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萨拉热窝:讲中世纪西班牙语的波斯尼亚人

更新时间:2018/11/30 20:02:50 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Bosnians who speak medieval Spanish
萨拉热窝:讲中世纪西班牙语的波斯尼亚人

On our way to Sarajevo's Ashkenazi Synagogue for the Friday evening Shabbat (Sabbath) service, my friend Paula Goldman and I walked down cobblestone streets through the Baščaršija, the old Ottoman area of the city, passing mosques, shops and a madrasa (Islamic school). It was the year 2000, and the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina still bore the scars of the Balkans War. A Nato tank rolled by as we crossed the Miljacka river.

我和朋友葆拉·高曼(Paula Goldman)要去萨拉热窝的阿什肯纳兹犹太教堂(Ashkenazi Synagogue)参加周五晚上的安息日礼拜。沿着鹅卵石街道,我们穿过古老的土耳其老城区(Baščaršija)市集,经过清真寺、商店和一所马德拉沙(madrasa,伊斯兰教学校)。那是2000年,波黑(Bosnia and Herzegovina)首都仍然可见巴尔干战争带来的伤痕。穿越米加卡(Miljacka)河时,一辆北约坦克车从我们身边驶过。

As we entered the second floor of the salmon-coloured stone building with its four onion-shaped domes, light flooded through doors set with stained glass images of the Star of David and into the synagogue. We took our seats among the congregation as cantor David Kamhi took his place in front of the ark that held the Torah (a scroll containing the Five Books of Moses). Soon, the synagogue filled with the harmonies of prayer. Paula and I looked at each other strangely when we heard ‘Adonaj es mi pastor. No mankare de nada’ (The Lord is my shepherd. I shall not want) from Psalm 23 recited in what we thought was Spanish. After the service, I asked Blanka Kamhi, the cantor’s wife, why the congregation was praying in Spanish.

我们走进这座粉橙色石屋的二楼,里面有四个洋葱形的圆顶,光线透过彩色玻璃制成的大卫星从大门射入会堂。我们在会堂里找到位置就座,领唱者卡米(David Kamhi)坐在摆着《摩西五经》的约柜前。不一会,教堂里就回荡起和谐的祈祷声。当听到诗篇第23章,众人吟诵“耶和华是我的牧者。我必不至缺乏”,我和葆拉疑惑地看了对方一眼,觉得这句话听起来像西班牙语。礼拜结束后,我问坎特的妻子布兰卡(Blanka Kamhi):“为什么大家要用西班牙语祈祷?”

“That wasn’t Spanish,” she responded. “We were praying in Ladino.”

她问答说,“这不是西班牙语。我们在用拉迪诺语祈祷。”

Like many Bosnian Jews, Kamhi and his wife are descendants of the Sephardic Jews who were expelled from Spain by the Edict of Expulsion in 1492. During the Spanish Inquisition, Jews who did not voluntarily convert to Catholicism were expelled from the country, killed or forcibly converted. Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire invited the displaced Sephardic Jews to settle in the Balkans, where they were permitted to maintain their religion and customs. Many chose to move to the Ottoman Empire, while others moved to North Africa, the Netherlands and the Americas.

和许多波斯尼亚犹太人一样,卡米希和他的妻子也是西班牙裔犹太人(Sephardic Jews)的后裔。1492年,他们被驱逐出西班牙。在西班牙宗教裁判期间,没有自愿皈依天主教的犹太人要么被驱逐出境、要么被杀害或强行皈依。奥斯曼帝国的苏丹巴耶济德二世(Sultan Bayezid II)邀请流离失所的西班牙裔犹太人到巴尔干半岛定居,允许他们维持自己的宗教和习俗。许多人选择搬到奥斯曼帝国,有些人则搬到北非、荷兰和美洲。

When the Jews left Spain, they took their language with them. Over the last 500 years, the language has maintained the structure of medieval Spanish and sounds more similar to some forms of Latin American Spanish than European Spanish. “We could not have contact with Spain and the Spanish language, and therefore we have a special language that we speak,” Kamhi said.

