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库客船长与库佩酋长:是谁发现了新西兰

更新时间:2018-11-12 20:32:08 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Who really discovered New Zealand?
库客船长与库佩酋长:是谁发现了新西兰

If asked the question “Who discovered New Zealand?” many of us would answer, without really thinking, “Captain James Cook” and after centuries of a European-dominated view of history, it’s no wonder it has taken so long to shake this perspective.

当问到“是谁发现了新西兰?”时,我们很多西方人会不假思索地答道,“是库克船长”(James Cook)。这种欧洲主导的历史观已统治了几个世纪,难怪要动摇这种看法非常困难。

From that perspective, New Zealand was first spotted on December 13, 1642 by Dutch navigator Abel Tasman and explored by Captain James Cook in 1769. However, this limited view does not reveal the whole story and credit for the initial discovery and exploration of New Zealand must go to the Māori, a group of Polynesian people who first settled some time between 1250 and 1300.

欧洲的观点认为,1642年12月13日,荷兰航海家塔斯曼(Abel Tasman)首次发现了新西兰的西海岸区,然后在1769年英国探险家库克船长及其船员踏足新西兰进行深入探险。然而,这种看法并不全面,没有说清新西兰的全部历史,没有提到开启新西兰文明史的功勋。开创新西兰历史的最早住民是毛利人,大约在公元1250至1300年间,这些善于航海的波利尼西亚人来到新西兰定居。

New Zealand lies at the bottom of Oceania, a region made up of thousands of islands scattered across the massive expanse of the Pacific Ocean, and these islands were explored and settled centuries before Europeans arrived by various Pacific peoples.

新西兰位于大洋洲最下端。大洋洲由几千个岛屿组成,分布在辽阔的太平洋上。在欧洲人发现新西兰的几百年前,生活在太平洋的民族已到达和定居在这些岛屿上。

Pacific Islanders’ history of voyage, discovery and culture is celebrated in a new show at the Royal Academy of Arts in London, Oceania.

英国伦敦皇家美术学院推出一项新的展览活动,名为“大洋洲”,展示了太平洋岛民远洋航海、发现和定居新岛屿的历史,及其人文传统。

One of the many important artifacts on display is also one of New Zealand's oldest. Tangonge, a wooden carving of a tiki (an ancestor or god image), was discovered near the town of Kaitaia in 1920. Thought to date from the 14th century, the style is different to typical Māori art of the period, but is similar to early central Polynesian works, such as Tahitian sculpture.

展出的重要手工艺品中,有一件是新西兰最为历史悠久的文物。这件名为唐功格(Tangonge)的手工艺品是称为提金(tiki)的木雕神像或图腾,1920年于新西兰北部小镇凯塔亚附近发现。人们认为这种图腾艺术可追溯至14世纪,不过和当时典型的毛利族工艺有所不同,但与南太平洋中部波利尼西亚群岛早期的工艺品相似,比如塔希提岛的木雕。

When Europeans first landed in New Zealand, several Māori were killed in skirmishes with Cook and his crew. The effects of this first encounter are felt to this day. In Gisborne, a statue of Cook has been repeatedly defaced with graffiti and is to be replaced with art that reflects Māori culture and stories.

欧洲人首次在新西兰登陆时,几名毛利人在与库克及其船员的小规模冲突中丧生。首次交锋的影响流传至今。在吉斯伯恩,库克的雕像几经污损涂鸦,此处将有新的艺术装置将取而代之,以展现毛利族的文化与传说。

The history of Cook’s exploration of the Pacific is powerfully told over 32 minutes in a 26m panoramic video by Māori artist Lisa Reihana called in Pursuit of Venus. The piece, currently on display at the Royal Academy of Arts, scrolls slowly from right to left showing various encounters between Europeans and Pacific people during the pre-colonial era.

毛利族艺术家瑞哈娜的作品《追逐金星》,全景影视创作,画幅宽26米,播放时长32分钟,以震撼的视觉效果讲述了库克船长远洋冒险的历史。作品正在英国伦敦皇家美术学院展出,长卷从右到左渐次展开,再现了新西兰成为殖民地前,欧洲人与太平洋民族之间的多次相逢遭遇。

Kupe

库佩酋长(Kupe)

According to Māori myth, New Zealand (Aotearoa in the Māori language) was discovered by Kupe, a fisherman and Rangatira (chief) from Hawaiki. Kupe’s fishing grounds were being troubled by an octopus, who kept eating all the bait off of the fisherman’s lines. Deducing that the octopus belonged to another chief, Muturangi, Kupe asked Muturangi to stop his pet from eating their bait. When Muturangi refused, Kupe vowed to kill the beast. He left his homeland and pursed the beast across the Pacific Ocean. During the pursuit he discovered New Zealand, where they landed to re-supply. A great sea battle with the Octopus ensued at the mouth of Te Moana o Raukawa (Cook Strait), where Kupe finally killed Muturangi’s pet.

