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更新时间:2018-10-4 10:28:01 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Hawaii's trendy word that's misunderstood

Leslie Tuchman was visiting the Hawaiian Islands when she came across the concept of ‘hoʻoponopono’ in her Reiki class, introduced by her teacher as a word for self-forgiveness. Tuchman quickly read all the books she could on the subject, fascinated by the idea of empowering and cleansing her spiritual self. But what Tuchman didn’t know at the time – and what most travellers to Hawaii are also unaware of – is the traditional meaning of this word has been somewhat lost in translation.

塔奇曼(Leslie Tuchman)来夏威夷群岛时,在灵气课程上得知夏威夷语的“荷欧波诺波诺”('hoʻoponopono')即大我意识法一说,老师讲这是指自我宽恕。塔奇曼立马去搜集这方面的书,把能找到的都看一遍,她对内在赋能和净化灵性的观点很感兴趣。但当时塔奇曼并不知道——而且大多数来夏威夷的游客也不清楚——这个词的翻译某种程度上牺牲了原词的传统意义。

Rather than simply being about self-forgiveness per se, traditional hoʻoponopono tends to be more complex, and, like most cultural practices in Hawaii, centres on relationships. The roots of the word are hoʻo (to bring about) and pono (rightness). Repeated syllables, as in ‘ponopono’, often express an emphasis in Hawaiian.


The relatively new association with self-forgiveness is largely due to the influence of the teachings of Dr Ihaleakala Hew Len, co-author of the 2007 book Zero Limits, which propagates a type of hoʻoponopono known as ‘Self Identity Through Hoʻoponopono’ (SITH). SITH is a self-focused, mental cleansing method based on four mantras: I’m sorry; please forgive me; thank you; and I love you. This method is the definition of hoʻoponopono that is currently most common in alternative healing circles and off-island media.

相对而言,将这个词理解为自我宽恕是近来之事,主要是受修蓝博士(Ihaleakala Hew Len)传授疗法的影响,2007年,修蓝博士与人合著出版《零极限》(Zero Limits)一书,宣传“荷欧波诺波诺”大我意识法(SITH)这个夏威夷疗法。这是一种净化灵性的心灵修炼法,箴言只有四句话:对不起;请原谅;谢谢你;我爱你。目前,非传统灵修课程和夏威夷之外的媒体中最常提到的“荷欧波诺波诺”,指的就是这个疗法。

Traditional hoʻoponopono can be a process that takes a day, or in some cases, years. It’s about a sense of community and communal feeling of responsibility towards an issue. In hoʻoponopono, one person’s issue becomes the entire group’s, and together, with consultation of the group’s elders, they find a resolution that is accepted by the whole community. Practiced since as long as Hawaiians can remember, it is necessary on an island where space and resources are limited and the community is key to survival.


It was Aunty Malia Craver, a Hawaiian cultural practitioner, who was the first to introduce the concept onto a global stage. In 2000, she made a speech at the 53rd annual DPI/NGO Conference at the United Nations in New York, and spoke about concepts relating to hoʻoponopono. The term, as she told the Honolulu Star-Bulletin before the speech, means “a method to resolve family and personal conflicts and achieve peace”.

夏威夷治疗师玛利亚‧科雷夫 (Aunty Malia Craver)是将这一理念推向国际舞台的第一人。2000年,她参加在纽约市联合国总部举行的第53届联合国DPI/NGO会议并发表演讲,介绍与“荷欧波诺波诺”有关的理念。如她在演讲前向《檀香山明星公报》介绍,这个夏威夷语指“解决人际纠纷的疗法,以恢复内在平衡。”

Since then, the word hoʻoponopono has been taken out of context and exoticised, as the term swells in popularity both in Hawaii and off-island. As a popular destination for spa-seekers and alternative health practitioners alike, it is not uncommon to see the word hoʻoponopono used in healing circles across Hawaii. One workshop on the Big Island promises a certificate in self-therapy, citing a class in hoʻoponopono for level 1 attendees, while online learning platform Udemy sells a course on this ‘Technique of Forgiveness’. Earlier this July, French Cosmopolitan even published an article on hoʻoponopono, calling it La recette Hawaïenne pour trouver l'amour (The Hawaiian recipe for finding love).


Many Hawaiian cultural practitioners feel it can be harmful when the word is misused or taken out of its cultural context. “Cultural integrity is a big struggle right now for indigenous cultures worldwide,” said Laulani Teale, an activist trained in hoʻoponopono who often applies its concepts in her community work. “When things are taken out of our cultures and applied in ways in which those outside the culture want to apply them, especially for profit, there is almost always a problem.”

人们对该词使用不当或置于文化语境之外,很多夏威夷治疗师认为这么做有害处。一位受过“荷欧波诺波诺”培训的活动家蒂尔(Laulani Teale)说,“当前,文化完整无损是全世界的本土文化所面对的艰巨挑战,”她经常在社区工作中运用“荷欧波诺波诺”的理念。“把我们文化中的概念抽离出来,按照外族人所希望的方式使用,尤其是为了谋利,这是很有问题的。”

As a child growing up on the Big Island, I often heard the word used by government officials, urging people not to escalate conflict. My mother, a cultural practitioner of Hawaiian medicine, recalls a different childhood memory: attending what she believed at the time to be her grandfather’s birthday party. But the party was secondary to the gathering’s real purpose of hoʻoponopono. That afternoon, the adults were deep in serious discussion – uncharacteristic for her jovial family, she remembers – that lasted for hours into the night. The children sat quietly, listening until overtaken by sleep. When dawn arrived, the adults had reached a resolution to their family conflict involving a property dispute. The ritual concluded by breaking fast with specific fishes caught earlier for this purpose.


