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迷幻药、嬉皮士与西方文化:LSD带来了什么影响

更新时间:2018/11/27 21:07:45 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How LSD influenced Western culture
迷幻药、嬉皮士与西方文化:LSD带来了什么影响

When you think of LSD, a very specific aesthetic probably leaps to mind: the psychedelic pink-and-orange swirls of the 60s; naked people with flowers in their hair; the shimmer of a sitar. After its psychedelic properties were accidentally discovered in the lab by Albert Hofmann in 1943, the drug was banned in the UK in 1966. LSD is still most strongly associated with hippies who embraced its mind-expanding properties.

对于大多数人来说,一想到LSD(麦角酸酰二乙胺,一种强烈的致幻剂),脑海中就会浮现出非常具体的美学形象:上世纪60年代充满迷幻色彩的粉橙色漩涡,身体赤裸头戴鲜花的人,还有锡塔琴的微光。1943年,霍夫曼(Albert Hofmann)在实验室中偶然发现了LSD的致幻性,这种药物于1966年在英国遭禁。如今,LSD依旧与嬉皮士联系得最为紧密,他们痴迷于药物能够激发灵感。

In fact, the drug’s after-effects have seeped through much of Western culture, from art to literature to, most obviously, music, which was never the same after Bob Dylan, The Beatles and Jimi Hendrix dropped acid. Whole genres have since flagged their debt to mind-altering substances: psychedelic rock, psytrance, acid house... the latter hailing from that other spike in psych: 80s and 90s rave culture. Although ecstasy is the drug most associated with the second summer of love, LSD also saw a resurgence in the UK at that time.

其实,LSD的后续影响已经渗透到了西方文化的诸多层面,从艺术到文学,最明显的是音乐领域。迪伦(Bob Dylan,美国唱作歌手)、甲壳虫乐队(The Beatles)和亨德里克斯(Jimi Hendrix,美国摇滚吉他歌手)不服药之后,他们的音乐也不一样了。许多音乐类型都借助了致幻剂,比如迷幻摇滚(psychedelic rock)、迷幻舞曲(psytrance),还有酸屋乐(Acid House)等等,其中酸屋乐是源自另一种迷幻刺激:80、90年代的锐舞文化(rave culture)。与第二次“爱之夏”运动(summer of love,嬉皮士宣扬和平抵制暴力的运动)联系最密切的药物是摇头丸,但当时LSD也在英国重新抬头。

That was 30 years ago. Are we due another psychedelic renaissance? British playwright Leo Butler hopes so. “There was a need – political, socially – for that LSD explosion in the 60s and the ecstasy explosion in the early 90s,” he tells BBC Culture. “You look at the world now and think, god it could really do with a super-strong psychedelic! We need something to bring us together – let’s have a third summer of love.”

那是30年前的事了。现在又到了迷幻的再次复兴吗?英国剧作家巴特勒(Leo Butler)希望如此。“上世纪60年代的LSD大爆发和90年代初的摇头丸大流行,在政治和社会层面都是必要的,”他向BBC文化栏目表示。“看看现在的世界,会想天呐,真的可以来一种超强的迷幻药!需要有东西把大家团结起来,开始第三次‘爱之夏’运动吧。”

Having experimented with drugs when he was younger, Butler wanted to write an honest view of the psychedelic experience. But he also wanted to acknowledge the influence of LSD beyond just flower power – and his new show All You Need is LSD brings us right up to the present moment.

巴特勒年轻时尝试过致幻药,想要客观地展现迷幻的感觉。同时也想说明,LSD的影响不仅仅在于“花的力量”(flower power)这一非暴力思想。他创作的新剧《LSD全搞定》(All You Need is LSD)将向我们介绍LSD的现况。

In recent years, LSD has undergone something of a public image shift, from Steve Jobs talking about his experiences to Silicon Valley types advocating microdosing (taking tiny amounts of the drug to boost creativity). The first placebo-controlled study into microdosing was launched in September by the Beckley Foundation and Imperial College London, while the UK has also conducted medical trials that investigate LSD’s potential therapeutic uses.

