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美国参众两院分属两党,特朗普权力遭制衡

更新时间:2018-11-7 18:34:02 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Two Years After Trump’s Victory, Voters Erect an Impediment to His Power
美国参众两院分属两党,特朗普权力遭制衡

The vaunted blue wave that Democrats had hoped for failed to fully materialize on Tuesday night, but the days of one-party control in Washington are now over. President Trump’s strength in rural areas kept the Senate in Republican control, but voters in urban and suburban districts across the country sent the White House a clear message: They want a check on the president.

周二晚上,民主党人大谈特谈、曾寄予厚望的蓝色浪潮未能完全实现,但华盛顿由一党控制的日子现在结束了。特朗普总统在农村地区的优势确保参议院依旧由共和党掌控,但全国城市和郊区的选民向白宫发出了一个明确的信息:他们希望对总统进行制衡。

When the new Congress is sworn in this January, Democrats will be able to curb Mr. Trump’s legislative ambitions and, armed with subpoena power, flex their oversight muscles to initiate investigations into allegations of misconduct by the president and his administration. If the special counsel, Robert S. Mueller III, finds substantial evidence of illegal conduct during the 2016 election, he now will have a receptive wing of government to pursue his findings.

新一届国会于明年1月宣誓就职后,民主党人将能够遏制特朗普的立法野心,并借助传讯权行驶监督能力,启动对总统及其政府行为不端的指控调查。如果特别检察官罗伯特·S·穆勒三世(Robert S. Mueller III)发现了2016年大选中存在非法行为的实质性证据,那么他现在就有了一个愿意落实其调查结果的政府部门。

“Tonight, the American people have demanded accountability from their government and sent a clear message of what they want from Congress,” Representative Jerrold Nadler, Democrat of New York and the new chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, said on Twitter. The president “may not like it, but he and his administration will be held accountable to our laws and to the American people.”

“今晚,美国人民要求政府承担起责任,并发出了他们希望国会做什么的明确信息,”纽约州民主党众议员、众议院司法委员会(House Judiciary Committee)新任主席杰罗尔德·纳德勒(Jerrold Nadler)在Twitter上表示。总统“可能会不喜欢,但他和他的政府要对法律和人民负责”。

But after eight years in the minority, Democrats hoping to reclaim the White House in 2020 will also have to prove they are interested in governing — and temper the liberal ambitions of the party’s most ardent left-wingers.

但在成为众议院少数党八年之后,希望在2020年夺回白宫的民主党人还必须证明,他们有执政的兴趣,并能够缓和党内最激烈的左翼人士的自由主义野心。

“It’s like being the rescue team at an 88-car pileup: Who knows where to begin?” asked Representative Jamie Raskin, Democrat of Maryland. “I think the key principle is that we’ve got to make progress on the real problems of the country.”

“这就像是救援队面对88辆车撞到一起:谁知道从哪里开始着手?”马里兰州民主党众议员杰米·拉斯金(Jamie Raskin)问道。“我认为关键原则就是,我们必须从这个国家面临的真正问题开刀。”

Democratic leaders have already said they plan to use their first month in the House majority to advance sweeping changes to future campaign and ethics laws, including outlawing the gerrymandering of congressional districts and restoring key enforcement provisions to the Voting Rights Act. They also intend to press for infrastructure investment and legislation to control the climbing costs of prescription drugs — initiatives that will test whether Mr. Trump is willing to work with them.

民主党领袖已经放话,他们计划利用成为众议院多数党的第一个月,推进对未来竞选和道德法律的全面改革,包括废除国会选区的不公正划分,以及恢复《选举权法》(Voting Rights Act)的关键执行条款。他们还打算推动基础设施投资和立法,以控制不断攀升的处方药价格——这些举措将检验特朗普是否愿意与他们合作。

Those measures, they believe, will be broadly popular.

