBC Capital went unanswered.

但这是一个有争议的领域,在投资界理所当然地引人注目,甚至一些看似不太相关的机构都有兴趣来插一脚。饮料生产商可口可乐表示,“它密切关注,非精神类药物的 CBD可作为功能饮料的一种原料,在世界各地的发展”。BBC财经频道(BBC Capital)请求可口可乐做进一步解释,但并未得到回应。

Gomez says when the Brightfield Group made its industry predictions earlier this year, “we raised plenty of eyebrows”. But, she says, three days later the media was reporting that Coca Cola was looking into the CBD industry and it suddenly made sense. “If you look at the total sum of CBD products being sold today and then add ‘big box’ retailers into the mix and the big pharmacies who are begging to enter... we expect to see a very rapid change.”

戈麦斯说,当布莱特菲尔德集团今年早些时候做出行业预测时,“我们让许多人皱起眉头”。她说,但三天后媒体报道称,可口可乐正在考察CBD产业,这突然就说得通了。“如果你看看今天CBD产品的销售总额,然后把大卖场零售商和正想尽方法钻进这个行业的大药房都算上……我们有望看到一个非常迅速的变化。”

Ahead of the curve

快速增长之前

Zsolt Csonka is one of this growing fan base. He is the founder of Adriaen Block, a restaurant in New York's Astoria, the city's first CBD restaurant and bar. Csonka says he wanted to create cocktails with a lower alcohol content, using ingredients (like shrubs, berries, and herbs) that were used in the 16th and 17th Century, but which also included CBD oil – "mixing the new generation and the old generation together," he likes to say.

CBD的拥趸日益增加,琼卡(Zsolt Csonka)是其中之一。他创办的安德里亚布洛克餐厅(Adriaen Block)位于纽约的阿斯托里亚(Astoria),是该城市第一家CBD餐厅和酒吧。琼卡说他想创作一款鸡尾酒,酒精含量较低,使用16、17世纪的原料(如灌木、浆果和香草),但也包括CBD油——“将新一代和老一代混合在一起,”他喜欢这样说。

“If you put CBD in the drinks, instead of it taking four or five whiskeys to get drunk, with just one or two drinks infused with CBD you get a much more relaxed state of mind, and your stress levels go down," he says.

“你要喝四五杯威士忌才会醉,而如果你把CBD放入酒中,只需要喝上一两杯含有CBD的酒,你就能有更放松的心理状态,你的压力水平也会下降,”他说。

Csonka makes sauces that incorporate CBD to go with his dishes, too – like the peppercorn sauce for his New York strips; his demi-glace, beurre blanc or bearnaise.

琼卡还用含CBD的酱汁来搭配他的菜——比如胡椒酱汁配他的纽约牛排;他的基本烧汁、白黄油酱或蛋黄酱。

But what about the science? There's no concrete evidence yet that CBD does anything for people who take it for some vague concept of “wellness.”

但科学事实如何?尚没有确凿证据表明CBD对人的“健康”这一模糊概念有任何作用。

“I wasn't able to relax at night or sleep; my mind was always in knots,” he says. “When I took two CBD drinks or drops of potion in my coffee or whatever, I was able to sleep so well and mind able to relax so well. I would never sell something I didn't believe in.”

“晚上我无法放松或入睡;我的心总是乱作一团,”他说。“当我喝了两杯CBD酒或把CBD滴在我的咖啡或别的饮品中,我可以睡得很好,精神也很放松。我绝不会兜售我不相信的东西。”

“But,” Csonka adds, “we're providing an experience. I'm not giving anyone a miracle cure or advice. We're just enhancing their experience; creating and environment to loosen up their anxiety or stress level.”

“但是,”琼卡补充说,“我们提供的是一种体验。我不是给任何人一个神奇疗法或建议。我们只是优化他们的体验;创建一种环境来释放他们的焦虑或压力。”

Who’s buying it?

谁在购买CBD?

So what do CBD consumers look like? Based on a survey of 5,000 CBD users that Brightfield conducted this summer, millennials were the first to begin buying CBD products after various states legalised it. There's also a spike in users in their early thirties, but it drops off among people in their early 40s (the Gen X-ers) and then rises again among baby boomers, who are buying tinctures, creams and capsules to use for conditions associated with ageing like arthritis or chronic pain, Gomez said.

所以CBD消费者是什么样的人?基于布莱特菲尔德公司今年夏天对5000 名CBD使用者做的一项的调查,在各州将CBD合法化之后,千禧一代是第一批开始购买CBD产品的人。30岁出头的用户激增;但40岁出头的用户(X世代, 译者注:1960年代早期至1980年代早期出生者)数量有所下滑;然后在婴儿潮出生的一代中(译者注:1940年代中期至1960年代中期出生者)又再次回升。这一代用户购买药酒、药膏和胶囊,用于与衰老有关的症状,如关节炎或慢性疼痛,戈麦斯说。

There's also a fairly even split between men and women consumers – although Gomez suggests it used to be that more women bought it.

