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欧西坦语——法国人曾禁止的语言

更新时间:2018-10-14 10:40:35 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The language the French forbade
欧西坦语——法国人曾禁止的语言

On a cold winter’s night nine years ago, I made my way along icy cobblestone streets, a howling wind at my back, into the medieval town of Sarlat-la-Canéda in the Dordogne region of south-west France. This area is famous for its prehistoric caves, medieval castles and truffles – but I was here for another reason altogether. This was to be my first session of Café Oc, a monthly conversation circle at the Café La Lune Poivre, where locals gather to practice the regional Occitan language.

九年前一个寒冷的冬夜,我沿着冰冷的鹅卵石街道,在呼啸的寒风中,来到了法国西南部多尔多涅(Dordogne)地区的中世纪小镇萨拉拉卡内达(sarlatl -la- caneda)。这个地区以其史前洞穴、中世纪城堡和松露而闻名——但我来这里完全是出于另一个原因。这是我第一次参加“奥克咖啡馆”(Café Oc) 活动,该活动是在月亮普瓦福尔咖啡馆(Cafe La Lune Poivre)每月一次的对话,当地人聚集在这里练习地区语言的欧西坦语(Occitan)。

Although many people have not heard of Occitan, also known as Langue d’Oc, it’s one of several Romance languages that evolved from vernacular Latin, and is still spoken in six major dialects across southern France as well as parts of north-western Italy and northern Spain. Anxious about being accepted as an outsider – but fascinated by the language and culture and hoping to learn more – I pushed open the door and prepared to make my case. Warm air scented with spicy mulled wine rushed at me, as did a collective greeting.

许多人还没有听说过欧西坦语,或被称为奥克语(Langue d'Oc),它是由当地拉丁语演变而来的几种罗曼斯语(Romance)之一。在法国南部、意大利西北部和西班牙北部的部分地区,仍有六种主要方言使用该语言。我很担心自己会被视为外人,但又对语言和文化着迷,希望能学到更多东西,于是我推开了门,准备发表自己的观点。扑面而来的是温暖的空气中弥漫着的辣味热红酒的味道,还有众人的问候。

“Benvenguda a Café Oc,”exclaimed 10 people, all age 60 or older, in Occitan. I introduced myself in French, and they assured me that I was welcome. One woman made a point to sit to my left and in soft whispers translated the conversation into French for me. Their warmth, her kindness, and the conversation that night deepened my affection for this ancient land of the Périgord, the older name of the Dordogne, which also included a section of the Lot-et-Garonne region to the Dordogne’s south. It is a region that has drawn humans to it for some 400,000 years.

“Benvenguda a Cafe Oc”(欢迎来到奥克咖啡馆),10位60或60岁以上的老人用欧西坦语大声说道。我用法语自我介绍。他们让我宽心,欢迎我加入。一位女士特意坐在我的左边,轻声把对话内容译成法语。他们的热情,她的善良,以及那天晚上的谈话,加深了我对佩里戈尔(Périgord)这片古老土地的感情。佩里戈尔是多尔多涅的旧名,也包括多尔多涅以南的洛特加隆(Lot-et-Garonne)地区的一部分。人类已经这个地区居住了约40万年。

That night at Café Oc, participants spoke of many things, all wedded to the land and traditions. They described growing up cultivating and producing all that their family needed to eat; how to hunt for cepes (porcini); the medieval pilgrimage route that passes through their region toward Santiago de Compostela; gathering and selling truffles at Christmas; and colourful folkloric characters, the most memorable being the lébérou, Périgord’s version of a werewolf-like creature.

那天晚上,在奥克咖啡馆,参与者们谈论了很多事情,都与这片土地及传统紧密相连。他们描述了自己成长过程中种植家庭所需的食物;如何寻找牛肝菌;中世纪的朝圣路线,穿过他们的地区到达圣地亚哥德孔波斯特拉(Santiago de Compostela);圣诞节期间采集和销售松露;还有丰富多彩的民间传说人物,最令人难忘的是勒布鲁(lébérou), 佩里戈尔版本的狼人一样的生物。

I learned that Occitan was once the lingua franca of the south of France, and is best known as the language in which the troubadours sang. But in 1539, King François I signed into law an edict, the Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts, which made Francien, the northern French dialect of Paris and the Île-de-France, the entire county’s official language.

