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建筑绿色化的趋势: 生态屋顶与环保建筑

更新时间:2018-10-18 19:17:41 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The people building a greener future
建筑绿色化的趋势: 生态屋顶与环保建筑

A series of rolling hillocks, spotted with blooming asters, chalky green succulents and clusters of wild strawberries rise up around Scott Moran. Butterflies flit from flower to flower as he watches a pair of red-tailed hawks teach their young to hunt from the hill tops.

莫兰(Scott Moran)的周围出现了一连串起伏的山丘,上面点缀着盛开的翠菊、白垩绿的多肉植物和一簇簇野生草莓。蝴蝶在花丛间轻快地飞舞,他看见一对红尾鹰教它们的孩子在山顶上狩猎。

Moran is not on a stroll in the secluded countryside. Instead, he is standing on top of the building in the middle of San Francisco where he works every day, taking a short break for lunch. The bustling sounds city life assail him from all sides.

莫兰不是在僻静的乡间散步。相反,他站在自己每天工作的旧金山市中心的大楼顶上,午饭时间休息一会儿。都市生活熙熙攘攘的声音从四面八方侵扰着他。

Moran works at the California Academy of Sciences, which is capped by 2.5 acres (1 hectare) of living roof where nearly 1.7 million plants, insects and birds flourish. The building has been painstakingly designed to be among one of the most environmentally-friendly in the world. Solar panels that surround the living roof provide 5% of the building’s energy, while water flowing through pipes in the bathrooms also generates power. Automatic skylights open and close to help regulate the temperature inside the building while natural sunlight is used to illuminate as much of it as possible.

莫兰在加利福尼亚科学院(California Academy of Sciences)工作,这里覆盖着2.5英亩(1公顷)的生态屋顶,近170万种植物、昆虫和鸟类在此繁衍生息。这座建筑经过精心设计,是世界上最环保的建筑之一。环绕着生态屋顶的太阳能电池板为建筑提供了5%的能量,而洗手间管道中的水流也能发电。自动天窗的开启和关闭有助于调节建筑内部的温度,而自然光尽可能多地用于建筑物的照明。

During his 15 years at the Academy, Moran has helped design, build and now – as senior director of exhibits and architecture – maintain the building’s green systems. It is the type of role he believes is going to become far more important in the future.

在科学院的15年里,莫兰都助力于设计、建造,而现在,他作为展览和建筑的高级总监,负责维护建筑的绿色环保系统。他相信,这种角色的重要性在未来将会大大提高。

“It is becoming much clearer that buildings need to be designed and used in a way to save as much energy and water as possible,” says Moran. “This requires some sophisticated technology and there is going to be a lot of demand for people with the skills to make this happen.”

“建筑的设计和使用需要以尽可能节约能源和水的方式进行,这一点越来越明显,”莫兰说。“这需要一些复杂的技术,对有能力实现这一目标的人才将有很大需求。”

Constructing new environmentally-friendly buildings like the one Moran works in is expected to generate more than 6.5 million jobs by 2030, according to predictions by the International Labor Organization. Next to energy, it will be the second fastest growing sector for green jobs in the coming decades.

据国际劳工组织(International Labor Organization)预测,到2030年,建造像莫兰工作的那座建筑这样的新型环保建筑预计将创造650多万个就业岗位。在未来几十年,该行业将成为绿色就业增长第二快的行业,仅次于能源行业。

Going green

建筑绿色化的趋势

This jobs growth stems from a growing need for buildings that can cope with multiple challenges: meeting tough climate-change targets; rising energy costs, water shortages and an increased risk of extreme weather conditions. This is driving a movement known as green building.

这种就业增长源于对建筑日益增长的需求,这种建筑能够应对多种挑战:实现艰巨的气候变化目标;能源成本上升、水资源短缺以及极端天气条件风险增加。这推动了一场 “绿色建筑”(green building)运动。

Here, architects, engineers and construction firms try to create buildings that use as little energy as possible, generate their own power, recycle water and can heat or cool themselves without the need for air conditioning or central heating. New technologies are helping to turn dumb homes and offices into smart, environmentally-friendly structures.

在这里,建筑师、工程师和建筑公司试图创造出这样的建筑:使用尽可能少的能源、自己发电、循环利用水、不需要空调或中央供暖就能自己制热或制冷。新技术正在致力于把笨拙的住宅和办公室变成智能、环保的结构。

In 2000, just 41 new construction projects were officially rated as green buildings in the US. Last year, that figure had grown to more than 65,000. Elsewhere in the world there have been similar increases and it is a trend that is expected to continue.