据毛利人的神话传说,新西兰(毛利语“奥特亚罗瓦”,意思是“白云之乡”)是来自波利尼西亚的库佩酋长发现的。这位哈瓦基岛的渔夫和和酋长的渔场遭到一条大章鱼的骚扰,吃光了他鱼线上的诱饵。库佩推断这是另一位酋长穆图兰吉(Muturangi)的大章鱼,库佩要求穆图兰吉阻止其宠物吃掉他的鱼饵,但被穆图兰吉拒绝,库佩于是发誓要灭了这头水怪。他离开家乡哈瓦基,穿过太平洋,追击这条大章鱼。在追击中,偶然发现了这片美丽的土地,库佩带领队伍上岛补充一些生活用品。紧接着就在今天的库克海峡的出口,库佩与大章鱼展开一场海上鏖战,最终将穆图兰吉的宠物杀死。

Kupe travelled around the North Island naming many of the locations he passed and vowed never to return to the land he discovered. When he returned home, Kupe described New Zealand as a place with no people; “I saw no one; what I did see was a kokako, a tiwaiwaka, and a weka (ie birds), whistling away in the gullies; kokako was ko-ing on the ridges, and tiwaiwaka was flitting about before my face.” This narrative firmly places Kupe as the first person to discover New Zealand.

库佩绕着北岛航行,为途经的多个地点命名,并发誓再也不会回到这片土地。划船回到家乡后,库佩向人们报告称,新西兰是一块无人居住的地方,“没见到有人;只看到垂耳鸦,蒂瓦瓦卡鸟,秧鸡,溪谷里传来鸣啼声响;垂耳鸦在田埂上歌唱,蒂瓦瓦卡鸟在我面前飞来飞去。”这段叙述充分证明库佩是发现新西兰的第一人。

As the myth comes from an oral tradition, there are variations on this story between the different Māori Iwi (tribes). For instance, when Kupe first comes across New Zealand, in the Ngāti Kurī telling, he mistakes Houhora mountain for a whale, whereas the Ngāti Kahu state the fishing tide resulted in Kupe landing in the Hokianga Harbour. The variation could be due to the tribes wishing to link themselves to Kupe.

由于这一神话是口述传说,各毛利部落对此传说的讲述不尽相同。例如,根据纳塔基领地的说法,库佩第一次穿越新西兰时,曾以为霍赫拉山是一条巨大的鲸鱼,而根据纳塔胡领地的故事,因为正值渔汛潮期,库佩是在赫基昂加湾上岸。不同的版本可能是因为各部落都希望与库佩建立渊源。

When was New Zealand discovered?

新西兰何时被发现?

The year Kupe arrived in New Zealand is still debated, as is the year the ‘Great Fleet’ of Māori settlers arrived. Stephenson Percy Smith, a 20th century anthropologist, translated a telling of the story recorded by Hoani Te Whatahoro. In this, Kupe’s arrival happens in 750AD and the migratory great fleet arriving in 1300AD. However, a 2010 study, headed by Janet M. Wilmshurst of New Zealand's Landcare Research, carbon dated samples and found the evidence of human colonisation to be between around 1230-1280AD. At the time of the study’s publication, Api Mahuika, a Māori tribal leader who passed away in 2015, told Radio New Zealand that he did not think it was the last word of scientific research and he continued to believe in the oral tradition.

库佩发现新西兰的年代,以及毛利原住民于何年分乘独木舟,组成“大舰队”从不同登陆点上岛,仍有争议。20世纪的人类学家史密斯(Stephenson Percy Smith)转译了由已故毛利学者瓦塔霍罗(Hoani Te Whatahoro)讲述的录音资料。在这个口述历史资料中,库佩是在公元750年发现了新西兰,第一批波利尼西亚移民组成大舰队,来到这片美丽的土地则是在公元1300年。然而,2010年新西兰土地保护研究所的威尔姆舒斯特(Janet M. Wilmshurst)带领团队,以碳-14定年法进行取样分析,测得原住民定居的年代大约在公元1230-1280年。研究结果刊发时,后于2015年逝世的已故毛利族部落首领玛辉卡(Api Mahuika)对新西兰国际电台称,他不认为这是科学研究的最终定论,他还是相信口述历史。

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