近些年来,随着乔布斯(Steve Jobs,苹果公司联合创办人)讲述自己服用致幻剂的经历,以及硅谷有人提倡微量服用以提升创造力,LSD在公众心中的形象发生了转变。今年9月,伦敦帝国理工学院开始了首个微量服用安慰剂的对照研究,与此同时,英国也展开医学实验,研究LSD潜在的治疗用途。

While it may not quite be a summer of love, it might just be the beginning of a new era of openness, even respectability, for the drug.

这也许算不上是“爱之夏”运动,但可能开启了对致幻药品持开放,甚至尊重态度的新时代。

Mood music

情绪音乐

This medical interest even found its way into Butler’s play. In 2015, he interviewed former UK government drugs tsar Professor David Nutt, who mentioned he was about to begin the first medical trial on LSD in 50 years. That Tuesday. Would Butler like to take part?

巴特勒甚至在剧作里也表现了对LSD的兴趣。2015年,他采访了英国政府药品界的前任大佬纳特教授(David Nutt),纳特表示正打算对LSD开展首次医学实验,这可是50年来的头一遭。实验是在一个周二,巴特勒愿意参加吗?

This incredibly good timing changed the play: All You Need is LSD now stages Butler’s medically monitored trip. Which in turn allows him to freely hop about in space and time, and to surreally introduce key figures from the drug’s history (Hofmann, Timothy Leary) and artists who’ve been known to indulge, from Aldous Huxley to Miles Davis to Helen Mirren.

这个千载难逢的机会改变了《LSD全搞定》的设定,现在成了巴特勒追踪致幻药物的旅程。这也让他可以在不同的时间和空间中来回跳转,以超现实的表现方式介绍致幻剂历史上的重要人物,例如霍夫曼和美国心理学家利里(Timothy Leary),以及那些沉迷于这种药品的艺术家,从赫胥黎(Aldous Huxley,英国作家)、戴维斯(Miles Davis,美国爵士乐大师)到米伦(Helen Mirren,英国演员)。

“I had to have The Beatles, but I’d like to have The Monkees and Dylan in there too,” says Butler, a little wistful about potential talking heads he just didn’t have room for. “It would’ve been great to go into the 70s and have The Velvet Underground, Andy Warhol, David Bowie… and I wanted the Madchester stuff – the Happy Mondays and The Stone Roses.”

“得有披头士乐队,我还想要介绍猴子乐队(The Monkees)和迪伦,”由于剧目内容有限,有些采访对象不得不舍弃,巴特勒对此还是有些遗憾。“70年代非常精彩,有地下丝绒乐队(Velvet Underground)、沃霍尔(Andy Warhol,美国艺术家)、鲍伊(David Bowie,英国音乐家),我还想讲一讲曼彻斯特疯潮(Madchester)风格的东西,像是快乐星期一乐队(Happy Mondays)和石头玫瑰乐队(The Stone Roses)。”

Lots of musicians – no surprises there. Because LSD’s most obvious and pervasive influence on culture is to be found in music. That’s surely because music can be enhanced by the drug, prompting synaesthetic responses: seeing sounds as colours, patterns, shapes. What LSD doesn’t do, however, is make it easy to read a book, or concentrate on plot. So it’s only really in music that there’s a true overlap between work made about acid, and work made for enjoying when on acid…

其中很多都是音乐家——这并不奇怪,因为LSD对文化最明显和最普遍的影响,就体现在音乐上。当然这是因为致幻剂可以增强音乐表现力,提升感官间的互通:让声音有了颜色、图案和形状。但LSD没法让人更好地阅读,或者专心故事情节。所以,也只有在音乐领域,描写致幻药的作品,和嗑药后会享受的作品,才有可能重叠。

And it didn’t hurt that proper superstars were into it: The Beatles, Brian Wilson, Pink Floyd… their influence is huge, and frankly unavoidable. Few musicians working today could claim to be unaffected by records such as, say, Revolver. The Beatles’ ‘acid album’ was released in 1966, and was a huge leap forward in sound, featuring tape looping, reversed guitars, vocal effects and altered speeds. The warp and wobble of Tomorrow Never Knows – with lyrics based on Leary’s The Psychedelic Experience Manual – might sound a bit trippy-hippie cliche today, but it was revolutionary at the time.