他们认为,这些措施将广受欢迎。

But without overwhelming numbers, Democrats will not have the strength to push many of the initiatives their left flank ran on: a single-payer health care system, boldly expanded college access and an Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency that’s at least reined in.

然而由于不具备绝对优势,民主党将无力推进左翼阵营所主张的诸多举措:单一付费者医保、大学扩招,以及一个至少受到控制的入境和海关执法局(Immigration and Customs Enforcement)。

Democrats will also have to balance legislative ambitions with their efforts to satisfy the desires of their base to investigate the president. That could lead to gridlock.

民主党人还必须要找到一种平衡,一方面是实现立法上的抱负,一方面又要满足其选民的要求,对总统展开调查。这可能导致僵局的出现。

“The expectation is that we will behave as a real branch of government and not just a supplicant to Trump, which this current Congress has been for the last two years,” said Representative Raúl Grijalva, Democrat of Arizona. “There’s an expectation that we’re a check and a balance so that means a stalemate.”

“人们期望我们将成为一个真正的政府部门,而不是特朗普的哀求者,就像本届国会在过去两年中的那个样子,”亚利桑那州民主党众议员劳尔·格里哈尔瓦(Raul Grijalva)说。“人们期待我们成为一种分立制衡的力量,这就意味着有可能导致僵局。”

Midterm elections are always a referendum on the president, and never more so than in 2018, when Mr. Trump told voters across the country that he was on the ballot. Historically, the party out of power picks up seats in the first midterm of a presidency, and Democrats followed that pattern this year.

中期选举向来是对总统的一场全民公投,在2018年尤其如此,因为特朗普告诉全国各地的选民,他的名字也在选票上。从历史上看,在总统任期的第一个中期选举中,失去总统大权的党派会获得多数席位,民主党人今年也依循了这一规律。

Unlike the midterms of 2006, when President George W. Bush declared that Democrats had delivered “a thumping,” or 2010, when President Barack Obama described Republicans’ victory as “a shellacking,” the Democrats did not score an overwhelming victory Tuesday night. Republicans are likely to expand their majority in the Senate, and Democrats lost some governorships that they badly wanted, especially in Ohio and Florida.

2006年的中期选举中,美国总统乔治·W·布什宣布,民主党出了“一记重拳”,而在2010年,奥巴马总统将共和党人的胜利称为“惨败”,与这两次不同,周二晚上,民主党人并没有取得压倒性的胜利。共和党人可能会扩大他们在参议院的多数席位;而在一些他们非常想赢得的州,民主党人失去了州长席位,特别是俄亥俄州和佛罗里达州。

But they do have a lot to celebrate. Democrats not only won the districts they were favored in, but locked up many where they were not. In New York, Max Rose, a health care executive and Army veteran, ousted Representative Dan Donovan, the only Republican member of New York City’s congressional delegation, in a race that analysts had said leaned Republican.

但他们确实有很多值得庆祝的事情。民主党不仅在他们受欢迎的选区赢得了胜利,而且赢下了很多并不青睐他们的地方。在纽约,医疗企管人士和陆军退伍军人马克斯·罗斯(Max Rose)把纽约市国会代表团中的唯一共和党成员丹·多诺万(Dan Donovan)赶下了台,分析人士本来认为,这场选举有利于共和党人。

In Texas, Democrat Colin Allred, a former N.F.L. player and civil rights lawyer, defeated the incumbent Republican, Pete Sessions. In Illinois, Lauren Underwood beat Representative Randy Hultgren, a Republican who won by 19 points in 2016.

在德克萨斯州,前NFL球员和民权律师、民主党人科林·奥尔雷德(Colin Allred)击败了在任的共和党人皮特·塞申斯(Pete Sessions)。在伊利诺伊州,劳伦·安德伍德(Lauren Underwood)击败了共和党众议员兰迪·霍尔格伦(Randy Hultgren),后者在2016年以19点的优势获胜。

And in Virginia, Democrat Abigail Spanberger, a former C.I.A. official, unseated Representative Dave Brat, a Tea Party darling who himself scored a huge upset four years ago when he defeated his predecessor, Eric Cantor, the Republican leader, in a Republican primary.