消费者的性别分布也十分平均——尽管戈麦斯说曾经女性用户更多。

But, buyer beware. Products containing CBD may be everywhere in the US but – with one very specific exception – if you purchase it in any form you’ll be breaking the law in every single one of its 50 states. How is that possible if recreational marijuana has been legalised in nine states, you ask? The problem lies in a conflict between federal and state law, and with how people view two very different types of cannabis plant: marijuana and hemp.

但是,买家要小心。含有CBD的产品可能在美国无处不在,但是——有一个非常特殊的例外——如果你购买任何形式的CBD你都会触犯美国每一个州的法律。你会问,如果娱乐消遣的大麻已经在9个州合法化了,这怎么可能呢?问题在于联邦和州法律之间的冲突,以及人们如何看待两种十分不同的大麻植物:大麻(marijuana)和工业大麻(hemp)。

There are two main cannabis extracts that shoppers are after: THC, which is the psychoactive substance that gets you high, and CBD, which doesn't. Industrial hemp is defined as containing less than 0.3% THC but it can contain high levels of CBD. Marijuana, on the other hand, is usually cultivated precisely because of its THC content. In short, hemp is completely different to marijuana but this didn’t stop both species of cannabis from being classified as a schedule 1 drug in the US in the 1970s under federal law – the same as heroin and cocaine. And that designation remains to this day.

购买者追捧的主要有两种大麻提取物:THC(四氢大麻酚),这是能让你兴奋的精神药物,而CBD则不会。工业大麻被定义为THC含量少于0.3%,但可以包含高水平的CBD。另一方面,因为大麻中THC的含量很高,通常种植大麻有特别的规定。简而言之,工业大麻与大麻完全不同,但1970年代的美国联邦法律仍将这两种大麻归类为一级管制药品,同等级的还有海洛因(heroin)和可卡因(cocaine)。这种归类一直延续至今。

In the states where it is legal, products containing THC must be cultivated, processed and sold only by state-licensed businesses. CBD, on the other hand, is available everywhere from supermarkets to petrol stations.

在大麻合法的州,只有获得州许可证的企业才能种植、加工和销售含有THC的产品。另一方面,从超市到加油站,CBD却随处可得。

But CBD remains mired in a legal grey area – many retailers believe that as long as they comply with state regulations and don’t ship their products across state lines (which would constitute drug trafficking), then federal law enforcement like the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) will take a hands-off approach.

CBD一直处于法律的灰色地带,许多零售商相信,只要他们遵守州的规范,不跨越州界运输产品(这会构成毒品交易罪),那么联邦法律的执行部门,如美国缉毒局(DEA,Drug Enforcement Administration)将不会干涉。

A spokesman for the DEA confirmed to BBC Capital that CBD in any form – including that derived from hemp plants – remains a schedule 1 drug and is illegal. The only exception, he said, was a drug called Epidiolex which contains 98% CBD and has been approved as a medicine for treating childhood epilepsy by the Food and Drug Administration. Manufactured by British firm GW Pharmaceuticals, Epidiolex is a schedule 5 drug – the same as over-the-counter cough medicine in the US. Meanwhile, according to the National Health Service, Epidiolex is not yet licensed in the UK but is currently going through the licensing system.

一位美国缉毒局发言人向BBC财经证实,任何形式的CBD——包括来自工业大麻植物的——仍然是一级管制药品,是非法的。他说,唯一的例外是一种名为Epidiolex的药物,它包含98%的CBD,已经获得美国食品和药品管理局(Food and Drug Administration)批准,成为治疗儿童癫痫的药物。该药物由英国GW医药公司(GW Pharmaceuticals)制造,属于五级药物——在美国和咳嗽药一样属于非处方药。与此同时,根据国家卫生服务中心(National Health Service)的信息,Epidiolex在英国尚未获得许可,但目前正在进行许可审查。

Csonka, the founder of Adriaen Block, for instance acknowledges that the DEA could raid his premises – “and they probably will at some point” – but he says he knows the state regulations and rules inside out and the CBD he uses has 0% THC content.

安德里亚布洛克餐厅的创办人琼卡承认,美国缉毒局可以突袭他的餐厅——“在某个时刻他们可能会这样做”——但他说他十分清楚州的规范和条例,他使用的CBD不含任何THC成分。

Cautious approach

谨慎的接近

Because its legal status in America remains so unclear, potential investors in the CBD industry, while excited about the opportunity to make money, are also cautious.

因为其在美国的法律地位尚不清楚,CBD产业的潜在投资者虽然对赚钱的机会感到兴奋,但也很谨慎。

Despite the fact the total US CBD market accounted for $367m in retail sales at a 39% growth rate last year, according to Hemp Business Journal, the industry remains volatile. Tilray, one producer of medical cannabis, saw its stock surge 30% one week in September, only to drop by 30% by the end of the week.