而真正的超级巨星服用致幻药也没有对事业造成任何影响,例如披头士乐队、威尔逊(Brian Wilson,美国音乐家)以及平克·弗洛伊德乐队(Pink Floyd,英国摇滚乐队)。他们的影响巨大,而且也是不可避免的。今天的音乐人中,很少有人能说自己没有受到诸如《左轮手枪》(Revolver)等专辑的影响。披头士乐队的这张迷幻专辑发行于1966年,在声音方面取得了巨大飞跃,包括磁带循环播放、空间感的吉他声、演唱声效和音乐速度的变化。《未知的明天》(Tomorrow Never Knows)歌词出自利里的《迷幻体验》(The Psychedelic Experience)一书,歌曲中对声音的变形今天听来或许少点新意,但在当时却是革命性的。

And while the sonic experimentation prompted by LSD may have rippled right into mainstream pop music, it’s not like full-on psych has ever really ceased: you can see it noodling away, right up to today’s bands such as The Flaming Lips, Ariel Pink, Connan Mockasin, and Tame Impala.

LSD对音乐的实验性推动可能已经融入了主流流行音乐,但其实并未就此止步,你在当下许多音乐人身上还是能看到它的身影,例如艳唇乐队(The Flaming Lips)、平克(Ariel Pink,美国歌手)、莫卡辛(Connan Mockasin,新西兰音乐家)和温驯的高角羚乐队(Tame Impala)等。

But what about other art forms? Is there a great LSD play?

那其他艺术形式呢?有伟大的LSD戏剧吗?

“Part of the reason I wanted to write this was I didn’t think there had been, really,” says Butler. “But I suppose in the 60s there was Hair.” The musical, about long-locked hippies, was upfront about drugs (and nudity), opening in the West End in 1968, the day after the abolition of stage censorship in the UK. And this was part of a general opening up of culture and a flourishing of experimentation in form.

“我认为确实没有,这也是我想写这部剧的原因之一,”巴特勒说。“但60年代有《毛发》(Hair)。”这部关于长发嬉皮士的音乐剧,公开谈论了嗑药(以及裸体),于1968年英国废除舞台审查制度的第二天在伦敦西区上演,体现了文化的普遍开放和艺术形式实验的蓬勃发展。

“Writers and theatres could be much more free – it was the time of the Royal Court and Theatre Workshop,” suggests Butler. “Even if you wouldn’t think of someone like Edward Bond or even Pinter with LSD there is something about questioning how a play is made, what is the audience experience, that is very counter-cultural. Caryl Churchill is a wonderfully psychedelic writer. Does she indulge? Probably not. But there’s something in the work.”

“在皇家宫廷和戏剧工作室时代,作家和剧院更加自由,”巴特勒说。“即使你不会想到邦德(Edward Bond,英国剧作家)或品特(Pinter,英国剧作家)之辈会服用LSD,也会想知道一部戏剧是怎么成型的,观众的体验是什么,都与主流文化背道而驰。丘吉尔(Caryl Churchill)是一位非常棒的迷幻风格作家。她本人嗑药吗?可能不,但她的作品是有迷幻之感的。”

He points, too, to the explosion of inventive work in the 1990s – in-yer-face theatre makers such as Sarah Kane and Mark Ravenhill. “They were the children of the 80s’ summer of love. That rebellion is there not just in what they were saying, but in the form of their plays.”

他还指出,上世纪90年代,扑面戏剧(in-your-face theatre,赤裸地展现残酷的现实)的剧作家,比如凯恩(Sarah Kane)和雷文希尔(Mark Ravenhill)的创造性作品层出不穷。“作品都受到了80年代"爱之夏"运动的影响。那场反抗运动不只体现在故事内容中,也体现在戏剧形式上。”

Infinite spaces

无限空间

Unlike theatre, in visual art the iconography of LSD is very clear. And there is overlap with music: the really classic psychedelic imagery is found on record sleeves and posters. Think of painter Mati Klarwein, who did Miles Davis’s Bitches Brew cover, and Martin Sharp, who created Cream’s Disraeli Gears, or design collectives such as Hipgnosis – Pink Floyd sleeves – or The Fool – Incredible String Band record covers and costumes for The Beatles’ Magical Mystery Tour. Wes Wilson, Victor Moscoso and Bonnie MacLean all helped define the look of the era in San Francisco with their influential posters.