在弗吉尼亚州,前中情局官员、民主党人阿比盖尔·斯潘伯格(Abigail Spanberger)取代了茶党宠儿戴夫·布拉特(Dave Brat),后者四年前在共和党初选中击败其前任、共和党领袖埃里克·康托尔(Eric Cantor),引发了巨大的混乱。

In a year when Mr. Trump put racial divisiveness on the ballot, Democrats ran and won with a diverse set of candidates who are infusing the party with new energy. Many are from the party’s progressive wing. Newcomers like Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a self-described democratic socialist from New York, and Ayana Pressley of Massachusetts will almost certainly take the lead in pressing for a liberal agenda.

这一年里,特朗普让种族分歧成为投票中的重要因素,而民主党人让多元的候选人参加竞选,并赢得胜利,为民主党注入了新的活力。他们中的许多人来自该党的进步派。纽约的亚历山德里娅·奥卡西奥-科尔特兹(Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez)自称为民主社会主义者,她和马萨诸塞州的阿亚娜·普莱斯利(Ayana Pressley)这样的新人几乎肯定会率先推动自由主义议程。

Democratic leaders plan to satisfy those demands by using their newfound majority to push through long-stalled initiatives that they say have broad support within the electorate. High on their list of priorities is gun safety legislation, legislation to offer a pathway to citizenship for the undocumented young people known as Dreamers, and a bill to extend broad civil rights protections to gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgender people.

利用他们新获得的多数地位,民主党领导人计划推动他们认为在选民中得到广泛支持、但是长期停滞不前的行动,从而满足这些要求。他们的优先事项清单中最重要的是枪支安全立法、为被称为“梦想者”(Dreamer)的无身份证明年轻人提供公民身份的立法,以及将广泛的民权保护扩展到男女同性恋者、双性恋者和跨性别者的法案。

At the same time, Democrats must be careful not to overreach. Progressives will almost certainly clamor for Mr. Trump’s impeachment — a push that Democratic leaders have indicated that they will resist, at least until Mr. Mueller releases his findings.

与此同时,民主党人必须小心不要过度。进步人士几乎肯定会要求弹劾特朗普——民主党领导人表示他们会反对这一要求,至少是在穆勒发布调查结果之前。

“Everybody understands that we have to choose our battles very carefully now,” Mr. Raskin said. “We have to make sure that we are advancing a common sense majority platform that America wants, and let’s hope that we can bring Republicans aboard with us.”

“每个人都明白,我们现在必须非常谨慎地选择战斗,”拉斯金说。“我们必须确保我们正在推进一个合乎常理的多数派纲领,那才是美国需要的,但愿我们能把共和党人争取过来。”

That may be overly optimistic, especially with Republicans in control of the Senate. Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, the majority leader, has shown little inclination to cooperate with Democrats, and is unlikely to do so without a nudge from Mr. Trump. And Mr. Trump himself may be in no mood to cooperate once Democrats start demanding documents — including, perhaps, the president’s tax returns.

这可能过于乐观,尤其是在共和党人控制参议院的情况下。多数党领袖、肯塔基州参议员米奇·麦康奈尔(Mitch McConnell of Kentucky)并没有表现出与民主党人合作的倾向,如果没有特朗普的推动,他也不太可能这样做。一旦民主党人开始要求提供文件——特别是总统的纳税申报表——特朗普本人也可能没有心情开展合作。

Mr. Trump is already anticipating as much — and gave a hint earlier this week of how he will react to Democrats’ demands.

特朗普已经预料到了这一点,并在本周早些时候暗示他将如何应对民主党人的要求。

“I don’t care,” he told reporters. “They can do whatever they want and I can do whatever I want.”

“我不在乎,”他对记者说。“他们想怎么干就怎么干,我也想怎么干就怎么干。”

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