犹太人离开西班牙时,还带走了他们的语言。在过去的500年里,这种语言保持了中世纪西班牙语的结构,听起来带有某种拉丁美洲口音,而非欧洲口音。卡米说:“在这里无法接触到西班牙和西班牙语,所以我们自己发展出了一种特殊的语言。”

Today, the language is known by a number of different names: Ladino, Judeo-Spanish, Judezmo, Spanyolit, Djidió (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Haketia (in North Africa). And, according to Unesco, it is one of the world’s 6,000 languages that are at risk of extinction.

如今,这门语言有许多不同的名称:拉迪诺语、犹太-西班牙语、Judezmo、Spanyolit、Djidio(在波黑使用)和Haketia(在北非使用)。根据联合国教科文组织的统计,世界上有6000种濒临灭绝的语言,拉迪诺语是其中一种。

Before World War Two, Sarajevo’s Jewish population numbered around 12,000, and the people even printed their own newspaper in Ladino. After the Holocaust, only about 2,500 Jews returned to Sarajevo, with many of them restricting their use of Ladino to the home so as not to stand out. Since the post-World War Two Jewish community in Sarajevo was so small, the Sephardic Jews had to share a synagogue – the one where Kamhi led services until 2017 – with the Ashkenazi Jewish community, whose ancestors had relocated to Slavic countries from Germany and France following the Crusades. Because the Ashkenazi Jews primarily spoke Yiddish, the blended community relied on the Serbo-Croatian language to communicate, limiting the use of Ladino even further.

在第二次世界大战之前,萨拉热窝约有12000名犹太人,人数多到犹太人自己印刷拉迪诺语的报纸。大屠杀后,只有大约2500名犹太人返回萨拉热窝,许多人为了不引人注目,只在家里使用拉迪诺语。由于二战后萨拉热窝的犹太社区规模很小,西班牙裔犹太人被迫与阿什肯纳兹犹太人(Ashkenazi Jewish)共用一个犹太教堂。2017年以前,卡米都在那里主持礼拜,阿什肯纳兹犹太人的祖先在十字军东征后从德国和法国迁往斯拉夫语言区。由于他们主要讲意第绪语,所以混合社区用塞尔维亚-克罗地亚语进行交流,从而进一步限制了拉迪诺语的使用。

The continued use of this 500-year-old language fascinated me since I was a polyglot and spoke fluent Spanish. When I lived in Sarajevo in in the early 2000s, where I was working on post-war economic development projects, I often went to the Jewish community centre at the synagogue around lunchtime to meet the few remaining Ladino speakers and learn about their history as they socialised over cups of rakija (plum brandy) and coffee. I had to listen carefully to understand, hearing words like fazer (to do) and lavorar (to work) that sounded more like Portuguese and Italian than modern Spanish. I heard sounds like "dj" [dʒ] in the word, djente (people), “z” [z] in the word roza (rose) and “sh” [ʃ] in the word pasharo (bird) that don’t exist at all in modern European Spanish.

我对这种这种绵延500年不绝的语言十分着迷,因为我本身会多国语言,能说一口流利的西班牙语。21世纪初,我住在萨拉热窝,负责战后经济发展项目。我经常在午饭时间去犹太教堂里的社区中心,与所剩不多的拉迪诺语使用者交流,一边喝拉基亚(梅子白兰地)和咖啡,一边了解他们的历史。我必须仔细听才能听懂他们说的话,fazer(做)和lavorar(工作)这样的词听起来更像葡萄牙语和意大利语,而非现代西班牙语。我会听到一些不存在于现代欧洲西班牙语里的发音,比如,djente(人)中的“dj”[dʒ]音,roza(上涨)中的 [z]音和pasharo(鸟)中的 [ʃ]音。

Before they were expelled from Spain, Sephardic Jews already used some Arabic and Hebrew words since they read Hebrew religious texts and many lived under Moorish (Arab) rule. Ladino was also heavily influenced by the different regions of Spain where Jews had lived, “This language that we speak is a mix of the dialects of Spain at that time, before the expulsion,” Kamhi explained.