与在戏剧中不同,LSD在视觉艺术中的意象非常清晰。这也与音乐有所重叠:真正经典的迷幻意象出现在唱片套和海报上。画家克莱尔魏因(Mati Klarwein)为戴维斯的专辑《Bitches Brew》创作的封面,夏普(Martin Sharp)为奶油乐队(Cream)的专辑《Disraeli Gears》所做的设计,还有一些设计团队,像是Hipgnosis团队为平克·弗洛伊德乐队设计的唱片套,以及The Fool团队为乐队不可思议的弦(Incredible String Band)创作的唱片封面,以及为披头士乐队《奇幻之旅》(Magical Mystery)巡回演唱会设计的服装。威尔逊(Wes Wilson)、莫斯科索(Victor Moscoso)和麦克莱恩(Bonnie MacLean)在旧金山用他们颇具影响力的海报共同塑造了那个时代。

What’s fascinating in art is how influence seems to stretch back as well as forward; there’s an obvious drawing on the swirling style of Art Nouveau and Jugendstil, as well as from the wilder experiments of Surrealism. What could be more trippy than time itself melting in Salvador Dali’s The Persistence of Memory? You could argue that the visuals acid unlocked have always been lurking in our subconscious. Well, a Surrealist would, anyway.

艺术的魅力在于,它既受前人影响,也会影响后人。迷幻流派明显吸收了新艺术运动(Art Nouveau, 德语名为Jugendstil)的漩涡风格,以及超现实主义更为疯狂的实验性艺术。还有什么比达利(Salvador Dali,西班牙超现实主义画家)在《记忆的永恒》(The Persistence of Memory)一画中,让时间本身融化更具幻觉感呢?你可能认为,致幻剂帮人释放出来的景象一直都藏在我们的潜意识里,超现实主义者反正是这么想的。

The psychedelia of the 60s now looks utterly of its moment – making LSD almost a “victim of its own iconography”, Butler says. Yet hallucinogenic experiences continue to appeal to artists, and many have since played with those druggy tropes, albeit sometimes in a knowing or satirical fashion.

巴特勒说,致幻药在上世纪60年代盛极一时,让LSD差点成了“自身形象的受害者”。不过,艺术家们还是很喜欢那种幻觉之感,很多人将这种被视为毒品一样的东西用于创作,表现方式或是心照不宣,或是带有讽刺意味。

After experimenting with hallucinogens, German artist Sigmar Polke kitschily referenced them in the 1970s, painting red-and-white mushrooms and co-opting the caterpillar from Alice in Wonderland. Indeed, Lewis Carroll’s children’s story has apparently endless appeal for the creative adult caner: it’s referenced endlessly, from Jefferson Airplane’ song White Rabbit to Adrian Piper’s Alice screenprints, and even features in Butler’s new play.

德国艺术家波尔克(Sigmar Polke)体验过致幻剂后,在上世纪70年代的作品中很媚俗地借用了这个意象,画了《爱丽丝漫游仙境》(Alice in Wonderland)里的红白色蘑菇和毛毛虫。路易斯·卡罗(Lewis Carroll)所著的这本童话书对于充满创造力的成年瘾君子来说,确实有着无限的吸引力:从杰菲逊飞船乐队(Jefferson Airplane)的歌曲《白兔》(White Rabbit),到派珀(Adrian Piper)的爱丽丝电影剧本,甚至是巴特勒的新剧,都反复在引用它。

Yayoi Kusama also did a version of Alice – and the Japanese artist has certainly found a way to make psychedelia resonate with Millennials. Disorientating dots, infinite spaces, swirly mushrooms and neon flowers… her take on psychedelia has made her one of the most popular (read: Instagrammable) living artists.