2000年,美国只有41个新建筑项目被官方认定为绿色建筑。去年,这一数字已增至六万五千多多个。世界其他地方也出现了类似的增长,预计这一趋势将继续下去。

“Governments around the world have committed to limit global warming to 2°C as part of the Paris Agreement,” says Terri Wills, chief executive of the World Green Building Council. “Buildings currently generate around 38% of energy-related global greenhouse gas emissions. It means we won’t meet the 2°C target unless all of our buildings become greener in terms of the way they are constructed and operated.

“作为巴黎协定(Paris Agreement)的一部分,世界各国政府都致力于将全球变暖限制在2摄氏度之内,”世界绿色建筑委员会(World Green Building Council)的首席执行官威利斯(Terri Willis)说。“目前,全球与能源相关的温室气体排放量中,约38%是由建筑产生的。这意味着我们将无法实现2摄氏度的目标,除非我们所有的建筑都用更环保的方式来建造和运营。”

“The construction industry is getting so much more interesting because of all the solutions that are needed to meet this challenge,” says Wills.

“由于应对这一挑战需要各种解决方案,建筑业正变得越来越有趣,”威利斯说。

The building containing Wills’ own organisation – located in central London – is an example of the sort of features that could become standard in houses and offices in the future.

这栋包含威利斯所在机构的大楼位于伦敦市中心,其建筑特色很有可能成为未来住宅和办公室的样板。

Many of the materials used in the building are recycled or come from natural sources, such as wood, in an attempt to reduce the carbon emissions generated in the construction process.

为了减少建筑过程中产生的碳排放,许多建筑材料都可回收利用,或者本身来自自然资源,如木材。

Specialist lighting adapts to the amount of daylight coming in through the windows, while solar energy heats the water used in the office bathrooms.

专业的照明设备能根据窗户照进来的日光进行调节,而太阳能则将办公室洗手间所用的水加热。

“All of these will need new types of expertise,” says Wills. “There will need to be engineers who know how to deal with renewable energy systems, architects who can produce beautiful designs that produce zero emissions or use recycled materials. We will need urban planners who can connect public transport in efficient ways and finance experts who know how to deal with green buildings.”

“所有这些都需要新的专业技术,”威利斯说。“需要懂得运用可再生能源系统的工程师,能做到零排放或使用循环利用材料且设计美观的建筑师。未来我们需要的是能够高效连接公共交通的城市规划者,以及懂得如何应对绿色建筑的金融专家。”

Certain occupations are likely to be more in demand than others too. The US Bureau of Labour Statistics expects there to be a 105% growth in jobs for solar panel installers by 2026, creating more than 11,800 jobs in the US alone.

某些职业可能比其他职业更受欢迎。美国劳工统计局(Bureau of labor Statistics)预计,到2026年,太阳能电池板安装工的岗位将增长105%,仅在美国就创造了逾1.18万个就业岗位。

In China the government has set aggressive goals as part of its five-year plan that require 50% of all new urban buildings to be green certified.

在中国,作为其五年计划的一部分,政府制定了雄心勃勃的目标,要求所有新建城市建筑中有50%必须通过绿色认证。

“There will also be a need to make existing buildings more climate resistant,” says Nicolas Maitre, an economist at the International Labor Organization, who has been researching the impact green building will have on the economy. “In the UK, around 20 jobs will be created for every $1 million invested in existing infrastructure, while in China it will be around 200, and 160 in Brazil. These are going to be skilled jobs too.

“未来还需要现有建筑更加能抵御天气变化,”国际劳工组织的经济学家梅特(Nicolas Maitre)说,他一直在研究绿色建筑将对经济产生的影响。“在英国,每向现有基础设施投资100万美元,就会创造约20个就业岗位,而在中国,这一数字将达到约200个,在巴西将达到160个。这也会创造更多需要专业技能的岗位。”

“There will also be a lot of construction jobs created in the water sector as countries try to adapt to the changing climate. In Argentina, for example, its 15-year national water plan will result in 200,000 jobs.”

“随着各国努力适应气候变化,水务行业也将创造大量建筑就业岗位。以阿根廷为例,该国的十五年国家用水计划将带来20万个就业岗位。”

This growing demand for green expertise in the construction sector means many companies are already struggling to recruit enough people.