尽管根据《大麻商业杂志》(Hemp Business Journal)报道,美国CBD市场的零售额达到了3.67亿美元,比去年增长了39%,这个产业依然不稳定。一家医学大麻生产商提雷(Tilray)在九月的某一周内股价暴涨30%,而在那个周末又跌了30%。

What could make or break the industry is whether federal law will change. Meanwhile, Forbes called the hype over cannabis stocks “ridiculous” and said that Apple was still a better investment than pot.

这个产业的生死关键在于联邦法律是否会改变。与此同时,《福布斯杂志》(Forbes Magazine)认为炒作大麻股是“荒谬的”。该杂志称,相比之下,苹果公司(Apple)仍然是一个更好的投资选择。

The fate of CBD could in the end be decided by an unlikely politician: 76-year-old Kentucky Republican and Senate leader Mitch McConnell. Earlier this year, McConnell introduced a measure attached to the Senate’s Farm Bill, legislation that covers agriculture and food policy in the US. His ‘Hemp Farming Act’ would remove industrial hemp from the list of controlled substances under federal law. If passed, according to Bethany Gomez, "it would completely de-schedule hemp and all its derivatives – including CBD, making it 100% legal to be sold”.

CBD的命运最终可能由一位政客决定:76岁的肯塔基州共和党和参议院领袖麦康奈尔(Mitch McConnell)。今年早些时候,麦康奈尔将一种措施附加到参议院的农业法案(Farm Bill),该法案包括美国的农业和食品政策。他的“工业大麻农业法案”(Hemp Farming Act)将工业大麻从联邦法律规定的管制药物列表中移除。戈麦斯说,如果获得通过,“它将完全撤消工业大麻及其衍生品的管制——包括CBD,让其100%合法销售”。

So what about the science? For a wonder drug believed to help with chronic pain and depression, among numerous other conditions, presumably there has been some solid double-blind, placebo-controlled studies proving its effectiveness? Not so much. Science, it seems, has yet to catch up with CBD’s soaring popularity.

那么科学研究结果如何呢?对于这种被认为有助于缓解慢性疼痛和抑郁的神奇药物,在许多其他条件下,是否可能已经有一些可靠的双盲、安慰剂对照研究,证明其有效性?并非如此。科学似乎尚未赶上CBD一路飙升的人气。

But that’s not to say it doesn’t show potential. Igor Grant, chair of the department of psychiatry and director of the centre for medicinal cannabis research at the University of California, San Diego, told BBC Capital there have been some promising clues to its future use in medicine.

但这并不是说它没有表现出任何潜力。加州大学圣迭戈分校的精神病学院院长、药用大麻研究中心主任格兰特(Igor Grant)告诉BBC财经,已经表现出一些很有希望的线索,在未来有望在制药方面加以应用。

There have been some reports – though mostly anecdotal – that suggest CBD might have anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory and even anti-psychotic properties. And Grant says there have been a few small studies into its use as a treatment for schizophrenia that have yielded a few promising results – “something worthy of follow-up”, he says, although adding that the data are not at the level that says CBD definitively helps people with schizophrenia.

已经有一些报道——尽管大部分是轶事性质——表明CBD可能有抗焦虑、抗炎、甚至治疗精神疾病的作用。格兰特说,已经有一些小的研究,让它作为精神分裂症的治疗手段,并取得了一些可喜的成果——“这值得进一步研究”,他说,虽然也补充说目前的数据水平尚不能证实CBD确实可以帮助精神分裂症患者。

“CBD probably has anti-inflammatory actions [and may help with] inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease or neurological conditions that have some inflammatory component,” he says.

“CBD可能有抗炎作用,(也可能有助于)炎性肠道疾病,如克罗恩氏病(Crohn's disease)或有炎症成分的神经性疾病,”他说。

Grant describe these as clues to its potential use and the directions in which the medical community is moving but, he cautions, the science is not established.

格兰特认为这是CBD潜在的应用线索,也是医学界努力的方向,但他警告说,科学对此还未下定论。

As for people touting CBD as a product to add to fruit drinks to make us feel better – so-called 'functional wellness beverages' – Grant says that this, like many claims made in the nutritional space, are not supported by data. “That doesn’t mean they’re wrong, but we just don’t know. I would say well, valium also helps with anxiety. Should we put a touch of that into Coca Cola and make people relax?”

人们将CBD作为一个产品兜售,将其添加到果汁饮料中,让我们感觉更好,即所谓的“功能性保健饮料”。对此,格兰特说,像营养领域的众多想法一样,没有得到数据的支持。“这也并不意味着他们是错的,但我们只是不知道。我想说,药物安定(valium)也有助于缓解焦虑。我们是不是应该加一把安定到可口可乐里,让人们放松呢?”

First thing, he says, is to ensure state and federal law are in harmony. “Let's wait for the science to emerge. Then we'll actually know and we can advise the public.”

他说,首要的是确保州和联邦法律紧密配合。“让我们等待科学检验结果。然后我们就会知道,可以向公众提供建议。”

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