草间弥生(Yayoi Kusama)也创作了一个版本的爱丽丝——这位日本艺术家无疑找到了一种让致幻剂在千禧一代中引起共鸣的方法。让人犯晕的圆点、无限的空间、漩涡状的蘑菇和霓虹花朵,她的迷幻风格使她成为最受欢迎的(也就是最适合在Instagram发图的)在世艺术家之一。

Kusama often creates 360-degree, all-encompassing sensory experiences through installations – and an immersive approach that is popular when crafting high art. See also Carsten Holler’s Upside Down Mushroom Room (2000), the ceiling hung with oversized rotating fly agarics, or Kenny Scharf’s fluorescent ‘Cosmic Caverns’ of day-glo junk. The US artist has been making them since the 1980s, when he first decorated a cupboard he would take a weekly mushroom trip in.

草间弥生经常通过装置艺术来创造360度全方位的感官体验,这是高级艺术创作中很常用的一种浸入式处理。还有霍勒(Carsten Holler,德国艺术家)的作品《倒过来的蘑菇屋》(Upside Down Mushroom Room,创作于2000年),天花板上倒挂着超大的旋转飞蘑菇,以及美国艺术家沙夫(Kenny Scharf)用涂了荧光漆的垃圾制作的《宇宙洞穴》(Cosmic Caverns)。沙夫自1980年代以来一直在制作这件作品,从他装饰第一个橱柜开始,每周就要来一次致幻剂。

And in the 90s, the edgy wave of Young British Artists also found a creative (and lucrative) overlap between mind-altering substances and art, counter-culture meeting consumer culture nicely. Damien Hirst named his dot paintings after drugs, after all – one is titled LSD – and filled a medicine cabinet with pretty pills.

上世纪90年代,“年轻的英国艺术家”(Young British Artists,特指当时英国一批具有创造力的年轻艺术家)掀起的前卫浪潮也体现了致幻剂与艺术创造性(以及盈利性)的融合,另外反主流文化也与消费文化完美结合。赫斯特(Damien Hirst,英国艺术家)用圆点创作的作品就以药物命名,其中一幅就叫《LSD》,还有作品是在药柜里装满了漂亮的药丸。

Easy riders, acid tests

逍遥骑士,迷幻试验

Film-makers have long explored cinema’s potential for creating dream-like experiences: so swift was the establishing of the narrative ‘rules’ of cinema, through the grammar of shot reverse shot, that as early as 1929 the Surrealist Luis Buñuel was able to seriously unsettle viewers simply by breaking them. Cinema’s capacity to unnerve, to distort apparent reality, has been manipulated by directors ever since, from Alejandro Jodorowsky to David Lynch to Leos Carax.

电影制作人长期以来一直在探索电影创造梦幻体验的潜力。电影的叙事“规则”很快就建立了,都是采用正反打镜头(即两个人面对面时镜头对人物进行互相切换)。早在1929年,超现实主义者布努埃尔(Luis Bunuel,西班牙电影人)只是没用这种叙事方法,就让观众非常不习惯。从那以后,从佐杜洛夫斯基(Alejandro Jodorowsky)到林奇(David Lynch),再到卡拉(Leos Carax),导演们一直在探索电影让人不安以及扭曲现实的能力。 

At the height of the 60s’ psychedelic era, its specific visual style also flourished in movies. Again, this was often linked to music: consider cheerily surreal romps like The Monkees’ Head and The Beatles’ animation Yellow Submarine.

在上世纪60年代迷幻的鼎盛时期,其独特的视觉风格也在电影中蓬勃发展。同样,这也经常与音乐有关,许多都是充满玩味的超现实主义作品,譬如猴子乐队的音乐电影《头颅》(Head),以及披头士乐队的动画电影《黄色潜水艇》(Yellow Submarine)。

Various films explicitly sought to recreate the acid experience, such the kaleidoscopic The Trip (banned by film censors in the UK) and Psych-Out. Jack Nicholson wrote the former and starred in the latter, and also cropped up in Easy Rider with Dennis Hopper and Peter Fonda. A road-trip movie that features an acid trip, the infamous shoot actually was awash with drugs.