西班牙裔犹太人在被驱逐出西班牙之前,就已经开始使用一些阿拉伯语和希伯来语词汇,因为他们阅读希伯来语宗教书籍,许多人生活在摩尔人(阿拉伯人)的统治下。拉迪诺语还深受犹太人所居住的西班牙不同地区的影响,卡米解释说:“我们说的这种语言揉杂了西班牙当时的各种方言,那时犹太人还未被驱逐出去。”

After the Spanish Jews fled towards the Balkans, the language was further shaped by the regions through which they travelled, adopting words and sounds from Italian, Turkish and other languages to which they were exposed. Today, Ladino holds a profound meaning of cultural belonging and survival for those who still speak it.

西班牙裔犹太人逃往巴尔干半岛后,所经过的地区进一步影响了他们的语言,其中词汇和发音借鉴了途中接触到的意大利语、土耳其语和其他语言。今天,对那些仍在使用拉迪诺语的人来说,这种语言给他们带来深厚的文化归属感和生存意义。

In the Spanish documentary El Último Sefardí (The Last Sephardi), Yusuf Altinash, a Sephardic Jew in Istanbul said, “It doesn’t matter where the Sephardic person lives, in Sofia [Bulgaria], in the Adriatic or in Istanbul, his homeland is the Judeo-Spanish language.”

在西班牙纪录片《最后的西班牙语》(El Ultimo Sefardi)中,一位住在伊斯坦布尔的西班牙裔犹太人阿尔蒂诺什(Yusuf Altinash)说:“无论西班牙裔犹太人住在索非亚(保加利亚首都)、亚得里亚海,还是伊斯坦布尔,他们在故乡都是讲拉迪诺语的。”

I returned to Sarajevo in 2012 with Prof Bryan Kirschen to film Saved by Language, a documentary about the last four Ladino speakers in Sarajevo: David Kamhi, Ester (Erna) Kaveson Debevec, Jakob Finci and Moris Albahari. As we conversed, I felt like I was in a game of linguistic hopscotch, jumping from my 21st-Century Spanish to their 15th-Century Spanish with leaps into borrowed words from Turkish and other tongues.

2012年,我和科申(Bryan Kirschen)教授回到了萨拉热窝,拍摄了一部名为《语言拯救》(Saved by Language)的纪录片。这部纪录片讲述了萨拉热窝最后四位拉迪诺语使用者的故事,他们分别是卡米希(David Kamhi)、德贝维奇(Ester Debevec)、芬奇(Jakob Finci)和阿尔巴哈里(Moris Albahari)。与他们交谈时,我感觉自己像在玩一场语言版跳房子游戏,从21世纪的西班牙语跳到15世纪,还时不时用到从土耳其语或其他语言中借用的词汇。

“Ladino saved my life in World War Two,” Albahari, a Bosnian Holocaust survivor, told us as we sat together in the Sarajevo Synagogue. In 1941, at age 14, Albahari used Ladino to communicate with an Italian colonel who helped him escape from the train taking Bosnian Jews to Croatia’s Jasenovac concentration camp. Because Ladino, like Spanish, has many similarities with the Italian language, Ladino and Italian speakers can have a basic conversation and understand a great deal.

我们坐在萨拉热窝犹太教堂聊天时,波斯尼亚大屠杀的幸存者阿尔巴哈里(Albahari)说:“拉迪诺语在二战中救了我的命。”1941年,14岁的阿尔巴哈里利用拉迪诺语与一名来自意大利的上校对上了话。后来,在一趟火车上,波斯尼亚犹太人被送往克罗地亚的雅谢诺瓦克(Jasenovac)集中营,这名上校帮助他脱逃。由于拉迪诺语和西班牙语一样,与意大利语有很多相似之处,所以讲拉迪诺语的人可以与意大利语使用者进行基本对话,能听懂很多。

That wasn’t the only time Albahari used Ladino in World War Two to save his life, he told us. He met a Spanish-speaking Hispanic-American pilot in Drvar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, who thought Albahari was the enemy. “I asked him if he spoke Spanish. He said yes. I spoke to him in Ladino. It was the only way to communicate. I took the pilot and his colleagues to a partisan base in [nearby] Ribnik.”