This decision to not move on until a point of mutual understanding had been reached is a practice that mindful travellers might well learn from. A clear understanding of hoʻoponopono can deepen an appreciation of the Hawaiian culture, and, on a broader scale, help to approach travel more mindfully. Since hoʻoponopono is at its core a tool for communication, the word itself can be a reminder to listen to all voices, have meaningful discussions and make earnest efforts to understand another person, culture or country.


“We accept maintaining relationships as essential, whether it’s between people or environment or the greater thought,” my mother told me. “In an island community, there’s only so much space, and it has to be shared by all. It has to be perpetuated, protected and enhanced, but as a group, because if you get too self-serving, the group doesn’t really function well.”


Dr Malcolm Nāea Chun, who is the author of numerous books on Hawaiian beliefs, told me that using the term hoʻoponopono to describe a family resolution technique is a relatively recent development. In the 19th Century, the word was chiefly reserved for matters of legal or administrative discussion.

俊博士(Malcolm Nāea Chun)出版多部有关夏威夷人原始信仰的书籍,他告诉我,用夏威夷语“荷欧波诺波诺”描述调解家庭纠纷是近代才有的演变。早在19世纪,这个词主要用于司法申论或行政磋商。

“Back in traditional times, before writing and printing came into place, people didn’t have a name for this... They just did it,” he said.


As Christianity spread throughout Hawaii, many Hawaiians abandoned ritualistic practices like family conference in favour of more Western ideas of medicine and spirituality. As a result, many Hawaiian families lost the practice in daily life, and it was sustained only in small pockets of the community.


Thanks to the Hawaiian cultural revival that began in the 1960s following the Hawaii Admission Act and statehood, hoʻoponopono is once again a well-known process among locals. These days, it is used as a conflict resolution process in many arenas: in the courtroom, in prisons, leadership programmes and working with troubled youths. In 2015, arrested activists who protested the TMT telescope on Mauna Kea made a formal request to the court to participate in hoʻoponopono in lieu of a trial. As reported by local station Khon2, when Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg filed a lawsuit over land on Kauaʻi in 2017, State Rep. Kaniela Ing criticised his approach as culturally insensitive.

上世纪60年代,继艾森豪威尔总统签署夏威夷加入美国的法案,夏威夷成为美国的第50个州后,夏威夷掀起文化复兴,“荷欧波诺波诺”因而再次成为家喻户晓的方式方法。如今,它作为一项化解纠纷的办法,用于诸多领域:法庭、监狱、管理培训以及安置惹事的年轻人等。2015年,社会活动人士抗议冒纳基火山上安设30米望远镜,被捕后向法庭提出正式申请,要求以“荷欧波诺波诺”的形式代替审判。如夏威夷媒体《Khon2》报道,2017年,脸谱(Facebook)创始人兼首席执行官扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)发起对夏威夷考艾岛土地问题的诉讼,夏威夷州众议员伊恩(Kaniela Ing)对此提出批评,认为这种做法是对夏威夷文化的漠视。

“It’s not Hawaii style to initiate conversation through a lawsuit,” Ing said in a statement. “We're used to going next door, knocking on the door and saying, ‘Hey, let’s hoʻoponopono and let’s talk about this’.”


Within the Hawaiian community, hoʻoponopono outreach is often offered free of charge as a means to restore the practice within families. Visitors to the islands may encounter the word in newspapers, magazines, books, on TV or while overhearing a conversation between locals. But to really understand the concept, travellers should look at the way Hawaiians treat each other. Hawaiians value unity and harmonious relationships, as seen in the Aloha Law.


However, it is not enough to treat others with aloha. In order to feel unified and part of the community, Hawaiians must have a genuine feeling of connection and justice that only comes through open discussion and dialogue. Though traditional hoʻoponopono usually takes place in private, aspects of the practice are incorporated in daily life all over the islands.


In a restaurant or on the beach, tourists might see Hawaiians engage in kūkākūkā, or ‘talk story’, a genuine discussion. If they want to learn more about how to apply the practice to their own lives, they can take a workshop from health programmes like Hui Malama Ola Na 'Oiwi. Hawaii Community College even offers a distance-learning course titled ‘Introduction to Hoʻoponopono’.

在餐厅里或海滩上,游客可能注意到说故事的夏威夷人,这是一种开诚布公的探讨。如果他们想进一步了解怎样结合各自的生活履行实践,可以参加Hui Malama Ola Na 'Oiwi等医疗服务的工作坊。夏威夷社区学院甚至开设一门远程学习课程,名为“荷欧波诺波诺入门”。

“Pono means to be righteous, but it connotes being authentic and genuine in how you are as a person, in how you relate to others,” said Aunty Lynette Paglinawan, who teaches hoʻoponopono classes at the University of Hawai'i West O'ahu. “It means living a righteous lifestyle that illustrates love, respect, concern, following true with promises and commitments. These are values by which you live.”

帕林那湾(Aunty Lynette Paglinawan)在夏威夷大学西欧胡分校教授“荷欧波诺波诺”课程,她说,“Pono的意思是正义,但暗含之意是为人处世真诚可靠。这指的是生活作风正派,彰显爱、尊敬和关心,信守诺言。这些是我们人生的价值观。”

For decades, the global picture of Hawaii has been one of exotic idyll. Beyond the palm trees and plumeria lei, however, exists a tight-knit community that esteems honesty, forgiveness and harmony. The best part of Hawaiian values is that they can be applied anywhere you go. Though I have lived far from Hawaii for many years, I am still amazed how much of those values I still learn from and apply to my daily life or when travelling in strange, new lands. Whether it is a tool for self-forgiveness or for family conversation, hoʻoponopono is a practice that resonates in every landscape.