许多电影都明确地在试图重现幻觉体验,比如《迷途》(The Trip,该片在英国被禁)和《精神错乱》(Psych-Out)。尼科尔森(Jack Nicholson)创作了《迷途》,主演了《神经错乱》,还与方达(Peter Fonda)和霍珀(Dennis Hopper)出演了《逍遥骑士》(Easy Rider)。这是一部公路电影,讲述了一场嗑药之旅,影片中充斥着毒品,名声不佳。

Bright colours, wavy special effects, blurry distortion, jump cuts… the cinematographer’s craft for signalling high-as-hell on celluloid quickly became its own cliche. But, as with art and music, some modern directors continue to develop the psychedelic style. Most obviously, Gaspar Noé, who dubbed his 2009 film Enter the Void a “psychedelic melodrama” (it was loosely based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead – itself the basis for Leary’s The Psychedelic Experience). Its rapid flashing lights and neon colours wigged viewers out, but divided critics.

明亮的色彩、波动起伏的特效、模糊的失真、跳跃的剪辑摄……影师通过技术手段想让观众大嗨特嗨,但很快就失去了新意。如同艺术和音乐一样,一些现代导演也在继续发展迷幻风格。最突出的是诺埃(Gaspar Noé),他称自己2009年的电影《嗑到荼靡》(Enter the Void)为“迷幻情节剧”(电影大致根据《西藏度亡经》(The Tibetan Book of the Dead)改编,本书也是利里《迷幻体验》一书的基础)。影片快速闪动的灯光和霓虹色彩让观众激动不已,但影评人却褒贬不一。

His latest, Climax – apparently based on a true story about a 90s dance troupe who had a mass freak-out after being spiked with, yup, LSD – was released last month, and has proved similarly dizzying.

他的新作《至高狂欢》(Climax)于今年9月上映,很明显是取材于一个90年代舞蹈团的真实故事,团员们在嗑了——是的,LSD——之后,集体产生了迷乱的幻觉,这部影片同样让观众感到眩晕。

Without the sensory assault of cinema, literature appears to struggle more to evoke altered states – so perhaps it is no wonder that when it works, it often translates well to screen too. Hunter S Thompson’s Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas – and it film adaptation directed by Terry Gilliam – have become cult classics, fans often praising just how accurately they capture the experience of tripping your head off (those carpet patterns climbing the walls, man).

少了电影的感官冲击,文学似乎更难唤起迷幻之感,但如果可以的话,拍成电影效果通常也不错。汤普森(Hunter S Thompson)所著的《赌城风情画》(Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas),以及由吉列姆(Terry Gilliam)执导的改编电影已经被奉为经典,粉丝们经常赞扬书和电影准确地再现了嗑药体验(例如那些往墙上爬的地毯图案)。

More non-fiction or philosophical tomes (Ram Dass’ Be Here Now, Aldous Huxley’s The Doors of Perception, much of Leary) have been written about LSD than fictionalisations – although Tom Wolfe’s The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, about novelist Ken Kesey and his group of ‘Merry Pranksters’ who journeyed across the US taking a shedload of LSD, famously blurred the boundaries. A hugely influential example of ‘New Journalism’, it did nothing less than change the way we think about how the truth can best be told.

非小说类以及哲学巨著对LSD的描写比小说要多(比如达斯(Ram Dass)的《活在当下》(Be Here Now)、赫胥黎的《众妙之门》(The Doors of Perception),以及利里的许多作品),而沃尔夫(Tom Wolfe)的《刺激酷爱迷幻考验》(The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test)则是模糊两者界限的著名之作。作品讲述的是小说家金赛(Ken Kesey)和一群追随他的人(称为“快活的恶作剧者”,Merry Prankster)穿越美国,一路大量使用LSD的故事。它属于“新新闻”报道类型,极具影响力,令人们对于如何更好地讲述真相改变了看法。

And that’s the thing about how culture has been affected by the drug: to convey new experiences, it was also often necessary to come up with new forms. And such inventions then changed culture, even for those who’d never touch the stuff.

这就是LSD如何影响了文化:为了传达新的体验,经常需要新的表现形式,新形式反过来又改变了文化,即使是从未接触过LSD的人也会受到影响。

“Sometimes LSD’s influence is explicit, other times I think it’s the ripple effect on the culture,” Butler explains. It might be tempting to write off psychedelia as just a load of swirly stuff – but in fact, we can all still feel those ripples.

巴特勒说:“有时候LSD的影响很明显,有时候则是对文化造成的连锁反应。”把致幻剂简单地看成是一堆旋涡可能很容易,但事实上,我们每个人都仍然可以感受到它产生的涟漪。

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