我了解到欧西坦语曾经是法国南部的通用语言,因游吟诗人使用而广为人知。但在1539年,国王弗朗索瓦一世(King François I)颁布了维勒科特莱法令(Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts),使法兰西岛语(Francien)、即巴黎和法兰西岛(Île-de-France)的北部法语方言成为整个国家的官方语言。

However, outside of official business and written documents (such as marriage, death and birth certificates), much of daily life continued to be conducted far away from officialdom, and Occitan remained the language of the home, field and family. Graham Robb, in his historical geography, The Discovery of France, noted that despite three centuries of efforts to make standardised French the language of all of France, in 1863 in the south of the country more than half the population remained non-French speaking. In the Dordogne the numbers were even higher, where more than 90% of the population was still largely Occitan speaking.

然而,除了官方事务和书面文件,如婚姻、死亡和出生证明, 大部分日常生活都和官方不沾边,欧西坦语仍然是家庭和农场的语言。罗伯(Graham Robb)在他的历史地理学著作《探索法国》(The Discovery of France)中指出,尽管官方努力了三个世纪,试图让标准法语成为整个法国的通用语,但在1863年,法国南部一半以上的人口仍然没有讲法语。在多尔多涅地区,这一比例甚至更高,90%以上的人口仍然主要说欧西坦语。

But a little more than 100 years ago at the turn of the 20th Century, the central government launched an aggressive campaign to extinguish any language that was not the standardised French. Occitan was forbidden to be taught in schools, and any children who used their mother tongue were punished, a practice that infused deep shame in many people. Many older adults in the Dordogne still tell stories about being humiliated in school for speaking Occitan.

但在100多年前的20世纪初,中央政府发起了一场强势的运动,以消灭除标准法语以外的任何语言。学校里禁止教授欧西坦语,讲母语的孩子都会受到惩罚。许多人对此深感耻辱,多尔多涅的许多老年人仍在讲述他们在学校因说欧西坦语而被羞辱的故事。

The Dordogne region is rich with rivers that have deeply carved the soft and gold-toned limestone into caves and cliffs, fertile valleys and hilltop plateaus. It is an agricultural and herding region where traditional small-scale farming and animal-rearing practices persist. Today, along with tourism, the Périgord’s livelihood remains directly connected to the ancient land, where the past flows unbroken into the present.

多尔多涅地区拥有丰富的河流,这些河流将柔软、金色的石灰岩深深雕刻成洞穴和峭壁、肥沃的山谷和山顶的高原。那里是农牧业地区,传统的小规模农牧业依然存在。今天,随着旅游业的发展,佩里戈尔的生活方式仍然与古老的土地直接相关,在这片土地上,历史完整地保留到现在。

Soon after my first session of Café Oc, I joined Bruno Eluere and Béatrice Mollaret, local guides and co-founders of regional tour company Dordogne Fellow Traveller on weekly treks exploring caves, castles and forest tracts. I was curious about their experience with Occitan. It seemed that, despite being brought up as French speakers, the language was still very close to their hearts.

在我第一次到访奥克咖啡馆后不久,我对路埃尔(Bruno Eluere)和莫拉莱(Béatrice Mollaret)进行了访谈,他们是当地导游,也是当地旅游公司“多尔多涅旅伴”(Dordogne Fellow Traveller)的联合创始人。这家旅游公司每周组织洞穴、城堡和森林地带的徒步探索旅行。我很好奇他们对欧西坦语的感受,尽管从小到大都说法语,但他们心中都装着欧西坦语。

“Occitan is part of my very first memories,” Eluere told me. “Andrea, my grand aunt's maid used to call me moun cacalou, my little walnut, which became my first nickname.”

“欧西坦语是我最初记忆的一部分,”路埃尔告诉我。“我大姨妈的女仆安德里亚(Andrea)过去叫我‘moun cacalou’,意思是‘我的小胡桃’,这成了我的第一个昵称。”

Mollaret went further, explaining that the language is intrinsically tied to Périgord culture and how Occitan intimately describes aspects of life here, details that are lost if expressed in French or that simply do not have French words.

莫拉莱进一步解释,欧西坦语与佩里戈尔文化有着内在的联系,它亲切地描述这里生活的方方面面的,如果用法语表达,这些细节就会丢失,或者根本没有对应的法语词汇。

“[Occitan] is really linked to the land, to the farm, to the traditions and legends,” she said. “Some things concerning the animals, the plants, are only known in the former language. In the Dordogne, le cluzeau [dug out rock or cave shelter], le cingle [looped or circular path], le téchou [pig] are always expressed in Occitan.