他告诉我们,受益于迪诺语的经历不仅这一次。他在波黑的德瓦尔(Drvar)遇到了一名说西班牙语的美国飞行员,起初把阿尔巴哈里当作敌人。“我问他是否会说西班牙语。他说会。于是我就用拉迪诺语和他交流,这是唯一的交流方式。后来,我把这名飞行员和他的同事带到里布尼克附近的一个党派基地。”

Ladino was also helpful for Sephardic Jews to communicate with Italian army officers when they were interned in an Italian-controlled camp on an island off the coast of Croatia during World War Two. Kamhi’s parents used the language to speak to Italian army officers at the camp. For Kamhi himself, speaking Ladino made it easier for him to attend school on the island. “Since the two languages [Ladino and Italian] are similar, I soon learned Italian,” he said.

二战期间,西班牙裔犹太人还使用拉迪诺语与意大利军官交流。当时他们被关押在克罗地亚离岛上一个被意大利人控制的营地里。卡米的父母用这种语言和营地里的意大利军官交谈。对卡米本人来说,说拉迪诺语让他在岛上求学更容易。“由于这两种语言(拉迪诺语和意大利语)很相似,我很快就学会了意大利语,”他说。

Despite Sephardic musicians such as Yasmin Levy, Sarah Aroeste and Liliana Benveniste performing songs in Ladino around the world, young Sephardic Jews don’t tend to be keen to learn the language. And when the Spanish government announced several years ago that it would allow descendants of Jews expelled during the Inquisition to apply for Spanish citizenship, young Sephardic Jews have begun opting to learn modern Spanish over the language of their ancestors.

尽管西班牙裔犹太人音乐家在世界各地演唱拉迪诺语歌曲,比如利维(Yasmin Levy)、埃洛伊斯特(Sarah Aroeste)和莉莉安娜(Liliana Benveniste),年轻一代的西班牙裔犹太人对于学习这种语言并不感兴趣。几年前,当西班牙政府宣布允许被驱逐的犹太人后裔申请西班牙国籍时,年轻的西班牙裔犹太人选择了学习现代西班牙语,而不是祖先们使用的语言。

“The new generation doesn’t speak Ladino, they speak modern Spanish,” Albahari said.

“年轻一代不讲拉迪诺语,他们讲现代西班牙语,”阿尔巴哈里说。

Now in their 70s and 80s, Sarajevo’s last four Ladino speakers lament that the use of the language in the city will likely end with them. For them, Ladino uniquely represents their histories and identities and reminds them of their family intimacy. “I began to speak in this language,” Kamhi said. “It was the language I used when I wanted to say something to my mother so others wouldn’t understand.”

萨拉热窝最后四位讲拉迪诺语的人现在都七、八十岁了,他们哀叹说,他们死后拉迪诺语将随他们一起从这个城市消亡。对他们来说,拉迪诺语代表着独特的历史和身份,提醒着他们与家人之间的亲密关系。卡米说,“如果我想跟妈妈说些什么,而又不想让别人听懂,我就用这种语言。”

Today, the only place to hear Ladino in Sarajevo is within the walls of its synagogue where cantor Igor Kožemjakin now leads the congregation, and those who wish to join them, in reciting some Shabbat prayers in the language – as opposed to Biblical Hebrew or Bosnian – as the synagogue’s cantors have done for generations.

如今,犹太教堂是萨拉热窝唯一能听到拉迪诺语的地方。领唱者伊戈尔(Igor Kožemjakin)在这座教堂内带领一些希望加入的人,用拉迪诺语背诵安息日悼词,而不是用圣经中的希伯来语或波斯尼亚语。犹太教堂的领唱者已经传承了好几代了。

“I don’t know what will be the future of this language in Sarajevo or in the Sephardic world,” Albahari said. “But this language is a treasure. It’s a memory. It’s life. And it’s necessary to preserve it.”

阿尔巴哈里说,“我不知道在萨拉热窝或西班牙裔犹太人社区,这种语言的未来会是怎样。但这种语言是一种财富,承载着记忆,具有生命力,值得延续下去。”

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