建筑行业对绿色专业知识的需求日益增长,意味着许多公司已经难以招到足够多的人才。

“On the engineering side we are struggling to recruit enough of the people we need,” says Alisdair McGregor, principal and mechanical engineer with Arup, who was also the lead engineer on the construction of the California Academy of Sciences building. “In the mid to late 1990s, green building was almost like a secret society of about 100 people going to conferences, but from 2000 onwards it has exploded. We are seeing a lot of major clients – both government and major corporate companies – who are wanting to do this.

“在工程方面,我们正在努力招募足够的人手,” 奥雅纳工程顾问公司(Arup)的首席机械工程师麦格雷戈(Alisdair McGregor)说,他同时也是加利福尼亚科学院大楼建设的首席工程师。“在上世纪90年代中后期,绿色建筑几乎就像一个约100人参会的秘密社团,但从2000年开始,它就迎来了爆发。我们看到很多大客户——包括政府和大公司——都想这样做。”

“There is now a big demand for creative engineers to work on these projects. The architectural companies we work with are seeing the same thing.”

“现在,对从事这些项目的创意工程师的需求很大。与我们合作的建筑公司也看到了同样的情况。”

Alice Moncaster, an expert on sustainable construction at the Open University in the UK, hopes the demand for new skills in the construction industry will also encourage more women to take up roles within the sector.

英国开放大学(Open University)可持续建筑专家蒙卡斯特(Alice Moncaster)希望,建筑业对新技能的需求,也将鼓励更多女性在该行业中占据一席之地。

“There is a shocking lack of diversity within the sector,” she says. “My hope is that the new skills [required] will both encourage more women in and allow them to thrive across the built environment professions.”

“该行业缺乏多样性,令人震惊,”她说。“我希望,(所要求的)新技能既能鼓励更多女性加入,也能让她们在建筑环境行业茁壮成长。”

Entirely new jobs will likely emerge from the growing demand for green buildings. The International Labor Organization predicts roles such as eco-designers – who design products to be more efficient – and energy efficiency specialists will become increasingly important in places like China and India, where construction has been booming.

对绿色建筑不断增长的需求可能会带来全新的工作岗位。国际劳工组织预测,生态设计师——他们设计的产品更有效率——以及能源效率专家等角色将在中国和印度等建设蓬勃发展的地区发挥越来越重要的作用。

“We are going to see a need for people like emissions consultants, for example, who can assess the carbon impact of products in a building and help drive them down,” says Wills.

“比如我们会发现市场很需要排放顾问之类的人,他们可以评估建筑中产品的碳影响并帮助降低碳排放,”威利斯说。

“There is going to be a huge demand in skills that have been largely specialised until now.”

“对于那些至今基本已经专业化的技能,将会有很大的需求。”

To emphasis her point, Wills indicates another very visually green feature in her office – a wall covered in plants that help to clean the air inside the building. These living walls are appearing in a growing number of buildings around the world – One Central Park in Sydney, Australia has the world’s tallest vertical garden, while Google’s new headquarters in London features a huge green roof.

为了强调她的观点,威利斯指出了她办公室里另一个视觉上非常绿色的特征——一面墙上覆盖着植物,有助于清洁建筑内部的空气。世界各地越来越多的建筑开始使用这种生态墙——澳大利亚悉尼(Sydney)的中央公园一号(One Central Park)拥有世界上最高的垂直花园,而谷歌(Google)在伦敦的新总部则有一个巨大的绿色屋顶。

“We have specialist staff who come in to work on our living wall,” explains Wills. “It is fascinating because how do you water and nurture plants growing on a vertical surface?”

“我们有专业的员工来打理我们的生态墙,”威利斯解释说。“这很吸引人,因为你要如何灌溉和培育生长在垂直表面的植物呢?”

Moran too sees green buildings as requiring new skills that have not featured much in the building sector in the past.

莫兰也认为,绿色建筑正在要求新的技能,而这些技能过去在建筑行业中并未发挥重要作用。

“It takes a different skill set to look after a living roof compared to normal landscaping,” he says. “You need to understand the environment, how the direction of the sun and wind will affect it. But we are also seeing technology being integrated into everything.

他说:“和正常的景观美化相比,打理一个生态屋顶需要不同的技能组合,你需要了解环境、明白太阳和风的方向会如何影响它。不过我们也看到了科技正在融入一切。”

“Our entire building is controlled by a central computer system so we can now walk around with an iPad and make real time adjustments.

“我们整个大楼都由中央电脑系统控制,所以现在可以拿着iPad四处走动,并进行实时调整。”

“That is something that is only going to become more of a feature in buildings in the future.”

“而这,只会是未来建筑的特征之一而已。”

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