“欧西坦语与土地、农场、传统和传说息息相关,”她说。“一些关于动物和植物的事情,只有在以前的语言中才知道。在多尔多涅,‘le cluzeau’ [挖出岩石或洞穴掩体],‘le cingle’ [环形或循环路径],‘le téchou’ [猪]通常用欧西坦语表达。”

“I like very much the poetry of some special words that others cannot understand, from one region to another one,” she continued. “Just by travelling from the Dordogne to the Lot, very few kilometres, sometimes I discover different expressions, different ways of calling the same bird or the same tree, and I like the way everyone is trying to catch the reality in his own way.”

“不同地区的人都有特殊词语,我非常喜欢这些,”她接着说。“从多尔多涅到洛特只有几公里远,对同一种鸟或同一棵树,我有时会发现不同的表达方式。每个人都用自己的方式去捕捉现实,我喜欢这样。”

This intimate and detail-oriented relationship between language and land was reinforced on the many solo countryside walks that I love to make when I visit, which has been nearly every year since I first came nine years ago.

语言和土地之间这种亲密且注重细节的关系,在我许多次独自乡村漫步中得到了强化。我很喜欢这种漫步,自从九年前我第一次来这里,几乎每年一次。

Once I met a man standing among his grapevines, whispering Occitan incantations of encouragement to them to grow and thrive – his eyes closed, his fingers brushing their leaves, his palms facing the sky – an effort that he later explained to me was as important as rain, soil and pruning.

一次我遇到一个男人,站在他的葡萄园里,低声用欧西坦语念着咒语,鼓励他的葡萄藤茁壮成长——他闭着眼睛,手指擦拭着叶子,手掌朝向天空——他后来向我解释,这种努力和雨水、土壤、剪枝一样重要。

Another time, I passed a man weeding his garden who put out a small dish of water so that the resident rouge-gorge (European robin) – known by at least three names in Occitan, depending on who you ask (barbarós, papach-rós and rigal) – would fly down from the tree for a visit.

还有一次,我遇到一个正在给花园除草的人,他摆出一小碟水,以便当地的欧洲知更鸟(rouge-gorge)可以从树上飞下来饮水逗留。这种鸟在欧西坦语中至少有三种叫法(barbarós, papach-rós, rigal),取决于你问谁。

I also spoke with a farmer who explained that each year, after he ploughed the field, new stone tools emerged, some from Neanderthals and others from Cro-Magnons. I learned that the name Cro-Magnon itself was Occitan: Cro means ‘hole’ or ‘hollow’ in Occitan (creux in French), and Magnon was the family name of the gentlemen on whose property workers, in 1868 in the village of Les Eyzies, discovered five 27,000-year-old skeletons.

我还采访了一位农民,他解释说,每年在他犁地之后,都会翻出些新的石器工具,有些来自尼安德特人(Neanderthals),有些来自克罗马侬人(Cro-Magnons)。我知道“克罗马侬”这个名字本身就是欧西坦语:“克罗”(Cro)在欧西坦语中的意思是“洞”或“空心”(法语为creux),而“马侬”(Magnon)是绅士的姓。1868年,他们的农工在莱赛济(Les Eyzies)村发现了五具2.7万年前的骸骨。

The fact that the language is so intertwined with the culture is perhaps why it has never completely faded away. Despite being classified as ‘severely endangered’ by Unesco, it has survived in traditional spheres: in homes, at bedtime in folktales, in fields during planting and harvesting, with herding and transhumance (moving animals between summer and winter pastures), in the forests during hunting seasons, and in the music and poetry. It is also most definitely heard in the sayings that naturally fly off the tongue, such as, ‘se la barba donava de sen, totas las cabras serían doctors’ (if a beard were the sign of wisdom, all goats would be doctors), or ‘l’aiga va totjorn d’aval’ (water always flows down; things are as they are).

欧西坦语与文化如此紧密地交织在一起,这也许就是它还没有完全消失的原因。联合国教科文组织列欧西坦语为“严重濒危”语种,但它仍在传统领域得以幸存:在家中,在睡前讲的民间故事里,在种植和收获的田地里,在牧场和季节性迁徙放牧(让动物在夏冬牧场之间迁徙)时,在狩猎季节的森林里,在音乐和诗歌中,人们都在使用欧西坦语。当人们很自然地说出一些谚语时,我们也能听到这种语言,比如“se la barba donava de sen, totas las cabras serían doctors”(如果胡须是智慧的象征,那么所有的山羊都是博士),或者“l'aiga va totjorn d'aval”(水往低处流;万事有规律)。

Since the 1950s, Occitan and other minority regional languages in France – such as Breton, Basque, Flemish and Alsatian – have returned to wider public engagement and are taking on positive associations, casting off the negative connotations assigned them by the central government 100 years ago. In 1993, France’s government informed teachers across the nation to prepare to teach bilingual curricula in places where regional languages persisted.

自上世纪50年代以来,欧西坦语等法国少数民族地区语言——如布列塔尼语(Breton)、巴斯克语(Basque)、弗兰芒语(Flemish)和阿尔萨斯语(Alsatian)——已经回归到更广泛的公众使用中,并开始产生正面影响,也摆脱了100年前中央政府强加给它的负面含义。1993年,法国政府通知全国各地的教师,在地方语言仍在使用的地区准备教授双语课程。

Today, no longer banned, Occitan is experiencing a small but healthy revival, with around three million speakers across all the southern regions of France, according to estimates from the Académie Bordeaux, part of the Ministry of Education. Occitan is now an elective in some (but not all) schools; and some schools in the Dordogne offer bilingual curricula. For people of all ages, local language groups promote Occitan lectures, concerts and conversation circles, such as Café Oc.

如今,欧西坦语已经解禁,正经历小规模但蓬勃的复兴。据法国教育部下属的波尔多研究院(Académie Bordeaux)估计,在法国南部所有地区,约有300万人在使用欧西坦语。现在一些(但不是所有)学校里,欧西坦语是选修课;多尔多涅的一些学校提供双语课程。对于各个年龄段的人,当地的语言组织都在推广欧西坦语的讲座、音乐会和谈话活动,比如奥克咖啡馆。

While French is still the prominent language throughout region, if you pause to listen to locals shopping in the market or chatting at cafes, you will soon hear the mellifluous sounds of Occitan instead of French, or a blending of the two languages.

虽然法语仍然是整个地区的主要语言,但如果你停下来听当地人在市场上购物或在咖啡馆聊天,你很快就会听到欧西坦语的悦耳声音,或是和法语的混合。

One evening on a recent visit in late May, I followed the plaintive melody of a lone flute to Sarlat’s car park known as La Grande Rigaudie. That night the space had been transformed into a dance floor for the two-day springtime festival, La Ringueta, which celebrates Sarlat’s and the Périgord’s Occitan culture with traditional games (such as nine pins, tug-of-war and ring tosses), bilingual classes and craft workshops.

在最近5月末的一个晚上,我进行了一次访问,在一首孤独长笛的忧伤旋律中来到萨拉拉卡内达名为“大利哥顿”(La Grande Rigaudie)的停车场。那晚,这里被改造成了一个舞池,为了庆祝为期两天的春季节日La Ringueta。在这个节日中,人们通过传统游戏(如九柱滚球游戏、拔河和抛环)、双语课程和手工作坊来弘扬萨拉拉卡内达和佩里戈尔的欧西坦语文化。

There is also a large communal meal (often goose or pork roasted all day over open coals), and the festival culminates with the ‘Bal Trad’, a traditional dance. Drawn to the music, I entered the car park, its trees hung with fairy lights and people resting around the edges or watching the dancers, pair by pair, swirling to the music in a sultry waltzing rhythm. When the flute ended its lament, a guitar and accordion joined in with a rowdy tune. The couples parted and formed a large circle, and people of all ages joined in, holding hands and taking me with them. With a few fancy steps left and few more fancy steps right, we moved in an intoxicating circle of belonging.

还有一顿大型的公共聚餐(食物通常是鹅肉或猪肉,全天放在露天的炭火上烤),在传统舞蹈“Bal Trad”中,这个节日达到高潮。我被音乐吸引,进入了停车场。公园的树上挂满彩色灯泡,人们在场边休息,看着一对对舞者随着迷人的华尔兹音乐旋转。当长笛结束忧伤的旋律,吉他和手风琴加入进来,开始了喧闹的曲调。成双的舞者们分开了,组成了一个大圆圈,所有年龄的人都加入其中,手牵着手,也把我拉入他们的队伍。我们向左欢快地走几步,又向右走几步,成为一个令人陶醉,充满归属感的群体。

Never have I felt the Périgord culture more alive than in that moment. As I was woven seamlessly into the circle, I felt the true depth of this culture and the reason why it and its language persists.

那一刻,我鲜活地感受到佩里戈尔文化,这种感觉从前未曾如此强烈。当我全身心地融入那个圆圈时,我感受到了这种文化的真正深度,以及它的语言经久不衰的原因。

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